8,779 results match your criteria infection placenta

Placental expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection: are placental defenses mediated by fetal sex?

J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Sex differences in vulnerability to and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described in non-pregnant populations. ACE2 and TMPRSS2, host molecules required for viral entry, are regulated by sex steroids and expressed in the placenta. We sought to investigate whether placental ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression vary by fetal sex and in the presence of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Is SARS-CoV-2 infection a risk factor for early pregnancy loss? ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expression and persistent replicative infection in primitive trophoblast.

J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO  USA.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection in term placenta is relatively rare. However, growing evidence suggests that susceptibility of the human placenta to infection may vary by gestational age and pathogen. For several viral infections, susceptibility appears to be greatest during early gestation. Read More

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The Number of Syncytial Knots and VEGF Expression in Placental Villi in Parturient Woman with COVID-19 Depends on the Disease Severity.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

V. I. Kulakov National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

A comparative morphological study was carried out to analyze the number of syncytial knots and VEGF expression in placental villi in parturient women with COVID-19 categorized by the disease severity. The number of syncytial knots was assessed on specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin. VEGF expression was determined by immunohistochemical analysis in syncytiotrophoblast and villous endothelial cells. Read More

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Next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA for identification of invasive bacterial pathogens in a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental specimen: a case report of perinatal fulminant Streptococcus pyogenes infection.

Med Mol Morphol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South 1 West 17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Intrauterine infection is one of the most important causes of maternal death. In perinatal emergency, we often miss an opportunity to obtain culture specimens. In this study, we tried to examine whether we investigated whether bacteria causing infection can be detected from a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) placental specimen. Read More

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Vitelline Vessel Remnant-Derived Funisitis Is a Sensitive and Specific Predictor of Histological Evidence of Amniotic Fluid Infection.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2021 Jul 21:10935266211033271. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: 4-11% of umbilical cords contain vitelline vessel remnants (VVRs). A recent study has described neutrophilic inflammation arising from VVRs and suggested an association with amniotic fluid infection (AFI).

Methods: During routine placental pathology sign-out over a six month period, we identified 70 cords with VVRs. Read More

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Current State of Preeclampsia Mouse Models: Approaches, Relevance, and Standardization.

Front Physiol 2021 2;12:681632. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, United States.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a multisystemic, pregnancy-specific disorder and a leading cause of maternal and fetal death. PE is also associated with an increased risk for chronic morbidities later in life for mother and offspring. Abnormal placentation or placental function has been well-established as central to the genesis of PE; yet much remains to be determined about the factors involved in the development of this condition. Read More

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Zika virus infection of the placenta alters extracellular matrix proteome.

J Mol Histol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Microbiology and Medical Zoology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with fetal abnormalities by compromising placental integrity, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Flavivirus can deregulate the host proteome, especially extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We hypothesize that a deregulation of specific ECM proteins by ZIKV, affects placental integrity. Read More

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The Effects of Maternal Interleukin-17A on Social Behavior, Cognitive Function, and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice with Altered Kynurenine Metabolites.

Int J Tryptophan Res 2021 28;14:11786469211026639. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan.

Viral infection and chronic maternal inflammation during pregnancy are correlated with a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the pathoetiology of ASD is not fully understood; moreover, the key molecules that can cross the placenta following maternal inflammation and contribute to the development of ASD have not been identified. Recently, the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-17A (IL-17A) was identified as a potential mediator of these effects. Read More

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Viral populations of SARS-CoV-2 in upper respiratory tract, placenta, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood support viral replication in placenta.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Microbiology Department, Vall D'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall D'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Vall D'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Barcelona, Spain.

A woman at the first stage of labour infected with SARS-CoV-2 was admitted to our hospital with symptomatology compatible with mild respiratory disease. Respiratory and non-respiratory samples from the mother were all positive for the virus, but not from the baby. Laboratory tests rejected vertical transmission. Read More

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Case 21-2021: A 33-Year-Old Pregnant Woman with Fever, Abdominal Pain, and Headache.

N Engl J Med 2021 07;385(3):265-274

From the Departments of Medicine (A.L.C., K.M.T.), Radiology (C.R.A.), and Pathology (M.N.A.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Medicine (A.L.C., K.M.T.), Radiology (C.R.A.), and Pathology (M.N.A.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

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Probable viremia and positive placental swabs for SARS-CoV-2 in a preterm pregnant woman with mild COVID-19.

J Med Virol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to report a case of mild novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a pregnant woman with probable viremia, as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing of endometrial and placental swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was positive.

