17,658 results match your criteria infect primary

Brain-eating amoebae: Is killing the parasite our only option to prevent death?

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Arts and Sciences, University of Sharjah, University City, Sharjah, 26666, United Arab Emirates.

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Evidence for Transmission of Taeniasis/Cysticercosis in a Rural Area of Northern Rwanda.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:645076. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Área de Parasitología del Departamento de Agroquímica y Medioambiente, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Alicante, Spain.

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the metacestode larval stage (cysticercus) of . In humans, cysticercosis may infect the central nervous system and cause neurocysticercosis, which is responsible for over 50,000 deaths per year worldwide and is the major cause of preventable epilepsy cases, especially in low-income countries. Cysticercosis infection is endemic in many less developed countries where poor hygiene conditions and free-range pig management favor their transmission. Read More

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Antibody response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among kidney transplant recipients - Prospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Transplantation, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah-Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate rates of antibody response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among kidney transplant recipients, and to identify factors associated with reduced immunogenicity.

Methods: A prospective cohort study including consecutive kidney transplant recipients in a single referral transplant center. Participants were tested for anti-spike (anti-S) antibodies 2-4 weeks following second vaccine dose. Read More

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eHealth for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a scoping review.

J Hosp Infect 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The increase in smartphone use and mobile health applications (apps) holds potential to use apps to reduce and detect healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in clinical practice.

Aim: To obtain an overview of available apps for HAI prevention, by selecting the clinically relevant apps and scoring functionality, quality and usefulness.

Methods: This scoping review of available apps in the iOS and Android app stores uses an in-house-developed tool (scraper https://holtder. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness of One-Time Universal Screening for Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Adults in the United States.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Asian Liver Center, Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Background: An estimated 862,000 to 2.4 million people have chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB). Left undiagnosed and untreated CHB increases risk of death from liver cirrhosis or liver cancer. Read More

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Pediatric Antibiotic Stewardship: Optimization of Vancomycin Therapy Based on Individual Pharmacokinetics.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Jun;40(6):556-562

From the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Vancomycin has been a first-line treatment for Gram-positive infections for decades. However, strategies for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and dose-optimization in pediatrics remain controversial. In this study, we analyzed the impact of specific antibiotic stewardship interventions on efficacy and safety of vancomycin therapy. Read More

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A First Report on Experience in Managing Infants with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: Case Reports and a Review of Evaluation and Treatment.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 15;2021:9934391. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

. Congenital toxoplasmosis is a major sequela of untreated primary maternal infection. With or without symptoms, untreated infections eventually lead to multiple neurologic complications. Read More

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Innate Immune Modulation Induced by EBV Lytic Infection Promotes Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Vascular Injury in Scleroderma.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:651013. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Rheumatology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Microvascular injury is considered an initial event in the pathogenesis of scleroderma and endothelial cells are suspected of being the target of the autoimmune process seen in the disease. EBV has long been proposed as a trigger for autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma. Nevertheless, its contribution to the pathogenic process remains poorly understood. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 viral load kinetics in symptomatic children, adolescents and adults.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland.

SARS-CoV-2 viral load (VL) can serve as a correlate for infectious virus presence and transmission. Viral shedding kinetics over the first week of illness for symptomatic children (n=279), adolescents (n=639) and adults (n=7109) show VLs compatible with infectious virus presence, with slightly lower VL in children than adults. Read More

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Improving the Outcomes of Immunocompromised Patients with COVID-19.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Recent case studies have highlighted that certain immunocompromised individuals are at risk for prolonged SARS-CoV-2 replication, intra-host viral evolution of multiply-mutated variants, and poor clinical outcomes. The immunologic determinants of this risk, the duration of infectiousness, and optimal treatment and prevention strategies in immunocompromised hosts are ill-defined. Of additional concern is the widespread use of immunosuppressive medications (corticosteroids, IL-6 antagonists) to treat COVID-19, which may enhance and prolong viral replication in the context of immunodeficiency. Read More

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Comparisons of Serologic Responses of Early Syphilis to Treatment with a Single-Dose Benzathine Penicillin G Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction: Poorer serologic responses of early syphilis to treatment have been inconsistently reported in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, but the interpretation of previous studies is limited by discrepant study designs. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the treatment response to a single dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) for early syphilis.

Methods: From January 2015 to March 2020, adult patients with early syphilis who received a single dose of BPG were enrolled and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers were periodically determined. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 transmission in educational settings during an early summer epidemic wave in Luxembourg, 2020.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 4;21(1):417. Epub 2021 May 4.

