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Endocytosis induction by high-pulsed magnetic fields to overcome cell membrane barrier and improve chemotherapy efficiency.

Electromagn Biol Med 2021 May 12:1-8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Cell membrane acts as a barrier to the entry of impermeable drugs into cells. Recent studies have suggested that using magnetic fields can enable molecules to overcome the cell membrane barrier. However, the mechanism of membrane permeabilization remains unclear. Read More

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Evolution of kaiA, a key circadian gene of cyanobacteria.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9995. Epub 2021 May 11.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

The circadian system of cyanobacteria is built upon a central oscillator consisting of three genes, kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC. The KaiA protein plays a key role in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles of KaiC, which occur over the 24-h period. We conducted a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the kaiA genes across cyanobacteria. Read More

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Unusually Strong Biexciton Repulsion Detected in Quantum Confined CsPbBr Nanocrystals with Two and Three Pulse Femtosecond Spectroscopy.

ACS Nano 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem-91904, Israel.

Transient absorption measurements were conducted on pristine and monoexciton saturated CsPbBr nanocrystals varying in size within the regime of a strong quantum confinement. Once the difference spectra were translated to absolute transient changes in absorption cross section, a single exciton is shown to completely bleach the band edge absorption peak and induce a new absorption roughly two times weaker ∼100 meV to the blue. Difference spectra obtained during Auger recombination of biexciton demonstrate that the addition of a second exciton, rather than double the effect of a first, bleaches the blue-induced absorption band without producing a net stimulated emission at the band edge. Read More

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Evaluation of CVC1302 for Improved Efficacy of FMD-Inactivated Vaccine in Oxidative Stressed Mice Generated with PCV2 Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Research Center of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

This study aimed to explore the effect of the immunopotentiator CVC1302 on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in animals placed under oxidative stress. We established oxidative stress models using porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-infected PK-15 cells and mice model both and , respectively. The efficacy of CVC1302 on PK-15 cells or in addition to the FMD vaccine was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histopathological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Read More

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In Situ DGT Sensing of Bioavailable Metal Fluxes to Improve Toxicity Predictions for Sediments.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Energy and Environment, State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong China.

An increased risk of adverse biological effects of metals in sediments may be accompanied by high labile metal fluxes as measured by the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. To improve the usefulness of the DGT technique for sediment quality risk assessments, we used the simpler and more cost-effective piston DGTs rather than planar DGT probes to measure bioavailable metal fluxes in naturally contaminated sediments with widely varying composition (properties, metals and concentrations) and assessed their prediction of toxicity to amphipod reproduction in a flow-through microcosm. DGT pistons were deployed in sediments under different conditions, both in the field (in situ) and in the laboratory in sediment cores (lab-equilibrated) and in homogenized sediments (lab-homogenized). Read More

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Impaired T-cell and antibody immunity after COVID-19 infection in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Assessment of T-cell immunity to the COVID-19 coronavirus requires reliable assays and is of great interest, given the uncertain longevity of the antibody response. Some recent reports have used immunodominant spike (S) antigenic peptides and anti-CD28 co-stimulation in varying combinations to assess T-cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2. These assays may cause T-cell hyperstimulation and could overestimate antiviral immunity in chronically immunosuppressed transplant recipients, who are predisposed to infections and vaccination failures. Read More

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Influence of Substitutional Groups on the Ordering and Crystallization of Amphiphilic Silsesquioxanes at the Air-Water Interface.

Langmuir 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Palaj, Gandhinagar, 382355 Gujarat, India.

We report on the surface ordering and crystallization sequences in differently organic-substituted amphiphilic polyhedral silsesquioxane (POSS) variants induced by regulated compression at the air-water interface. Such molecular systems floating at the interface serve as a model system to study dynamic crystallization mediated by weak interactions. In situ grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) measurements, performed at a synchrotron X-ray source using a liquid surface diffractometer and corroborated with Brewster angle microscopy, revealed transformations for the different POSS variants (viz. Read More

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Comparison of ELF-EMFs stimulation with current stimulation on the regulation of LTP of SC-CA1 synapses in young rat hippocampus.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 May 10:1-21. Epub 2021 May 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multidimensional Information Processing, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important functional indicator for studying synaptic plasticity. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are a physical means to regulate LTP. Time-varying magnetic fields induce induced currents. Read More