Case Report: We present the case of a 26-year-old multigravida at 35 weeks 2 days of gestation, who had extensive thigh and abdominal cellulitis, and was tested SARS-CoV-2 positive by RT-PCR performed on samples from the endometrium and maternal side of the placenta. However, other samples (amniotic fluid, fetal side of the placenta, umbilical cord, maternal vagina, and neonatal nasopharynx) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Oxidative Stress Induced Damage and Early Senescence in Preterm Placenta.

J Pregnancy 2021 24;2021:9923761. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia.

Introduction: Senescent cells have been demonstrated to release High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) which induces labor through an inflammatory pathway. This research is aimed at demonstrating whether telomere shortening, proinflammatory HMGB1, and oxidative damage marker 8-OHdG play a role in the placenta of preterm birth in comparison to term birth.

Method: A cross-sectional study on 67 full thickness of the placenta obtained from mothers with term and preterm birth. Read More

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Microbial profile of placentas from Tanzanian mothers with adverse pregnancy outcomes and periodontitis.

Oral Dis 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Oral Microbiology, Dentaid Research Center, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: To investigate microbial profiles in placentas from a population of East African mothers with and without adverse pregnancy outcomes and with regard to their periodontal status.

Material And Methods: Thirty-six placentas from pregnant women from Tanzania were classified into three groups according to both pregnancy outcome and the mother's periodontal health. The microbial composition in each group was then compared using 16S rRNA metagenomics. Read More

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Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in twin pregnancy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 12;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Maternidade Doutor Alfredo da Costa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the preeminent congenital viral infections, and despite its potential morbidity, uncertainty about its physiopathology, prevention and treatment remains until now. We report a case of a dichorionic and diamniotic twin pregnancy in which only one of the fetus had signs of being affected. The first twin had prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction and hyperechogenic bowel, attributable to CMV infection, while there was no evidence of infection of the second one. Read More

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Evaluation of clinical outcomes of neonates born to mothers with coronavirus (COVID-19) in Shahid Beheshti Hospitals.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 31;10(1):173. Epub 2021 May 31.

Preventative Gynecology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The coronavirus, which is caused by acute respiratory syndrome, appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and gradually spread around the world until almost all countries became infected with the coronavirus. In Iran, the outbreak of coronavirus began on February 21, 2020, with the report of infection of two people in the city of Qom. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical findings of neonates born to pregnant women with corona disease. Read More

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Passive and active immunity in infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 7;11(7):e053036. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Objective: To investigate maternal immunoglobulins' (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants.

Design: A prospective observational study.

Setting: Public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA). Read More

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Increased cell-free fetal DNA release after apoptosis and sterile inflammation in human trophoblast cells.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jul 7:e13483. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Problem: Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) shed from the placenta can be detected in maternal blood and increases incrementally during gestation. Concentrations are further elevated with pregnancy complications. Specific activators of cffDNA release in such complications have not been identified. Read More

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Evidence for HPV DNA in the placenta of women who resorted to elective abortion.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Jul 6;21(1):485. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgery Specialties, Gynecological Clinic, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: It is believed that HPV infection can result in the death of placental trophoblasts and cause miscarriages or preterm birth. In clinical cases of placental villi positive for HPV DNA reported by other authors, contamination is suspected in the act of crossing the cervical canal. We analyzed placental samples of women who resorted to elective abortion obtained by hysterosuction of ovular material, bypassing any contact with the cervical canal and vagina. Read More

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Differential effects of estradiol and progesterone on human T cell activation in vitro.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, and Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.

Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are steroid hormones important for the regulation of immune responses during pregnancy. Their increasing levels coincide with an improvement of T cell-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Although immune-endocrine interactions are involved in this phenomenon, the relative contribution of hormones is not known. Read More

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Evaluating the Safety of West Nile Virus Immunity During Congenital Zika Virus Infection in Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:686411. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a phenomenon that occurs when cross-reactive antibodies generated from a previous flaviviral infection increase the pathogenesis of a related virus. Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent flavivirus introduced to the Western Hemisphere and has become a significant public health threat due to the unanticipated impact on the developing fetus. West Nile virus (WNV) is the primary flavivirus that circulates in North America, and we and others have shown that antibodies against WNV are cross-reactive to ZIKV. Read More

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High Antibodies to VAR2CSA in Response to Malaria Infection Are Associated With Improved Birthweight in a Longitudinal Study of Pregnant Women.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:644563. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Introduction: Pregnant women have an increased risk of infection, which is associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. VAR2CSA, a variant surface antigen expressed on the parasitized erythrocyte surface, enables sequestration in the placenta. Few studies have prospectively examined relationships between antibody responses during pregnancy and subsequent adverse birth outcomes, and there are limited data outside Africa. Read More

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Evaluation of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in utero: Nine pregnant women and their newborns.

