71,521 results match your criteria infants developed

Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis of the Newborn.

Skinmed 2021 1;19(5):392-394. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Dermatology, University of Medicine of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia.

A boy weighing 4500 g was born at 41 weeks' gestation by Cesarean section due to fetal distress. The pregnancy was complicated by gestational diabetes. He had an Apgar score of 5 and 6 after 5 and 10 minutes, respectively. Read More

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October 2021

Monocular retinopathy of prematurity-like retinal vasculopathy in a dog.

Vet Ophthalmol 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Section of Ophthalmology and Division of Experimental Retinal Therapies, Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: To describe a case of monocular retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)-like vasculopathy without oxygen supplementation in the dog.

Methods: Fundus photographs (RetCam), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (sdOCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO), and fluorescein angiography (FA), as well as postmortem histology and immunohistochemistry (Collagen IV and anti-vWF antibodies), were carried out to characterize the vascular abnormalities.

Results: Ophthalmic examination showed peripheral and mid-temporal avascular areas in the tapetal region, neovascularization and abnormally dilated and tortuous retinal vessels in the left eye. Read More

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December 2021

Predicting outcomes after intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxina for non-neurogenic urgency incontinence in women.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of OBGYN, Division of Urogynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Develop models to predict outcomes after intradetrusor injection of 100 or 200 units of onabotulinumtoxinA in women with non-neurogenic urgency urinary incontinence (UUI).

Methods: Models were developed using 307 women from two randomized trials assessing efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA for non-neurogenic UUI. Cox, linear and logistic regression models were fit using: (1) time to recurrence over 12 months, (2) change from baseline daily UUI episodes (UUIE) at 6 months, and (3) need for self-catheterization over 6 months. Read More

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December 2021

Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine following complete immunization of children attending two regional hospitals in the Southwest region of Cameroon: a cross sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Dec 2;21(1):1205. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite being a vaccine preventable disease remains a global public health problem. In Cameroon, the hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the expanded program on immunisation in 2005, but there has been limited evaluation of the HBV surface antibody response post vaccination.

Objective: We investigated the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants who received the DPT-Hep B-Hib vaccine, and we assessed HBsAg carriage in non-responders. Read More

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December 2021

Incidence and Risk Factors for Postpartum Depression among Women with Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective:  Patients admitted for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes are more likely to have risk factors for postpartum depression, including preterm delivery, low-birthweight infants, and a stressful life event. However, there is a paucity of data characterizing the development of postpartum depression in this population. We aim to evaluate the incidence of and describe risk factors for postpartum depression among patients admitted with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Read More

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December 2021

The need for early Kasai portoenterostomy: a Western Pediatric Surgery Research Consortium study.

Pediatr Surg Int 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles and the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Blvd. MS #100, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors impacting transplant-free survival among infants with biliary atresia.

Methods: A multi-institutional, retrospective cohort study was performed at nine tertiary-level children's hospitals in the United States. Infants who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy (KP) from January 2009 to May 2017 were identified. Read More

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December 2021

Randomised controlled pilot trial with ion-exchange water softeners to prevent eczema (SOFTER trial).

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Unit for Population-Based Dermatology, St John's Institute of Dermatology, King's College London and Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Observational studies suggest an increased risk of eczema in children living in hard versus soft water areas, and there is therefore an interest in knowing whether softening water may prevent eczema. We evaluated the feasibility of a parallel-group assessor-blinded pilot randomised controlled trial to test whether installing a domestic ion-exchange water softener before birth in hard water areas reduces the risk of eczema in infants with a family history of atopy.

Methods: Pregnant women living in hard water areas (>250 mg/L calcium carbonate) in and around London UK, were randomised 1:1 antenatally to either have an ion-exchange water softener installed in their home or not (i. Read More

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December 2021

The effect of daily probiotics on the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with very low birth weight.

Can J Surg 2021 Nov-Dec;64(6):E644-E649. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

From the Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Que); the BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre, Vancouver, BC (Van Oerle); the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia/BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Albersheim, Panczuk); and the Division of Pediatric Surgery, University of British Columbia/BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Piper).

Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. The role of prophylactic probiotics in its prevention is unclear. This study evaluates the effect of routine probiotics on the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with very low birth weight in the neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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December 2021

[Rooming-in, Breastfeeding and Neonatal Follow-up of Infants Born to Mothers with COVID-19].

Acta Med Port 2021 Jun 30;34(7-8):507-516. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Serviço de Pediatria. Hospital Garcia de Orta. Almada. Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatais. Hospital Garcia de Orta. Almada. Portugal.

Introduction: Due to growing evidence suggesting COVID-19 may have a benign course in the newborn, a number of guidelines supporting rooming-in and breastfeeding were developed. The main aim of the study was to assess the safety of this approach, through the risk of developing severe neonatal infection.

Material And Methods: Prospective observational study from April 2020 to February 2021 on the approach and neonatal follow-up of infants born to mothers with COVID-19 at the time of delivery in a hospital with advanced neonatal care, where rooming in and breastfeeding were promoted whenever possible. Read More

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Dynamical Differences in Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Bull Math Biol 2021 Nov 30;84(1):11. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Actuarial Science, Butler University, 4600 Sunset Ave, Indianapolis, IN, 46208, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading viral cause of pediatric respiratory infections and early infant mortality. Despite extensive development efforts currently underway, there remain no vaccines available for the prevention of RSV. RSV is an enveloped, negative-strand RNA virus that utilizes two different proteins (G and F) to mediate attachment and entry into host cells. Read More

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November 2021

Embedding Community-Based Newborn Care in the Ethiopian health system: lessons from a 4-year programme evaluation.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Nov;36(Supplement_1):i22-i32

Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1 7HT, UK.

Despite remarkable gains, improving neonatal survival globally remains slow paced. Innovative service-delivery packages have been developed for community health workers (CHWs) to maximize system efficiency and increase the reach of services. However, embedding these in health systems needs structural and procedural alignment. Read More

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November 2021

Pulmonary hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: risk factors, mortality and duration of hospitalisation.

J Perinat Med 2021 Jan 1. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Women and Children's Health, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complication of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Our aim was to identify, in infants with BPD, the effect of PH on health-care utilisation and health related cost of care.

Methods: An electronic data recording system was used to identify infants ≤32 weeks of gestation who developed BPD. Read More

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January 2021

Process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial to improve bronchiolitis management - a PREDICT mixed-methods study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Nov 29;21(1):1282. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Children's Emergency Department, Starship Children's Hospital, Private Bag, Auckland, 92019, New Zealand.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for hospitalisation in infants. All international bronchiolitis guidelines recommend supportive care, yet considerable variation in practice continues with infants receiving non-evidence based therapies. We developed six targeted, theory-informed interventions; clinical leads, stakeholder meeting, train-the-trainer, education delivery, other educational materials, and audit and feedback. Read More

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November 2021

Metabolic engineering strategies of de novo pathway for enhancing 2'-fucosyllactose synthesis in Escherichia coli.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China.

2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL), one of the most abundant human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), is used as a promising infant formula ingredient owing to its multiple health benefits for newborns. However, limited availability and high-cost preparation have restricted its extensive use and intensive research on its potential functions. In this work, a powerful Escherichia coli cell factory was developed to ulteriorly increase 2'-FL production. Read More

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November 2021

Establishing Newborn Screening for SCID in the USA; Experience in California.

Int J Neonatal Screen 2021 Oct 31;7(4). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Children's Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Great North Children's Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK.

Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has developed from the realization that infants affected with SCID require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid fatal infectious complications. Screening DNA from infant dried blood spots for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), byproducts of normal antigen-receptor gene rearrangement, has proven to be a reliable method to identify infants with SCID and other serious T lymphocyte defects before the onset of serious infections. The experience of the SCID newborn screening program in California after screening over 3 million infants demonstrates the effectiveness of this measure. Read More

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October 2021

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of High-Risk Preterm Infants: A Prospective Study in Japan.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Oct;11(5):398-405

Department of Pediatrics (MT, MI, TS, HI, MO, RT, K. Yonemoto, Y. Ichimiya, Y. Sonoda, M. Sasazuki, Y. Ishizaki, M. Sanefuji, Y. Sakai, SO), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka; Department of Health and Welfare (M. Sasazuki), Seinan Jogakuin University, Kitakyushu; Department of Neuropsychiatry (K. Yamane, HY, SK), Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka; Section of Pediatrics (HT), Department of Medicine, Fukuoka Dental College; and Fukuoka Children's Hospital (RK, TH), Japan.

