1,642 results match your criteria infected mtb

GeneXpert Technology for the diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: Is scale-up worth it?

Open Life Sci 2020 30;15(1):458-465. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan.

Recent evaluations of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for the simultaneous detection of and drug resistance in less than 2 h have stimulated tremendous enthusiasm. This is the breakthrough that tuberculosis (TB) control has been waiting for. In this (retrospective review) case study, sputum samples from strongly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients were collected and assessed for the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosing TB and drug resistance in comparison with other tests, including Ziehl-Neelsen smear and Löwenstein-Jensen test. Read More

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Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids promote antibacterial and inflammation-resolving effects in -infected C3HeB/FeJ mice, dependent on fatty acid status.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 5:1-35. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, North West, South Africa, 2531.

Non-resolving inflammation is characteristic of tuberculosis (TB). Given their inflammation-resolving properties, omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) may support TB treatment. This research aimed to investigate the effects of n-3 LCPUFA on clinical and inflammatory outcomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected C3HeB/FeJ mice with either normal or low n-3 PUFA status before infection. Read More

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Knockout of MRA_1916 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra affects its growth, biofilm formation, survival in macrophages and in mice.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 Mar 26;128:102079. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Microbiology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, B.S. 10/1, Sector 10, Jankipuram Extension, Sitapur Road, Lucknow, 226031, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Kamla Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra) ORF MRA_1916 is annotated as a D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). These enzymes perform conversion of d-amino acids to corresponding imino acids followed by conversion into α-keto-acids. In the present study Mtb-Ra recombinants with DAO knockout (KO) and knockout complemented with DAO over-expressing plasmid (KOC) were constructed. Read More

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Steroid hormone modulates the production of cathelicidin and human β-defensins in lung epithelial cells and macrophages promoting Mycobacterium tuberculosis killing.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 Mar 24;128:102080. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Medical Research Unit-Zacatecas, Mexican Institute for Social Security-IMSS, Zacatecas, Mexico. Electronic address:

Several studies have documented the interaction between the immune and endocrine systems as an effective defense strategy against tuberculosis, involving the production of several molecules and immunological processes. In this study, we determined the effect of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin and human β-defensin (HBD) -2, and HBD-3 and their effect on intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in lung epithelial cells and macrophages. Our results showed that DHEA promotes the production of these antimicrobial peptides in infected cells, correlating with the decrease of Mtb bacilli loads. Read More

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One Size Fits All? Not in Modeling of Tuberculosis Chemotherapeutics.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 16;11:613149. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, Division of Intramural Research (DIR), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, United States.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem despite almost universal efforts to provide patients with highly effective chemotherapy, in part, because many infected individuals are not diagnosed and treated, others do not complete treatment, and a small proportion harbor ) strains that have become resistant to drugs in the standard regimen. Development and approval of new drugs for TB have accelerated in the last 10 years, but more drugs are needed due to both 's development of resistance and the desire to shorten therapy to 4 months or less. The drug development process needs predictive animal models that recapitulate the complex pathology and bacterial burden distribution of human disease. Read More

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The emerging role of exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Mol Med 2021 04 1;27(1):34. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), has been the world's driving fatal bacterial contagious disease globally. It continues a public health emergency, and around one-third of the global community has been affected by latent TB infection (LTBI). This is mostly due to the difficulty in diagnosing and treating patients with TB and LTBI. Read More

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Novel molecular transport medium used in combination with Xpert MTB/RIF ultra provides rapid detection of Mycobacterium bovis in African buffaloes.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 29;11(1):7061. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

DSI‑NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, South African Medical Research Council Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, PO Box 241, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa.

Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife. Confirmation of M. bovis infection relies on mycobacterial culture, which is time-consuming. Read More

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Antiretroviral Treatment-Induced Decrease in Immune Activation Contributes to Reduced Susceptibility to Tuberculosis in HIV-1/Mtb Co-infected Persons.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:645446. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Tuberculosis Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-1 co-infected persons. In order to understand host immune responses during ART in the context of (Mtb) sensitization, we performed RNAseq analysis of whole blood-derived RNA from individuals with latent TB infection coinfected with HIV-1, during the first 6 months of ART. A significant fall in RNA sequence abundance of the Hallmark IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6/JAK/STAT3 signaling, and inflammatory response pathway genes indicated reduced immune activation and inflammation at 6 months of ART compared to day 0. Read More

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Molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in blood stained sputum samples using GeneXpert PCR assay.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 24;100(3):115363. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Electronic address:

This study investigated the possibility of detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in blood-stained sputa with GeneXpert assay (Xpert MTB/Rif G4 v.5) using appropriate blood lysing (distilled water and distilled water/carbon tetrachloride) and protein denaturing (guanidinium chloride and heat) agents. Blood free sputa were collected from individuals infected with MTB. Read More

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February 2021

Drug-resistant TB prevalence study in 5 health institutions in Haiti.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(3):e0248707. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Les Centres GHESKIO, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of death in the world. Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem as treatment is long, costly, and associated to poor outcomes. Here, we report epidemiological data on the prevalence of drug-resistant TB in Haiti. Read More

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A CD4+CD161+ T-Cell Subset Present in Unexposed Humans, Not Tb Patients, Are Fast Acting Cells That Inhibit the Growth of Intracellular Mycobacteria Involving CD161 Pathway, Perforin, and IFN-γ/Autophagy.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:599641. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Primate Biomedical Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States.

It remains undefined whether a subset of CD4+ T cells can function as fast-acting cells to control (Mtb) infection. Here we show that the primary CD4+CD161+ T-cell subset, not CD4+CD161-, in unexposed healthy humans fast acted as unconventional T cells capable of inhibiting intracellular Mtb and BCG growth upon exposure to infected autologous and allogeneic macrophages or lung epithelial A549 cells. Such inhibition coincided with the ability of primary CD4+CD161+ T cells to rapidly express/secrete anti-TB cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and perforin upon exposure to Mtb. Read More

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February 2021

Macrophage-specific responses to human- and animal-adapted tubercle bacilli reveal pathogen and host factors driving multinucleated cell formation.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 15;17(3):e1009410. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is a group of related pathogens that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammals. MTBC species are distinguished by their ability to sustain in distinct host populations. While Mycobacterium bovis (Mbv) sustains transmission cycles in cattle and wild animals and causes zoonotic TB, M. Read More

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Phenotype Definition for "Resisters" to Infection in the Literature-A Review and Recommendations.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:619988. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Science, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a worldwide problem. Despite the high disease rate, not all who are infected with () develop disease. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) specific T cell immune assays such as Quantiferon and Elispot, as well as a skin hypersensitivity test, known as a tuberculin skin test, are widely used to infer infection. Read More

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February 2021

BCG-induced protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: Evidence, mechanisms, and implications for next-generation vaccines.

Immunol Rev 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was introduced 100 years ago, but as it provides insufficient protection against TB disease, especially in adults, new vaccines are being developed and evaluated. The discovery that BCG protects humans from becoming infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and not just from progressing to TB disease provides justification for considering Mtb infection as an endpoint in vaccine trials. Such trials would require fewer participants than those with disease as an endpoint. Read More

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Circular RNA TRAPPC6B inhibits intracellular growth while inducing autophagy in macrophages by targeting microRNA-874-3p.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 18;10(2):e1254. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Clinical Immunology Institute of Laboratory Medicine Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics Guangdong Medical University Dongguan China.

Objectives: Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulate antimicrobial immunity against (Mtb) infection.

Methods: The present study assessed circular RNA TRAPPC6B (circTRAPPC6B) for antimicrobial immune functions and defined mechanisms wherein circTRAPPC6B regulates Mtb growth, autophagy and microRNA in macrophages.

Results: The Mtb infection of monocytes/macrophages resulted in a significantly decreased level of circTRAPPC6B that inhibited intracellular Mtb growth in macrophages. Read More

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February 2021

Biofilm formation in the lung contributes to virulence and drug tolerance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Nat Commun 2021 03 11;12(1):1606. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India.

Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that displays several features commonly associated with biofilm-associated infections: immune system evasion, antibiotic treatment failures, and recurrence of infection. However, although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can form cellulose-containing biofilms in vitro, it remains unclear whether biofilms are formed during infection in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the formation of Mtb biofilms in animal models of infection and in patients, and that biofilm formation can contribute to drug tolerance. Read More

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Prophylactic efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using ID93 and lipid-based adjuvant formulations in the mouse model.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(3):e0247990. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

An estimated 10 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) disease in 2019 which underscores the need for a vaccine that prevents disease and reduces transmission. The aim of our current studies is to characterize and test a prophylactic tuberculosis vaccine comprised of ID93, a polyprotein fusion antigen, and a liposomal formulation [including a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant, GLA) and QS-21] in a preclinical mouse model of TB disease. Comparisons of the ID93+GLA-LSQ vaccines are also made to the highly characterized ID93+GLA-SE oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, which are also included these studies. Read More

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Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway and Proinflammatory Cytokines by Ursolic Acid in Murine Macrophages Infected with .

Infect Dis Rep 2020 Jul 6;12(11):5-10. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacology-Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Labtek 7, Jl. Ganesha No.10, Lb. Siliwangi, Coblong, Bandung 40132, West Java, Indonesia..

, one of the closest relatives of (MTB), offers an advantage in studying MTB because of its tuberculosis-like effect in humans and host immune tolerance. This study examined the antimycobacterial action of ursolic acid and its regulation in macrophages during infection. Colony-forming units of the bacteria were determined in the cell lysate of macrophages and in the supernatant. Read More

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Immunotherapeutic effect of adenovirus encoding antimicrobial peptides in experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Experimental Pathology Section, Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

As components of the innate immune response, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) efficiently contribute to infection control and maintenance of a latent state in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a therapeutic strategy, the administration of recombinant AMPs could be limited by enzymatic degradation and high production costs. Likewise, strategies based on the induction of AMPs have generated controversial results. Read More

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Overview on coinfection of HTLV-1 and tuberculosis: Mini-review.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2021 May 19;23:100224. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Microbiology and Virology, School of Medicine, Jiroft University of Medical Sciences, Jiroft, Iran.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is one of the human retroviruses that causes various complications in humans, including lymphoma. (), on the other hand, is a causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), a deadly infectious disease. According to the literature, patients infected with HTLV-1 are prone to TB due to lack of regulation in the immune system. Read More

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Generation of Liposomes to Study the Effect of Lipids on HIV-1 - and -Infections.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 16;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK.

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among HIV-1-infected individuals and () co-infection is an early precipitate to AIDS. We aimed to determine whether strains differentially modulate cellular susceptibility to HIV-1 infection (- and -infection), via surface receptor interaction by their cell envelope lipids. Total lipids from pathogenic (lineage 4 H37Rv, CDC1551 and lineage 2 HN878, EU127) and non-pathogenic ( BCG and ) strains were integrated into liposomes mimicking the lipid distribution and antigen accessibility of the mycobacterial cell wall. Read More

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February 2021

THP1 proteomics in response to infection.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 30;35:106803. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Temporal data on how the mycobacterium infection establishes itself inside the host cell is not available. We differentiated human THP1 cell line with PMA and infected them with different laboratory (H37Ra and H37Rv) and clinical strains (BND433 and JAL2287) of mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Uninfected differentiated THP1 cells were used as infection control. Read More

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Generating Three-dimensional Human Granulomas to Study -Host Interaction.

