13,386 results match your criteria induction insulin

Pancreas morphogenesis and homeostasis depends on tightly regulated Zeb1 levels in epithelial cells.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 11;7(1):138. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Experimental Medicine 1, Nikolaus-Fiebiger Center for Molecular Medicine, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

The pancreas is comprised of exocrine and endocrine compartments releasing digestive enzymes into the duodenum and regulating blood glucose levels by insulin and glucagon release. Tissue homeostasis is depending on transcription factor networks, involving Ptf1α, Ngn3, Nkx6.1, and Sox9, which are already activated during organogenesis. Read More

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Autophagy induction by IGF1R inhibition with picropodophyllin and linsitinib.

Autophagy 2021 Jun 10:1-2. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue Contre le Cancer, Université de Paris, Sorbonne Université, Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France.

Induction of macroautophagy (hereafter termed autophagy) is a strategy to improve the outcome of antineoplastic therapies by facilitating the induction of immunogenic cancer cell death and the consequent immune recognition of malignant cells. We analyzed 65,000 distinct compounds by means of a phenotypic discovery platform for autophagy induction and identified the IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) inhibitor picropodophyllin (PPP) as a potent inducer of autophagic flux. We found that PPP acts on-target, as an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IGF1R and enhances the release of adenosine triphosphate, ATP, from stressed and dying cancer cells in vitro, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy of chemoimmunotherapy in cancer-bearing mice. Read More

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Pioglitazone-induced AMPK-Glutaminase-1 prevents high glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction by glutathione antioxidant system.

Redox Biol 2021 Jun 3;45:102029. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Prolonged hyperglycemia plays a major role in the progression of β-cell loss in diabetes mellitus. Here we report an insulin sensitizer thiazolidinedione Pioglitazone selectively preserves the beta cells against high glucose-induced dysfunction by activation of AMPK and Glutaminase 1 (GLS1) axis. AMPK activation increases the stability of Glutaminase 1 by HSP90 family mitochondrial heat shock protein 75 (HSP75/TRAP1). Read More

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Bixin attenuates mechanical allodynia, anxious and depressive-like behaviors associated with experimental diabetes counteracting oxidative stress and glycated hemoglobin.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 6:147557. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Laboratory of Pharmacology of Pain, Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Paraná, 81531-170 Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

Neuropathic pain, depression, and anxiety are common comorbidities in diabetic patients, whose pathophysiology involves hyperglycemia-induced increased oxidative stress. Bixin (BIX), an apocarotenoid extracted from the seeds of Bixa orellana, has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes and has been recognized by its antioxidant profile. We aimed to investigate the effect of the BIX over the mechanical allodynia, depressive, and anxious-like behaviors associated with experimental diabetes, along with its involved mechanisms. Read More

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Adipogenic Differentiation Alters Properties of Vascularized Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Texas at San Antonio, 12346, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Chemical Engineering, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas, United States, 78249-1644;

Advances in the engineering of comprehensive skeletal muscle models in vitro will improve drug screening platforms and can lead to better therapeutic approaches for the treatment of skeletal muscle injuries. To this end, a vascularized tissue-engineered skeletal muscle (TE-SkM) model that includes adipocytes was developed in order to better emulate the intramuscular adipose tissue that is observed in skeletal muscles of patients with diseases like diabetes. Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) cultured with and without microvessels derived from adipose tissue (microvascular fragments; MVFs) were used to generate TE-SkM constructs, with and without a microvasculature, respectively. Read More

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Effect of trivalent chromium on erythropoietin production and the prevention of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 4:108960. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratory of Bioenvironmental Sciences, Course of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-58 Rinku Ohrai-Kita, Izumisano, Osaka, 598-8531, Japan.

In erythropoietin (EPO)-producing HepG2 cells, we investigated the effect of trivalent chromium (Cr) on the promotion of EPO production and the induction of insulin resistance. Cr increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein, EPO mRNA expression and EPO protein levels in HepG2 cells. The effect of Cr on EPO production was inhibited by inhibition of proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Read More

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Aquaporins in insulin resistance and diabetes: More than channels!