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A Fluorescence Sensor for Pb Detection Based on Liquid Crystals and Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Heavy metals, such as lead ions, are regarded as the main environmental contaminants and have a negative impact on human bodies, making detection technologies of lead ions critical. However, most existing detection methods suffer from time consumption, complicated sample pretreatment, and expensive equipment, which hinder their broad use in real-time detection. Herein, we show a new fluorescence sensor for detecting lead ions derived from liquid crystals doped with an aggregation-induced emission luminogen. Read More

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Towards Dosimetry for Prostate Radiotherapy with a Transperineal Ultrasound Array: A Simulation Study.

IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci 2021 May 10;5(3):373-382. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019, USA.

X-ray-induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT) is a promising imaging modality to monitor the position of the radiation beam and the deposited dose during external beam radiotherapy delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using a transperineal ultrasound transducer array for XACT imaging to guide the prostate radiotherapy. A customized two-dimensional (2D) matrix ultrasound transducer array with 10000 (100×100 elements) ultrasonic sensors with a central frequency of 1 MHz was designed on a 5 cm×5 cm plane to optimize three-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging. Read More

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Systems Biology Model of Cerebral Oxygen Delivery and Metabolism During Therapeutic Hypothermia: Application to the Piglet Model.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:31-38

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.

Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a significant cause of death and disability. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available standard of treatment, but 45-55% of cases still result in death or neurodevelopmental disability following TH. This work has focussed on developing a new brain tissue physiology and biochemistry systems biology model that includes temperature effects, as well as a Bayesian framework for analysis of model parameter estimation. Read More

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Cadmium induced cerebral toxicity via modulating MTF1-MTs regulatory axis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 7;285:117083. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China. Electronic address:

Metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF1) participates in redox homeostasis and heavy metals detoxification via regulating the expression of metal responsive genes. However, the exact role of MTF1 in Cd-induced cerebral toxicity remains unclear. Herein, we explored the mechanism of Cd-elicited cerebral toxicity through modulating MTF1/MTs pathway in chicken cerebrum exposed to different concentrations of Cd (35 mg, 70 mg, and 140 mg/kg CdCl) via diet. Read More

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Phototunable Cloud Point Temperatures Stemming from Cyclic Topology: Synthesis and Thermal Phase Transition Behavior of Cyclic Poly(N-acryloylsarcosine methyl ester).

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 May 8:e2100136. Epub 2021 May 8.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Cyclic polymers possess distinct properties compared with their linear counterparts, such as smaller hydrodynamic volume, lower viscosity, and higher glass-transition temperature, etc. To explore the impact of the cyclic topology on the thermo-induced phase transition behavior of poly(N-acryloylsarcosine methyl ester) (PNASME), the anthracene-terminated telechelic PNASMEs are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of monomer NASME using a bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA) with two anthryl groups. Subsequently, cyclic PNASMEs are prepared via UV-induced cyclization under 365 nm UV. Read More

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Droplet-based lab-on-chip platform integrated with laser ablated graphene heaters to synthesize gold nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing and fuel cell applications.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9750. Epub 2021 May 7.

MEMS, Microfluidics and Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, 500078, India.

Controlled, stable and uniform temperature environment with quick response are crucial needs for many lab-on-chip (LOC) applications requiring thermal management. Laser Induced Graphene (LIG) heater is one such mechanism capable of maintaining a wide range of steady state temperature. LIG heaters are thin, flexible, and inexpensive and can be fabricated easily in different geometric configurations. Read More

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Optical Limiting Applications of Resonating Plasmonic Au Nanoparticles in a Dielectric Glass Medium.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, ZA -9300 Bloemfontein, Bloemfontein, SOUTH AFRICA.