Placenta 2021 08 16;111:91-96. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Hunan Engineering Research Center of Gynecology Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, 410008, China; Department of Dermatology & Hunan Engineering Research Center of Skin Health and Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, 410008, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), mainly transmitted by droplets and close contact, has caused a pandemic worldwide as of March 2020. According to the current case reports and cohort studies, the symptoms of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were similar to normal adults and may cause a series of adverse consequences of pregnancy (placental abruption, fetal distress, epilepsy during pregnancy, etc.). Read More

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Pregnancy complications and Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM): balancing antiviral immunity and placental development.

C R Biol 2021 Jul 2;344(2):145-156. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

CNRS-UMR3569, Paris, France.

Pregnancy complications occur frequently and are particularly prevalent during the first trimester. They are caused by a multitude of factors, including karyotypic, genetic or environmental conditions, congenital infections and inflammation. The molecular mechanisms leading to placental complications under inflammatory conditions remain unclear. Read More

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The Placental Response to Guinea Pig Cytomegalovirus Depends Upon the Timing of Maternal Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:686415. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects the placenta, and these placental infections can cause fetal injury and/or demise. The timing of maternal HCMV infection during pregnancy is a determinant of fetal outcomes, but how development affects the placenta's susceptibility to infection, the likelihood of placental injury post-infection, and the frequency of transplacental HCMV transmission remains unclear. In this study, guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) was used to model primary maternal infection and compare the effects of infection at two different times on the placenta. Read More

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Can SARS-CoV-2 Induce Uterine Vascular Anomalies and Poor Contractile Response?-A Case Report.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 29;57(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

We are reporting a case of a 36 year-old Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive hypertensive primigravida with postpartum uterine atony that required emergency subtotal hysterectomy at Saint John Hospital Bucur Maternity Bucharest. The maternity was designated as the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Maternity for Bucharest and Ilfov County since March 2020. The patient was mildly symptomatic for SARS-CoV-2, infection confirmed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Read More

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Periodontal Pathogens and Preterm Birth: Current Knowledge and Further Interventions.

Pathogens 2021 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Filippo Del Ponte" Hospital, University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy.

Preterm labor is defined as a birth before 37 weeks of gestation and occurs in 5-20% of pregnancies. Preterm labor, as multifactorial entity associated with a high risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality, is influenced by maternal, fetal and environmental factors. Microbiological studies suggest that infectious pathogens may account for 25-40% of preterm birth. Read More

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A Case of COVID-19 Pregnancy Complicated with Hydrops Fetalis and Intrauterine Death.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 28;57(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Neonatology, "Victor Babeş" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Eftimie Murgu Sq. No.2, 300041 Timişoara, Romania.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a worldwide pandemic causing a serious global public health problem. The risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still debated, and the consequences of this virus on pregnant women and their fetuses remain unknown. We report a case of pregnancy complicated with hydrops fetalis that developed 7 weeks after recovery from a mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to intrauterine death of the foetus. Read More

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Palmitoleate Protects against Zika Virus-Induced Placental Trophoblast Apoptosis.

Biomedicines 2021 Jun 4;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the development of microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and ocular damage in the fetus. ZIKV infection of the placenta plays a crucial role in the vertical transmission from the maternal circulation to the fetus. Our previous study suggested that ZIKV induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of placental trophoblasts. Read More

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HIV in pregnancy: Mother-to-child transmission, pharmacotherapy, and toxicity.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jun 29;1867(10):166206. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

An estimated 1.3 million pregnant women were living with HIV in 2018. HIV infection is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and all HIV-positive pregnant women, regardless of their clinical stage, should receive a combination of antiretroviral drugs to suppress maternal viral load and prevent vertical fetal infection. Read More

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Reactive Arthritis Update: Spotlight on New and Rare Infectious Agents Implicated as Pathogens.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2021 07 1;23(7):53. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article presents a comprehensive narrative review of reactive arthritis (ReA) with focus on articles published between 2018 and 2020. We discuss the entire spectrum of microbial agents known to be the main causative agents of ReA, those reported to be rare infective agents, and those reported to be new candidates causing the disease. The discussion is set within the context of changing disease terminology, definition, and classification over time. Read More

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