Redox Biol 2021 May 27;44:102027. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089, Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Aquaporins (AQPs) are part of the family of the integral membrane proteins. Their function is dedicated to the transport of water, glycerol, ammonia, urea, HO, and other small molecules across the biological membranes. Although for many years they were scarcely considered, AQPs have a relevant role in the development of many diseases. Read More

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Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Jun 4;6:CD007535. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Earlwood, Australia.

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by both metabolic and reproductive disorders, and affects 5% to 15% of women of reproductive age. Different western medicines have been proposed for PCOS-related subfertility, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitisers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have also been used for subfertility caused by PCOS for decades, and are expected to become an alternative treatment for subfertile women with PCOS. Read More

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Hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of root on nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced type II diabetic rats.

Res Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 5;16(2):193-202. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: has been used to control diabetes in traditional medicine. This research was performed to study the antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic effects of root extract (EBRE) on streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats.

Experimental Approach: Type two diabetic animals were treated by three different doses of EBRE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), orally administered for 4 weeks. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection induces beta cell transdifferentiation.

Cell Metab 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Recent clinical data have suggested a correlation between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and diabetes. Here, we describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen in pancreatic beta cells in autopsy samples from individuals with COVID-19. Single-cell RNA sequencing and immunostaining from ex vivo infections confirmed that multiple types of pancreatic islet cells were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, eliciting a cellular stress response and the induction of chemokines. Read More

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P2Y2R Deficiency Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis by Reducing Lipogenesis and Enhancing Fatty Acid β-Oxidation through AMPK and PGC-1α Induction in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 24;22(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic metabolic liver disease associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activation of the purinergic receptor P2Y2R has been reported to promote adipogenesis, inflammation and dyslipidemia in adipose tissues in obese mice. However, the role of P2Y2R and its mechanisms in NAFLD remain unknown. Read More

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The Combined Influence of Magnesium and Insulin on Central Metabolic Functions and Expression of Genes Involved in Magnesium Homeostasis of Cultured Bovine Adipocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute of Veterinary Physiology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.

At the onset of lactation, dairy cows suffer from insulin resistance, insulin deficiency or both, similar to human diabetes, resulting in lipolysis, ketosis and fatty liver. This work explored the combined effects of different levels of magnesium (0.1, 0. Read More

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Valproic Acid Suppresses Autoimmune Recurrence and Allograft Rejection in Islet Transplantation through Induction of the Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells and Can Be Used in Cell Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 May 17;14(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) results from the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the islet of the pancreas by lymphocytes. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is an animal model frequently used for this disease. It has been considered that T1D is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Read More

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Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Metformin in Cervical Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 22;13(11). Epub 2021 May 22.

Women's Health Research Laboratory, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan.

Cervical cancer is one of the major gynecologic malignancies worldwide. Treatment options include chemotherapy, surgical resection, radiotherapy, or a combination of these treatments; however, relapse and recurrence may occur, and the outcome may not be favorable. Metformin is an established, safe, well-tolerated drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes; it can be safely combined with other antidiabetic agents. Read More

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The Insulin Receptor: A Potential Target of Amarogentin Isolated from Franch That Induces Neurogenesis in PC12 Cells.

Biomedicines 2021 May 20;9(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Amarogentin (AMA) is a secoiridoid glycoside isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine, Franch. AMA exhibits nerve growth factor (NGF)-mimicking and NGF-enhancing activities in PC12 cells and in primary cortical neuron cells. In this study, a possible mechanism was found showing the remarkable induction of phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (INSR) and protein kinase B (AKT). Read More

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Catecholamines production by kidney tissue and mesangial cell culture is differentially modulated by diabetes.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Medicina, Disciplina de Nefrologia, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of people with diabetes mellitus may reach 700 million in 2045. Catecholamines are involved in the regulation of several kidney functions. This study investigates the effects of hyperglycemia on catecholamines' metabolism in kidney tissue from control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats, both in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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Long-term control of diabetes in a nonhuman primate by two separate transplantations of porcine adult islets under immunosuppression.