Plasmonic nanostructures exhibiting high optical nonlinearities are widely used in the rapidly growing modern nanotechnology of nonlinear optics including biomedical applications due to their tunable plasmonic behavior. In this work, we investigate the nonlinear optical properties of uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in pre-synthesized sodium-zinc borate glass by the well-known ion-exchange technique for optical limiting (OL) applications. Various techniques such as optical absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Photoluminescence, Time of Flight secondary mass spectroscopy and the Z scan technique were used for the characterization of these NPs. Read More

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UVC-induced degradation of cilastatin in natural water and treated wastewater.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130668. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Aquatic Chemistry, School of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR-73100, Chania, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

This work reports for the first time the UVC photodegradation of cilastatin, a renal dehydropeptidase inhibitor co-adminstered with the imipenem antibiotic. Initially, solutions of cilastatin at varying concentrations were prepared in ultra-pure water and the direct photolysis of cilastatin was monitored under 254-nm irradiation. Degradation was slower at higher initial cilastatin concentrations, due to absorption saturation. Read More

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Potential Protective Effect of Riboflavin Against Pathological Changes in the Main Organs of Male Mice Induced by Fluoride Exposure.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, 030801, People's Republic of China.

Long-term exposure to excessive fluorine could cause damage to various tissues and organs in human and animals. However, there is no effective antidote to prevent and cure fluorosis except for avoiding fluoride intake. As an essential nutrient, riboflavin (VB) has been identified to relieve oxidative stress and inflammation in animal tissues caused by other toxic substances, whether it can alleviate the damage caused by fluoride is unknown. Read More

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3D Multiscale Micro-/Nanofolds by Femtosecond Laser Intermittent Ablation and Constrained Heating on a Shape Memory Polymer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Key Laboratory of Precision Scientific Instrumentation of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China.

Spontaneous wrinkling of films with a thickness gradient offers a new opportunity for constructing various 3D hierarchical surface morphologies. Unfortunately, accurately and facilely controlling the gradient film thickness to yield multiscale and 3D hierarchical micro-/nanostructures is still difficult. Here, a rapid, facile, and highly controllable fabricating strategy for realizing 3D multiscale hierarchical micro-/nanofolds on a shape memory polymer (SMP) surface is reported. Read More

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Differential In vitro Pharmacological Profiles of Structurally Diverse Nociceptin Receptor Agonists in Activating G-protein and Beta-arrestin Signaling at the Human Nociceptin Opioid Receptor.

Mol Pharmacol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Astraea Therapeutics LLC, United States

Agonists at the nociceptin opioid peptide receptor (NOP) are under investigation as therapeutics for non-addicting analgesia, opioid use disorder, Parkinson's disease, and other indications. NOP full and partial agonists have both been of interest, particularly since NOP partial agonists show a reduced propensity for behavioral disruption than NOP full agonists. Here, we investigated the in vitro pharmacological properties of chemically diverse NOP receptor agonists in assays measuring functional activation of the NOP receptor such as GTPgS binding, cAMP inhibition, GIRK activation, phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalization. Read More

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Serial dependence in time and numerosity perception is dimension-specific.

J Vis 2021 May;21(5)

International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

The perception of a visual event (e.g., a flock of birds) at the present moment can be biased by a previous perceptual experience (e. Read More

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Drug-eluting bead chemoembolization for the treatment of nonresectable hepatic carcinoma in dogs: A prospective clinical trial.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Effective treatment options for nonresectable hepatic carcinoma (HC) in dogs are limited.

Hypothesis/objective: Objectives were to report outcomes, complications, and tumor responses via computed tomography (CT) assessment after drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for nonresectable HC in dogs. The authors hypothesized that major complications would be uncommon and short-term CT assessment would demonstrate stable disease or partial response. Read More

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Hydroxychloroquine Increased Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Disrupted the Expression of Some Related Genes in the Mouse Brain.

Front Pharmacol 2021 19;12:633112. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which has been proposed as a therapeutic or prophylactic drug for COVID-19, has been administered to thousands of individuals with varying efficacy; however, our understanding of its adverse effects is insufficient. It was reported that HCQ induced psychiatric symptoms in a few patients with autoimmune diseases, but it is still uncertain whether HCQ poses a risk to mental health. Therefore, in this study, we treated healthy mice with two different doses of HCQ that are comparable to clinically administered doses for 7 days. Read More

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Integrated sample-handling and mounting system for fixed-target serial synchrotron crystallography.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2021 May 19;77(Pt 5):628-644. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

MiTeGen LLC, PO Box 3867, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA.

