39,386 results match your criteria induce toxicity

Developmental neurotoxicity of antimony (Sb) in the early life stages of zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 8;218:112308. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China. Electronic address:

Accumulating studies have revealed the toxicity of antimony (Sb) to soil-dwelling and aquatic organisms at the individual level. However, little is known about the neurotoxic effects of antimony and its underlying mechanisms. To assess this issue, we investigated the neurotoxicity of antimony (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/L) in zebrafish embryos. Read More

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Effect of soil sulfamethoxazole on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa): Growth, health risks and silicon mitigation.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 7;286:117321. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Fruit & Vegetable Quality and Efficient Production in Shandong Taian, 271018, China; Key Laboratory of Biology of Horticultural Crops in Huanghuai Region, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Taian, 271018, China; State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Taian, 271018, China. Electronic address:

The negative impact of antibiotic pollution on the agricultural system and human health is a hot issue in the world. However, little information is available on the antibiotics toxicity mechanism and the role of silicon (Si) to alleviate the antibiotics toxicity. In this study, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) showed excitatory response to low-dose SMZ (1 mg L), but strawberry root and photosynthetic efficiency were damaged under high level. Read More

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Triazole-Based Half-Sandwich Ruthenium(II) Compounds: From Antiproliferative Potential to Toxicity Evaluation.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, ITQB NOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal.

A new series of half-sandwich ruthenium(II) compounds [(η-arene)Ru(L)Cl][CFSO] bearing 1,2,3-triazole ligands (arene = -cymene, L = (); arene = -cymene, L = (); arene = benzene, L = (); arene = benzene, (); = 2-[1-(-tolyl)-1-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine and = 1,1'-di--tolyl-1,1'-4,4'-bi(1,2,3-triazole) have been synthesized and fully characterized by H and C NMR and IR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of , , and have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxic activity of - was evaluated using the MTS assay against human tumor cells, namely ovarian carcinoma (A2780), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), and colorectal carcinoma resistant to doxorubicin (HCT116dox), and against normal primary fibroblasts. Read More

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Bisphenol A decreases expression of insulin-like factor 3 and induces histopathological changes in testes of rat.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 May 11:7482337211014097. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical agent known to have detrimental reproductive and developmental effects. The tissue-specific impacts of BPA exposures and target tissues sensitiveness to BPA are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the short- and long-term dose-dependent toxic effects of BPA on rat testes. Read More

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Cereblon regulates the proteotoxicity of tau by tuning the chaperone activity of DNAJA1.

J Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology

Protein aggregation can induce explicit neurotoxic events that trigger a number of presently untreatable neurodegenerative disorders. Chaperones, on the other hand, play a neuroprotective role due to their ability to unfold and refold abnormal proteins. Progressive nature of neurotoxic events makes it important to discover endogenous factors that affect pathological and molecular phenotypes of neurodegeneration in animal models. Read More

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Novel Japanese encephalitis virus NS1-based vaccine: Truncated NS1 fused with E. coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 7;67:103353. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Pathogenic Microorganism and College of Bioscience and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Current vaccines against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) of flaviviruses have some disadvantages, such as the risk of virulent reversion. Non-structural protein NS1 is conserved among flaviviruses and confers immune protection without the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Therefore, NS1 has become a promising vaccine candidate against flaviviruses. Read More

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Effect of Mouse Ovarian Vitrification on Promoter Methylation of Inhba and Inhbb in Granulosa Cells of Follicles.

Cryo Letters 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):67-72

School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan; Institute of Biological Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran.

Background: Cryopreservation can induce cellular, genomic, and epigenetic abnormalities.

Objective: To analyse the impact of ovarian vitrification on follicular development and its epigenetic effect on promoter methylation of Inhba and Inhbb in granulosa cells.

Materials And Methods: Mouse ovaries were divided into control, toxicity, and vitrified groups. Read More

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Effects of Bacillus subtilis iturin A on HepG2 cells in vitro and vivo.

AMB Express 2021 May 10;11(1):67. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, 127 Youyi West Road, Xi'an, 710072, Shaanxi, China.