Objectives: To determine the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs, birth weight <1,500 g) after 9 years of follow-up.

Methods: This study prospectively recruited 224 VLBWIs born from 2003 to 2009 in Kyushu University Hospital, Japan. Comorbidities of neurocognitive impairment, epilepsy, and autism spectrum disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ASD/ADHD) were assessed at age 3, 6, and 9 years. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluation of a fluid resuscitation protocol for patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Surgery, Children's Mercy Kansas City, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, United States; University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: We previously developed an institutional, evidence-based fluid resuscitation protocol for neonates with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) based on the severity of electrolyte derangement on presentation. We aim to evaluate this protocol to determine its efficacy in reducing the number of preoperative lab draws, time to electrolyte correction, and overall length of stay.

Methods: A single center, retrospective review of 319 infants with HPS presenting with electrolyte derangement from 2008 to 2020 was performed; 202 patients managed pre-protocol (2008-2014) and 117 patients managed per our institutional fluid resuscitation algorithm (2016-2020). Read More

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November 2021

Neonatal Outcomes of Premature Infants Born to Women with the Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: A Case Control Study.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Neonatology Department, Istanbul Basaksehir Cam and Sakura City Hospital, Basaksehir, Istanbul, Turkey 34480.

Objective:  Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease associated with atypical pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first cases of COVID-19 were reported in Wuhan at the end of 2019. Transmission usually occurs via infected droplets and close personal contact; the possibility of vertical transmission is still under debate. Read More

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November 2021

Combined Echo and Fluoroscopy-Guided Pulmonary Valvuloplasty in Neonates and Infants: Efficacy and Safety.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 225 East Chicago Avenue, Box 21, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (PBPV) is the treatment of choice for isolated pulmonary valve stenosis. While this procedure is highly efficacious and has an excellent safety profile, as currently practiced, patients are obligatorily exposed to the secondary risks of ionizing radiation and contrast media. To mitigate these risks, we developed a protocol which utilized echo guidance for portions of the procedure which typically require fluoroscopy and/or angiography. Read More

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November 2021

Positive breastfeeding experiences and facilitators in mothers of preterm and low birthweight infants: a meta-ethnographic review.

Int Breastfeed J 2021 Nov 27;16(1):88. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.

Background: Most qualitative research on breastfeeding the preterm or low-birthweight (LBW) infant has focused on negative insights; there are no comprehensive insights into how, when and why mothers experience positive breastfeeding experiences. We aimed to address this knowledge gap by exploring what characterizes and facilitates a positive breastfeeding experience in mothers of preterm and/or LBW infants.

Methods: A systematic review using meta-ethnographic methods was conducted. Read More

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November 2021

Persistent Pneumonia in an Infant.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Nov;58(11):1067-1073

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh.

An eight month old boy presented with a subacute febrile illness and radiological evidence of multifocal cavitatory consolidations in the lungs. He continued to worsen despite multiple oral and intravenous antibiotics. Preterminally, he developed respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, and hepatic dysfunction. Read More

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November 2021

Demographics and long-term outcomes of children with end-stage kidney disease: a 20-year territory-wide study.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Paediatric Nephrology Centre, Hong Kong Children's Hospital, Hong Kong.

Aim: To evaluate the demographics and long-term patient outcomes of children with end-stage kidney disease in Hong Kong.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study at the Paediatric Nephrology Centre, the designated site providing kidney replacement therapy (KRT) for children in Hong Kong. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of all children who initiated chronic KRT before 19 years, between 2001-2020, were analyzed. Read More

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November 2021

Belgian Consensus Recommendations to Prevent Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in the Term and Preterm Infant.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 16;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Pediatrics, ZNA Queen Paola Children's Hospital, Faculty of Medicine UA, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.