Am J Transplant 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Xenotransplantation Research Center, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Porcine islet transplantation is an alternative to allo-islet transplantation. Retransplantation of islets is a routine clinical practice in islet allotransplantation in immunosuppressed recipients and will most likely be required in islet xenotransplantation in immunosuppressed recipients. We examined whether a second infusion of porcine islets could restore normoglycemia and further evaluated the efficacy of a clinically available immunosuppression regimen including anti-thymocyte globulin for induction; belimumab, sirolimus, and tofacitinib for maintenance; and adalimumab, anakinra, IVIg, and tocilizumab for inflammation control in a pig to non-human primate transplantation setting. Read More

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Invited review: The influence of immune activation on transition cow health and performance-A critical evaluation of traditional dogmas.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames 50011. Electronic address:

The progression from gestation into lactation represents the transition period, and it is accompanied by marked physiological, metabolic, and inflammatory adjustments. The entire lactation and a cow's opportunity to have an additional lactation are heavily dependent on how successfully she adapts during the periparturient period. Additionally, a disproportionate amount of health care and culling occurs early following parturition. Read More

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Mechanism of insulin resistance in obesity: a role of ATP.

Jianping Ye

Front Med 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes through the induction of insulin resistance. The mechanism of insulin resistance has been extensively investigated for more than 60 years, but the essential pathogenic signal remains missing. Existing hypotheses include inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, glucotoxicity, and lipotoxicity. Read More

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Insulin action, type 2 diabetes, and branched-chain amino acids: a two-way street.

Mol Metab 2021 May 24:101261. Epub 2021 May 24.

Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center; Duke Molecular Physiology Institute; Department of Pharmacology & Cancer Biology; Department of Medicine, Divisions of Endocrinology & Metabolism. Electronic address:

Background: A strong association of obesity and insulin resistance with increased circulating levels of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids and decreased glycine levels has been recognized in human subjects for decades.

Scope Of Review: More recently, human metabolomic and genetic studies have confirmed and expanded upon these observations, accompanied by a surge in preclinical studies that have identified mechanisms involved in perturbation of amino acid homeostasis, how these events are connected to dysregulated glucose and lipid metabolism, and how elevations in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) may participate in development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other cardiometabolic diseases and conditions.

Major Conclusions: In human cohorts, BCAA and related metabolites are now well established as among the strongest biomarkers of obesity, insulin resistance, T2D, and cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Exercise training and de-training effects on serum leptin and TNF-α in high fat induced diabetic rats.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 May 26;13(1):57. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

Background: Adipocytokines, which are secreted by the adipose tissue, contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. To evaluate this assumption, we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), and 4 weeks of de-training on serum leptin and TNF-α levels in diabetic rats.

Method: 36 Wistar rats were divided into normal diet (ND) (control, RET, AET) and high-fat diet (HFD) + STZ (control, RET, AET) groups. Read More

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Adipose-specific C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL) 19 overexpression drives the mice to both insulin resistance and weight gain.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 May;9(1)

Section of Periodontology, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

Introduction: Enlarged adipose tissue is characterized by infiltration of activated immune cells and increased expression of chemokines recruiting these cells including C-C motif ligand 19 (CCL19), although the role of adipose CCL19 is still inconclusive.

Research Design And Methods: Adipocyte-specific knock-in (KI) mice were generated, and the mice were fed either a normal diet or 40% or 60% fat diet (FD) to investigate the effects of CCL19 on the induction of inflammation and lipid metabolism.

Results: KI mice exhibited increased inflammatory signs in adipose tissue and enlarged subcutaneous white and brown adipose tissue than those of wild-type (WT) mice. Read More

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An Insulin-Inspired Supramolecular Hydrogel for Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 9;8(10):2003599. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials Ministry of Education College of Life Sciences State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology Collaborative Innovation Centre of Chemical Science and Engineering and National Institute of Functional Materials Nankai University Tianjin 300071 P. R. China.