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette and Belvaux, Luxembourg.

Background: Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the opportunity to investigate the role of school-age children and school settings for transmission.

Methods: We compared the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in school-age children, teachers and the general working population in Luxembourg during two epidemic waves: a spring wave from March-April 2020 corresponding to general lockdown with schools being closed and May-July 2020 corresponding to schools being open. Read More

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Impact of antiviral treatment on long-term prognosis in non-immunocompromised patients with CMV reactivation.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 4;21(1):414. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) occurs in non-immunocompromised patients with or without specific organ involvement, but it is still unknown whether it has a clinical implication on long-term prognosis or not.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study evaluating non-immunocompromised adult patients with CMV reactivation was conducted during the period between January 2010 and February 2018. Patients were divided into ganciclovir-treated and non-treated groups. Read More

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Bacterial agents in vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge: a 10-year retrospective study in the Netherlands.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Isala Hospital, Dr. van Heesweg 2, 8025 AB, Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Vulvovaginitis is a common problem in the GP's practice. Causes are bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Only if empirical treatment fails, a vaginal swab is sent in for culture and BV detection. Read More

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Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported cases of COVID-19: a multicenter study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 3;21(1):406. Epub 2021 May 3.

Emergency Department, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand. Herein, we report the epidemiological and clinical features of 478 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from a multicenter study conducted in four cities in China excluding Wuhan.

Methods: A total of 478 patients transferred by emergency medical services to designated hospitals in four major cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Jinan, and Nanning) were enrolled. Read More

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Methodological and technical considerations for video-based auditing of hand hygiene compliance in clinical practice: an exploratory study.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Susan Wakil School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Division of Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health, Westmead Hospital and Western Sydney Local Health District, Westmead, NSW, Australia; New South Wales Biocontainment Centre, Western Sydney Local Health District and New South Wales Health, NSW, Australia.

Background: Direct observation is the gold standard method for measuring hand hygiene compliance but its utility is increasingly being questioned. Various alternative electronic methods have been proposed, yet there is a paucity of research examining the use of these according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) '5 Moments for Hand Hygiene'. As a part of the process of developing a video-based monitoring system (VMS) capable of measuring hand hygiene compliance against the 5 moments criteria this paper reports methodological and technical issues that might arise from the use of a VMS for auditing in clinical practice. Read More

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Factors associated with behavioral intention of free and self-paid COVID-19 vaccination based on the social cognitive theory among nurses and doctors in China.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 3:1-25. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Health Behaviours Research, School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Email:

Objective: To examine the associations between factors based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and behavioral intention of free and self-paid (600 RMB or 91 USD) COVID-19 vaccination of 80% effectiveness and rare mild side effects among doctors and nurses in China.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Public hospitals. Read More

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Comparison of All-Cause Mortality Between Individuals With COVID-19 and Propensity Score-Matched Individuals Without COVID-19 in South Korea.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 1;8(4):ofab057. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Background: We compared all-cause mortality between individuals in South Korea with and without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using propensity score (PS) matching.

Methods: This population-based cohort study used data from the National Health Insurance Service COVID-19 cohort database. In the database, we included individuals (COVID-19 patients, control population, and test-negative individuals) aged 20 years or older, regardless of hospitalization. Read More

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The Building Blocks of Antimicrobial Resistance in : Implications for Current Resistance-Breaking Therapies.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 16;11:665759. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

is classified as a priority one pathogen by the World Health Organisation, and new drugs are urgently needed, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Antimicrobial-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as pose unwavering and increasing threats. Antimicrobial stewardship has been a challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a majority of those hospitalized with SARS-CoV2 infection given antibiotics as a safeguard against secondary bacterial infection. Read More

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iTIME.219: An Immortalized KSHV Infected Endothelial Cell Line Inducible by a KSHV-Specific Stimulus to Transition From Latency to Lytic Replication and Infectious Virus Release.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 14;11:654396. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma and two B cell lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma and KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman's disease. These distinct pathologies involve different infected cell types. In Kaposi's sarcoma, the virus is harbored in spindle-like tumor cells of endothelial origin, in contrast with the two pathologies of B cells. Read More

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Immune Profile in Patients With COVID-19: Lymphocytes Exhaustion Markers in Relationship to Clinical Outcome.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 15;11:646688. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Centre for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Clinic of Pneumology and Phthisiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin University Hospital, Martin, Slovakia.