Neonatal vitamin K prophylaxis is essential to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) with a clear benefit compared to placebo. Various routes (intramuscular (IM), oral, intravenous (IV)) and dosing regimens were explored. A literature review was conducted to compare vitamin K regimens on VKDB incidence. Read More

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November 2021

Latin American Considerations for Infant and Young Child Formulae.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 4;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department Pediatrics, Medical Centre of LMU Munich, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, 80539 München, Germany.

Infant formula is the only acceptable substitute for breastmilk from 0 to 6 months old when human milk cannot be provided in sufficient amounts. Manufacturers have developed options that intend to meet the changing needs of the child aged from six to twelve months (follow-on formulae) and after the age of one year (young child formulae). The international code for marketing breast milk substitute stipulates standards for marketing practices of these products. Read More

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November 2021

Respiratory Syncytial Virus: New Challenges for Molecular Epidemiology Surveillance and Vaccination Strategy in Patients with ILI/SARI.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Nov 16;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infant Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties "G. D'Alessandro"-Hygiene Section, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Several respiratory pathogens are responsible for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe respiratory infections (SARI), among which human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) represents one of the most common aetiologies. We analysed the hRSV prevalence among subjects with ILI or SARI during the five influenza seasons before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Sicily (Italy). Respiratory specimens from ILI outpatients and SARI inpatients were collected in the framework of the Italian Network for the Influenza Surveillance and molecularly tested for hRSV-A and hRSV-B. Read More

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November 2021

Major Complication Following Kawasaki Disease in an Infant-The Development of Apical Infarction and Aneurysm Formation.

Children (Basel) 2021 Oct 29;8(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia.

Considerable advances have occurred in the understanding of Kawasaki disease, with a substantial drop in morbidity and mortality following the infusion of gamma globulin during the acute phase. Nevertheless, major complications may still occur. A 27-year-old male presented as an infant of 11 weeks when he was diagnosed as having Kawasaki disease. Read More

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October 2021

Development and Psychometric Testing of the Mental Health Scale for Childrearing Fathers.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Nov 19;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Reproductive and Menopausal Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8509, Japan.

The mental health of fathers influences the development of children and the functioning of families significantly. However, there is no useful scale for the mental health screening of childrearing fathers. This study developed a Mental Health Scale for Childrearing Fathers (MSCF) and determined its reliability and validity. Read More

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November 2021

Level of discomfort in critically ill paediatric patients and its correlation with sociodemographic and clinical variables, analgosedation and withdrawal syndrome. COSAIP multicentre study (Phase 2).

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátrica, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There are clinical and sociodemographic factors that have an impact on the comfort of the critically ill paediatric patient. The main aim of this study was to determine the level of discomfort of paediatric patients admitted to different national hospitals, and to analyse its correlation with sociodemographic and clinical variables, analgosedation, and withdrawal syndrome.

Methods: An observational, analytical, cross-sectional, and multicentre study was conducted in five Spanish hospitals. Read More

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November 2021

A supportive physiologic environment for the extreme premature infant: Improving life outside the womb.

Alan W Flake

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Oct 29. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address:

Extreme prematurity remains an unsolved problem and is the leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity in developed countries. The extreme premature infant is physiologically a fetus, and current supportive measures in our NICUs are for the most part non-physiologic. In order to improve morbidity and mortality in this population, we have developed the Extra-uterine environment for newborn development (EXTEND) system which seeks to mimic as closely as possible the environment of the womb. Read More

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October 2021

MetaFetcheR: An R Package for Complete Mapping of Small-Compound Data.

Metabolites 2021 Oct 28;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

Small-compound databases contain a large amount of information for metabolites and metabolic pathways. However, the plethora of such databases and the redundancy of their information lead to major issues with analysis and standardization. A lack of preventive establishment of means of data access at the infant stages of a project might lead to mislabelled compounds, reduced statistical power, and large delays in delivery of results. Read More

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October 2021