Bio Protoc 2020 Nov 20;10(22):e3820. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Granulomas are organized multicellular structures that constitute the hallmark of an infection by the human pathogen A better understanding of the complex host- interactions within the granuloma's environment may lead to new therapeutic or preventive tools to improve the control of the tuberculosis pandemic. To date, several models that are able to mimic human nascent granulomas have been reported. Here we describe a protocol in which -infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are embedded within a collagen matrix leading to the formation of three-dimensional micro-granulomas. Read More

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November 2020

The Role of -Catenin in Th1 Immune Response against Tuberculosis and Profiles of Expression in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

J Immunol Res 2021 11;2021:6625855. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Shanghai Clinical Research Center for Tuberculosis, Shanghai Key Lab of Tuberculosis, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

-Catenin is a key molecule of canonical Wnt/-catenin pathway. Its roles and expression profiles in T cells of tuberculosis (TB) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of -catenin in CD4 T cells and its expression characteristics in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Read More

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February 2021

Drug susceptibility patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and implications for a household contact preventive therapy trial.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Feb 24;21(1):205. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-8106, USA.

Background: Drug susceptibility testing (DST) patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from patients with rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB; or resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid (INH)), are important to guide preventive therapy for their household contacts (HHCs).

Methods: As part of a feasibility study done in preparation for an MDR-TB preventive therapy trial in HHCs, smear, Xpert MTB/RIF, Hain MTBDRplus, culture and DST results of index MDR-TB patients were obtained from routine TB programs. A sputum sample was collected at study entry and evaluated by the same tests. Read More

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February 2021

GlnR Regulates the Glyoxylate Cycle and the Methylcitrate Cycle on Fatty Acid Metabolism by Repressing Transcription.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:603835. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute of Engineering Biology and Health, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Delta Region Green Pharmaceuticals, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

(), along with its pathogenic counterpart (), utilizes fatty acids and cholesterol as important carbon and energy sources during the persistence within host cells. As a dual-functional enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle and the methylcitrate cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL, encoded by or ) is indispensable for the growth of and on short-chain fatty acids. However, regulation of in mycobacteria in response to nutrient availability remains largely unknown. Read More

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February 2021

CD38 +CD27 -TNF-α + on Mtb-specific CD4 + T is a robust biomarker for tuberculosis diagnosis.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Background: Early and accurate diagnosis followed by timely treatment are the key prerequisites to fight tuberculosis (TB) and reduce its global burden. Despite scientific advances, the rapid and correct diagnosis of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains a challenge due to traditional reliance on detection of the elusive bacilli. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific host immune activation and cytokine production have shown significant promise as alternative means of detecting and distinguishing active disease from latent infection. Read More

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February 2021

Initiation of Post-Primary Tuberculosis of the Lungs: Exploring the Secret Role of Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells.

Front Immunol 2020;11:594572. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Stem Cell and Infectious Diseases, KaviKrishna Laboratory, Guwahati Biotech Park, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, India.

(), the causative organism of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) now infects more than half of the world population. The efficient transmission strategy of the pathogen includes first remaining dormant inside the infected host, next undergoing reactivation to cause post-primary tuberculosis of the lungs (PPTBL) and then transmit aerosol to the community. In this review, we are exploring recent findings on the role of bone marrow (BM) stem cell niche in dormancy and reactivation that may underlie the mechanisms of PPTBL development. Read More

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February 2021

Rv1717 Is a Cell Wall - Associated β-Galactosidase of That Is Involved in Biofilm Dispersion.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:611122. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Microbiology Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Understanding the function of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP)s expressed by a pathogen in the infected host can lead to better understanding of its pathogenesis. The present work describes the functional characterization of a CHP, Rv1717 of (Mtb). Rv1717 has been previously reported to be upregulated in TB patient lungs. Read More

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January 2021

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients expressing the HLA-DRB1*04 allele, and after treatment they show a low frequency of HLA-II+ monocytes and a chronic systemic inflammation.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 11;153:104793. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Laboratory of Integrative Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, 14080, Mexico. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacilli Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb); most TB patients are infected with strains of Mtb sensitive to first-line drugs (DS-TB), but in the last years has been increased the presence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). HLA class II (HLA-II) is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and reported the association between HLA alleles and DS-TB in the Mexican population. We studied HLA-II + CD16 monocytes frequency and its relation with a pro-inflammatory profile during DS-TB versus MDR-TB, both before as in response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. Read More

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