Iturin A with cyclic peptide and fatty acid chain isolated from Bacillus subtilis fermentation shows a variety of biological activities. Among them, the anticancer activity attracted much attention. However, the molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on hepatocellular carcinoma was still unclear. Read More

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Restraining CDK1-cyclin B activation: PP2A on the cUSP(7).

EMBO J 2021 May 10:e108486. Epub 2021 May 10.

Cancer Early Detection Advanced Research Center, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

USP7 inhibitors are gaining momentum as a therapeutic strategy to stabilize p53 through their ability to induce MDM2 degradation. However, these inhibitors come with an unexpected p53-independent toxicity, via an unknown mechanism. In this issue of The EMBO Journal, Galarreta et al report how inhibition of USP7 leads to re-distribution of PP2A from cytoplasm to nucleus and an increase of deleterious CDK1-dependent phosphorylation throughout the cell cycle, revealing a new regulatory mechanism for the progression of S-phase cells toward mitosis to maintain genomic integrity. Read More

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Iron Toxicity and Chelation Therapy in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 11;27(5):371-379. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Iron Research Program, Lindsley Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, New York; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Many patients with hematologic malignancies receive RBC transfusion support, which often causes systemic and tissue iron toxicity. Because of their compromised bone marrow function, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are especially vulnerable to excess iron levels. Iron toxicity may compromise transplant engraftment and eventually promote relapse by mediating oxidative and genotoxic stress in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and further impairing the already dysfunctional bone marrow microenvironment in HSCT recipients. Read More

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Metal-Containing Nanoparticles in Low-Rank Coal-Derived Fly Ash from China: Characterization and Implications toward Human Lung Toxicity.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

Characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) in coal fly ashes (CFAs) is critical for better understanding the potential health-related risks resulting from coal combustion. Based on single-particle (SP)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled with transmission electron microscopy techniques, this study is the first to determine the concentrations and sizes of metal-containing NPs in low-rank coal-derived fly ashes. Despite only comprising a minor component of the studied CFAs by mass, NPs were the dominant fraction by particle number. Read More

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Cell therapy in transplantation: A comprehensive review of the current applications of cell therapy in transplant patients with the focus on Tregs, CAR Tregs, and Mesenchymal stem cells.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 6;97:107669. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 009821 Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Organ transplantation is a practical treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advances in short-term graft survival, long-term graft survival remains the main challenge considering the increased mortality and morbidity associated with chronic rejection and the toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs. Since a novel therapeutic strategy to induce allograft tolerance seems urgent, focusing on developing novel and safe approaches to prolong graft survival is one of the main goals of transplant investigators. Read More

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Efficacy of vitamin E in protection against methotrexate induced placental injury in albino rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 6;139:111637. Epub 2021 May 6.

Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt. Electronic address:

Methotrexate (MXT) is a chemotherapeutic drug that has been used in a wide range of clinical practices. Unfortunately, the administration of MXT during pregnancy may induce abortion, fetal deformities, and intrauterine growth retardation. Vitamin E is an antioxidant agent that can ameliorate free radical damage. Read More

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Graphene-based materials: a new tool to fight against breast cancer.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 5:120644. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of South China, No. 28 Changshengxi Road, Hunan 421001, China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors among women population on a global scale, with a huge number of new cases and deaths each year. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of literatures on the discovery and development of novel anti-breast cancer drugs and materials, aiming to increase the survival rate of breast cancer patients. One of the newest tools used for the therapy of breast cancer is graphene-based materials, which have ultra-high surface area as well as unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Read More

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IL-15 mediated expansion of rare durable memory T cells following adoptive cellular therapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA, USA

Background: Synovial sarcoma (SS) and myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) are ideal solid tumors for the development of adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) targeting NY-ESO-1, as a high frequency of tumors homogeneously express this cancer-testes antigen. Data from early phase clinical trials have shown antitumor activity after the adoptive transfer of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells. In these studies, persistence of NY-ESO-1 specific T cells is highly correlated with response to ACT, but patients often continue to have detectable transferred cells in their peripheral blood following progression. Read More

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Acute Toxicity and DNA Instability Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Triclosan and Phthalate DEHP, and Their Combinations, .

Front Genet 2021 20;12:649845. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biosciences, Institute of Health and Society, Federal University of São Paulo, Santos, Brazil.

Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent widely used in personal care products (PCP) and the di-(2-ethyl hydroxy-phthalate) (DEHP) is a chemical compound derived from phthalic acid, used in medical devices and plastic products with polyvinyl chloride (PVCs). As result of their extensive use, TCS and DEHP have been found in the environment and previous studies demonstrated the association between their exposure and toxic effects, mostly in aquatic organisms, but there is a shortage in the literature concerning the exposure of TCS and DEHP in human cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of exposure to TCS and DEHP, as well as their combinations, on biomarkers related to acute toxicity and DNA instability, in HepG2 cells, by use of cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay. Read More

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Exposure estimates of phthalates and DINCH from foods and personal care products in comparison with biomonitoring data in 24-hour urine from the Norwegian EuroMix biomonitoring study.

Environ Int 2021 May 3;155:106598. Epub 2021 May 3.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Phthalates are diesters of phthalic acid and have been widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Phthalates are also used as excipients in pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs). Phthalates can migrate from the plastic into the air, water and food, and humans can be exposed via multiple pathways such as dermal, oral and inhalation. Read More

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Glabridin ameliorates methotrexate-induced liver injury via attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis.

Life Sci 2021 May 4;278:119583. Epub 2021 May 4.

PK-PD, Toxicology and Formulation Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir 180001, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201002, India. Electronic address:

Despite unprecedented advances in modern medicine, no safe and effective drug is available to date for oral administration to combat drug-induced liver injury, which is a vital concern nowadays. The present study deals with the hepatoprotective effect of pure glabridin, a key phytoconstituent from Glycyrrhiza glabra with mechanistic investigations using an in-vivo methotrexate-induced liver injury model as there is no such precedent. The study was performed in the Swiss mice model where a single dose of methotrexate (40 mg/kg) was given on the 7 day through an intraperitoneal route to induce hepatotoxicity, and glabridin as a test compound was administered orally for eleven consecutive days at 10 to 40 mg/kg. Read More

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Pulmonary toxicity of actual alveolar deposition concentrations of ultrafine particulate matters in human normal bronchial epithelial cell.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Yunlin, 63208, Taiwan.

Air pollution is a major worldwide concern, and exposure to particulate matter (PM) can increase the risks of pulmonary diseases. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells were applied to clarify the role of ultrafine PM (UFPM) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary toxic effects with realistic alveolar deposition doses. The UFPM used in this research originated from vehicular emissions and coal combustion. Read More

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Caffeic acid protects mice pancreatic islets from oxidative stress induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(1):77-85. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Student Research Committee, Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Increasing applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) indicate the necessity to examine their toxicity. According to previous studies, CNTs caused oxidative stress that impaired β-cell functions and reduced insulin secretion. Our previous study indicated that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) could induce oxidative stress in pancreatic islets. Read More

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Dose- and time-dependent systemic adverse reactions of sodium carboxy methyl cellulose after intraperitoneal application in rats.

J Toxicol Sci 2021 ;46(5):223-234

Shandong Key Laboratory of Biological Evaluation for Medical Devices, NMPA Key Laboratory for Safety Evaluation of Biomaterials and Medical Devices, NMPA Key Laboratory for Quality Control of Pharmaceutical Packaging, Shandong Quality Inspection Center for Medical Devices, China.

Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (SCMC) is an important absorbable biomaterial for anti-adhesion and hemostasis medical devices used in the abdominal cavity. However, the systemic toxicity of SCMC following intraperitoneal route has not been revealed sufficiently. Three SCMC solutions with gradient concentrations were intraperitoneally injected into 3 groups of rats with the doses of 50 mg/kg, 320 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg respectively all at once to observe the dose-dependence of systemic reactions of SCMC and 10 rats (5 rats per sex) of each group were sacrificed 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days after injection to evaluate the time-dependence of the reactions. Read More

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January 2021

Habitual khat chewing alters urinary inorganic profile in adult healthy males.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Poison Control & Medical Forensic Chemistry Center, Jazan Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Khat () is a stimulant plant, and it is abusive to induce euphoria, alertness and activity. Concomitant use of medications and khat chewing predisposes to the appearance of drug interactions result in treatment failure or toxicity. This study determined the changes in the urinary inorganic profile in adult healthy males who are chewing khat compared with non-khat chewer males. Read More

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High anticancer activity and apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of novel lanthanide(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline--oxide and 1,10-phenanthroline.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(17):5828-5834

State Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004, PR China.