Supramolecular peptide hydrogel has shown promising potential in vaccine development largely because of its ability to function both as antigen depot and immune adjuvant. Nap-GFFY, a tetrapeptide hydrogel that has been previously reported to exhibit adjuvant effect, is inadvertently found to contain conserved peptide sequence for insulin, proinsulin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase, 3 major autoantigens for the autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). At present, despite being managed clinically with insulin replacement therapy, T1D remains a major health threat with rapidly increasing incidences, especially in children and young adults, and antigen-specific immune tolerance induction has been proposed as a feasible approach to prevent or delay T1D progression at an early stage. Read More

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Neural differentiation medium for human pluripotent stem cells to model physiological glucose levels in human brain.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 19;173:141-149. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Anatomy & Physiology, University of Melbourne, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Australia; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Cortical neurospheres (NSPs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), have proven to be a successful platform to investigate human brain development and neuro-related diseases. Currently, many of the standard hPSC neural differentiation media, use concentrations of glucose (approximately 17.5-25 mM) and insulin (approximately 3. Read More

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mitigates sexual-reproductive deficits by modulating insulin receptor expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of hyperinsulinemic mice.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Objectives: Hyperinsulinemia increases the risk factor of diabetes and infertility at a manifold. has several medical significances with limited reports. Hence, this study assessed the effect of on sexual-reproductive functions and distribution of insulin receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis of hyperinsulinemic mice. Read More

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Impairment of the angiogenic process may contribute to lower success rate of endodontic treatments in diabetes mellitus.

Int Endod J 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

University of Coimbra, Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology (CIBB), Coimbra, Portugal.

Aim: To investigate the association between root canal treatment outcome, diabetes mellitus, and alterations of the angiogenic process.

Methodology: A retrospective observational study was conducted in healthy (control group, CG) and diabetic (type II diabetes mellitus group, DG) patients after root canal treatment. The follow-up appointments were performed to clinically and radiographically observe symptoms, the healing of periapical lesions, and the quality of root filling. Read More

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Thiamine reduced metabolic syndrome symptoms in rats via down-regulation of hepatic nuclear factor-kβ and induction activity of glyoxalase-I.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Mar;24(3):293-299

Research Laboratory for Embryology and Stem Cells, Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cause of death worldwide. The hepatic nuclear factor- NF-kβ (NF-kβ) is the cardinal player of hepatic homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and lipid metabolism. Thus, we investigated the effect of thiamine on hepatic gene expression of NF-kβ and its levels of activators in MS rats. Read More

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Diabetes-related intestinal region-specific thickening of ganglionic basement membrane and regionally decreased matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in myenteric ganglia.

World J Diabetes 2021 May;12(5):658-672

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged 6726, Hungary.

Background: The importance of the neuronal microenvironment has been recently highlighted in gut region-specific diabetic enteric neuropathy. Regionally distinct thickening of endothelial basement membrane (BM) of intestinal capillaries supplying the myenteric ganglia coincide with neuronal damage in different intestinal segments. Accelerated synthesis of matrix molecules and reduced degradation of matrix components may also contribute to the imbalance of extracellular matrix dynamics resulting in BM thickening. Read More

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The Protective Effects of Sulforaphane on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice Through Browning of White Fat.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:665894. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine of Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate naturally occurring in cruciferous vegetables, is a potent indirect antioxidant and a promising agent for the control of metabolic disorder disease. The glucose intolerance and adipogenesis induced by diet in rats was inhibited by SFN. Strategies aimed at induction of brown adipose tissue (BAT) could be a potentially useful way to against obesity. Read More

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Novel Small Molecule Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist S6 Stimulates Insulin Secretion From Rat Islets.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:664802. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist-based therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus have attracted worldwide attention. However, there are challenges in the development of small molecule GLP-1R agonists owing to the complexity of ligand recognition and signal induction mechanisms. Here, we attained S6 using virtual screening and fluorescent imaging plate reader (FLIPR)-based calcium assays. Read More

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