The velocity of the COVID-19 pandemic spread and the variable severity of the disease course has forced scientists to search for potential predictors of the disease outcome. We examined various immune parameters including the markers of immune cells exhaustion and activation in 21 patients with COVID-19 disease hospitalised in our hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia. The results showed significant progressive lymphopenia and depletion of lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19) in correlation to the disease severity. Read More

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Early primary toxoplasmosis transmitted by liver graft: A case report.

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 31;51(3):315-316. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Service de médecine interne, Hôpital Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 100, boulevard du Général Leclerc, 92118 Clichy Cedex, France.

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Primary cutaneous melioidosis acquired in Nepal - Case report and literature review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 30;42:102080. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam UMC, Location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

A 27 years-old Dutch male returning from Nepal presented with a painful abscess on the left forearm without fever or other systemic complications. Signs and symptoms consisted of culture of the abscess material revealed Burkholderia pseudomallei. Laboratory results, chest X-ray and CT scan of the abdomen were without abnormalities. Read More

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Disparities in COVID-19 severities and casualties across ethnic groups around the globe and patterns of ACE2 and PIR variants.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 29:104888. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) mediated Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has affected millions of individuals around all corners of the globe. Symptoms and severities of infection with this highly contagious virus vary among individuals and there is disparity in the number of COVID-19-related casualties across different ethnic groups. The primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Read More

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Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis receiving infliximab.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2021 May 1;19(1):63. Epub 2021 May 1.

Presbyterian Healthcare Services, New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA.

Background: Coccidioides immitis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the arid climates of the Southwest United States, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores with less than half of exposures progressing to a symptomatic state that primarily consists of pulmonary manifestations. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is exceedingly rare, occurring in fewer than 1 % of symptomatic infections. Read More

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Blood Virosphere in Febrile Tanzanian Children.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 30:1-237. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Viral infections are the leading cause of childhood acute febrile illnesses motivating consultation in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of causal viruses are never identified in low-resource clinical settings as such testing is either not part of routine screening or available diagnostic tools have limited ability to detect new/unexpected viral variants. An in-depth exploration of the blood virome is therefore necessary to clarify the potential viral origin of fever in children. Read More

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Repositioning and Characterization of 1-(Pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-2-one Derivatives as Cytoplasmic Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Medicines for Malaria Venture, ICC, Route de Pré-Bois 20, 1215 Geneva, Switzerland.

Prolyl-tRNA synthetase (PRS) is a clinically validated antimalarial target. Screening of a set of PRS ATP-site binders, initially designed for human indications, led to identification of 1-(pyridin-4-yl)pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives representing a novel antimalarial scaffold. Evidence designates cytoplasmic PRS as the drug target. Read More

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Attach importance of the bootstrap test against Student's test in clinical epidemiology: a demonstrative comparison using COVID-19 as an example.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 Apr 30;149:e107. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Student's t test is valid for statistical inference under the normality assumption or asymptotically. By contrast, although the bootstrap t test was proposed in 1993, it is seldom adopted in medical research. We aim to demonstrate that the bootstrap t test outperforms Student's t test under normality in data. Read More

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By Regulating the NLRP3 Inflammasome Can Reduce the Release of Inflammatory Factors in the Co-Culture Model of Tuberculosis H37Ra Strain and Rat Microglia.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 13;11:637769. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: Tuberculosis infection of the Central Nervous System can cause severe inflammation in microglia, and NLRP3 inflammasome is also an important source of inflammation in microglia. Therefore, in this study, we used a co-culture model of rat microglia and tuberculosis H37Ra strain to explore the influence of tuberculosis infection on the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia and its regulation mechanism.

Methods: We cultured primary microglia from SD rats and co-cultured with tuberculosis H37Ra strain for 4 hours to establish a co-culture model. Read More

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Going beyond 'regular and casual': development of a classification of sexual partner types to enhance partner notification for STIs.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Centre for Sexual Health and HIV Research, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To develop a classification of sexual partner types for use in partner notification (PN) for STIs.

Methods: A four-step process: (1) an iterative synthesis of five sources of evidence: scoping review of social and health sciences literature on partner types; analysis of relationship types in dating apps; systematic review of PN intervention content; and review of PN guidelines; qualitative interviews with public, patients and health professionals to generate an initial comprehensive classification; (2) multidisciplinary clinical expert consultation to revise the classification; (3) piloting of the revised classification in sexual health clinics during a randomised controlled trial of PN; (4) application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify index patients' willingness to engage in PN for each partner type.

Results: Five main partner types emerged from the evidence synthesis and consultation: 'established partner', 'new partner', 'occasional partner', 'one-off partner' and 'sex worker'. Read More

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