In the quest for rare earth metal complexes with enhanced cancer chemotherapeutic properties, the discovery of seven lanthanide(iii) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (NQ) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands, i.e., [SmIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln1), [EuII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln2), [GdIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln3), [DyIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln4), [HoIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln5), [ErIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln6), and [YbIII(NQ)(phen)(H2O)Cl2] (Ln7), as potential anticancer drugs is described. Read More

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Self-synergistic effect of Prussian blue nanoparticles for cancer therapy: driving photothermal therapy and reducing hyperthermia-induced side effects.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 4;19(1):126. Epub 2021 May 4.

Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 200233, People's Republic of China.

Background: Photothermal therapy (PTT), involving application of localized hyperthermia to kill cancer cells, has attracted wide attention in cancer therapy. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during PTT may cause irreversible damage to healthy tissues around the tumor. Simultaneously, hyperthermia can stimulate inflammatory response, thus promoting tumor recurrence and metastasis. Read More

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A comparison of the pharmacokinetics and NMDAR antagonism-associated neurotoxicity of ketamine, (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and MK-801.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May 1:106993. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Preclinical Innovation, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

With the increasing use of ketamine as an off-label treatment for depression and the recent FDA approval of (S)-ketamine for treatment-resistant depression, there is an increased need to understand the long-term safety profile of chronic ketamine administration. Of particular concern is the neurotoxicity previously observed in rat models following acute exposure to high doses of ketamine, broadly referred to as 'Olney's lesions'. This type of toxicity presents as abnormal neuronal cellular vacuolization, followed by neuronal death and has been associated with ketamine's inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Read More

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Sub-chronic exposure to PhIP induces oxidative damage and DNA damage, and disrupts the amino acid metabolism in the colons of Wistar rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 1;153:112249. Epub 2021 May 1.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Science and Health, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of mutagenic compounds produced during thermal processing of protein-rich foods. One of the most abundant HCAs, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) has potential carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on human organs, especially the colon. This study aimed to explore the toxic effects of PhIP on amino acid metabolism in the colon of Wistar rats using RNA-seq and LC-MS/MS. Read More

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Molecular characterization of Gyps africanus (African white-backed vulture) organic anion transporter 1 and 2 expressed in the kidney.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0250408. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Gyps species have been previously shown to be highly sensitive to the toxic effects of diclofenac, when present in their food sources as drug residues following use as a veterinary medicine. Vultures exposed to diclofenac soon become depressed and die with signs of severe visceral gout and renal damage on necropsy. The molecular mechanism behind toxicity and renal excretion of uric acid is still poorly understood. Read More

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Exploring Potential Carcinogenic Activity of Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances Utilizing High-Throughput Toxicity Screening Data.

Int J Toxicol 2021 May 4:10915818211010490. Epub 2021 May 4.

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 7020California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent, and toxic chemicals that pose public health risks. Recent carcinogenicity concerns have arisen based on epidemiological studies, animal tumor findings, and mechanistic data. Thousands of PFAS exist; however, current understanding of their toxicity is informed by studies of a select few, namely, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Read More

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Host Chromatin Regulators Required for Cytolethal Distending Toxin Activity in Model.

Infect Immun 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology and Research Unit on Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a bacterial genotoxin that causes host cell cycle arrest and death. We previously employed a model with inducible expression of the CDT catalytic subunit from (), CdtB, and showed that a wide variety of host factors play a role in facilitating the activity of CdtB. Our observation that a yeast H2B mutant defective in chromatin condensation was partially resistant to CdtB implies that chromatin structure may affect CDT function. Read More

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IDH Inhibitors in AML-Promise and Pitfalls.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), occurring in up to 30% of AML cases. Mutations in IDH leads to abnormal epigenetic regulation in AML cells and blocks differentiation. Inhibitors of mutated IDH1 and IDH2, ivosidenib and enasidenib, respectively, were recently approved by the FDA for relapsed/refractory AML; ivosidenib is also approved for newly diagnosed AML patients not fit for standard chemotherapy. Read More

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