Serial synchrotron crystallography (SSX) is enabling the efficient use of small crystals for structure-function studies of biomolecules and for drug discovery. An integrated SSX system has been developed comprising ultralow background-scatter sample holders suitable for room and cryogenic temperature crystallographic data collection, a sample-loading station and a humid `gloveless' glovebox. The sample holders incorporate thin-film supports with a variety of designs optimized for different crystal-loading challenges. Read More

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Pain Assessment Tool With Electrodermal Activity for Postoperative Patients: Method Validation Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 5;9(5):e25258. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Background: Accurate, objective pain assessment is required in the health care domain and clinical settings for appropriate pain management. Automated, objective pain detection from physiological data in patients provides valuable information to hospital staff and caregivers to better manage pain, particularly for patients who are unable to self-report. Galvanic skin response (GSR) is one of the physiologic signals that refers to the changes in sweat gland activity, which can identify features of emotional states and anxiety induced by varying pain levels. Read More

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Comparatıve assessment of thermal ınjury ınduced by bıpolar electrocautery systems ın a porcıne model.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 8;12:146. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Background: Bipolar electrocautery systems used during neurosurgical procedures have been shown to induce thermal injury to surrounding tissue. The goal of this study was to compare the thermal injury induced by two different systems commonly used in neurosurgical procedures (Silverglide by Stryker Corporation and SpetzlerMalis by Codman Neuro), with that of a newly introduced device (TRIOwand by NICO Corporation).

Methods: A farm swine underwent craniectomy and durotomy with subsequent exposure of cortical brain tissue. Read More

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Sugar-Pucker Force-Induced Transition in Single-Stranded DNA.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Small Biosystems Lab, Condensed Matter Physics Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer de Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The accurate knowledge of the elastic properties of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is key to characterize the thermodynamics of molecular reactions that are studied by force spectroscopy methods where DNA is mechanically unfolded. Examples range from DNA hybridization, DNA ligand binding, DNA unwinding by helicases, etc. To date, ssDNA elasticity has been studied with different methods in molecules of varying sequence and contour length. Read More

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Wounding-Induced VOC Emissions in Five Tropical Agricultural Species.

Molecules 2021 Apr 29;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Chair of Crop Science and Plant Biology, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 1, 51006 Tartu, Estonia.

Leaf mechanical wounding triggers a rapid release-within minutes-of a blend of volatile organic compounds. A wounding-induced VOC blend is mainly composed of oxygenated ubiquitous stress volatiles such as methanol and volatile products of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway (mainly C5 and C6 alcohols and aldehydes and their derivatives), but also includes multiple minor VOCs that collectively act as infochemicals, inducing defences in non-damaged plant leaves and neighbouring plants and attracting herbivore enemies. At present, the interspecific variability of the rate of induction and magnitude of wounding-induced emissions and the extent to which plant structural traits and physiological activity alter these emissions are poorly known. Read More

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Simultaneous Recording of Motor Evoked Potentials in Hand, Wrist and Arm Muscles to Assess Corticospinal Divergence.

Brain Topogr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to further develop methods to assess corticospinal divergence and muscle coupling using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy right-handed adults participated (7 females, age 34.0 ± 12. Read More

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Organic and inorganic elicitors enhance in vitro regeneration of Rosa canina.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 3;19(1):60. Epub 2021 May 3.

Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91779948974, Iran.

Background: Rosa canina is one of the most popular rose species which is widely used as the rootstock for the propagation of rose cultivars. The purpose of the present study is to improve the in vitro propagation efficiency of this valuable plant species using various growth stimulants in a proliferation medium. In this study, in vitro-derived axillary buds of R. Read More

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Platelet Function in CKD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute for Molecular Cardiovascular Research, University Hospital Aachen, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Background: Patients with CKD are at high risk for thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Abnormalities in platelet function are central to these complications, but reports on platelet function in relation to CKD are conflicting, and vary from decreased platelet reactivity to normal or increased platelet responsiveness. The direct effects of uremic toxins on platelet function have been described, with variable findings. Read More

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