14,447 results match your criteria induce glucose


Cinacalcet as a surrogate therapy for diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats through AMPK-mediated promotion of mitochondrial and autophagic function.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10:115533. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine for Girls, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Decreased activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Recent evidence suggests a crosstalk between cinacalcet and AMPK activation. This study investigated the effects of cinacalcet on cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats (T2DM). Read More

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Astragaloside IV alleviates liver injury in type 2 diabetes due to promotion of AMPK/mTOR‑mediated autophagy.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jun 13;23(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory of Anti‑Inflammatory and Immunopharmacology, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medicine College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, P.R. China.

Diabetic liver injury is a serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is often irreversible in the later stage, and affects the quality of life. Autophagy serves an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic liver injury. For example, it can improve insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

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Poaceae-specific cell wall-derived oligosaccharides activate plant immunity via OsCERK1 during Magnaporthe oryzae infection in rice.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2178. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Many phytopathogens secrete cell wall degradation enzymes (CWDEs) to damage host cells and facilitate colonization. As the major components of the plant cell wall, cellulose and hemicellulose are the targets of CWDEs. Damaged plant cells often release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to trigger plant immune responses. Read More

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Investigation of the idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. through metabolomics using GC-MS.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 12;21(1):120. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, 410208, China.

Background: The idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has attracted considerable interest, but the idiosyncratically hepatotoxic components and endogenous metabolite changes resulting from idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of PM are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify the idiosyncratically hepatotoxic components and potential endogenous metabolic biomarkers for PM-induced liver injury.

Methods: Serum biochemical indicators and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were evaluated to identify pathological changes. Read More

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[The impact on metabolic and reproductive diseases of low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1630-1639

Unidad de Endocrinología, Fundación Neuropsiquiátrica de Santiago, Santiago, Chile.

With low carbohydrate diets glucose becomes unavailable as a source of energy for our body, leading to the production of ketones from fatty acids in the liver. The increase in plasma ketones is known as nutritional ketosis. The available evidence from basic and clinical studies indicates that both low carbohydrate and high fat low carbohydrate diets are effective for weight loss and are better than non-intervention. Read More

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November 2020

L-Citrulline ameliorates the attenuation of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles in diabetic rats.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 21;7(3):e06532. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8641, Japan.

In our previous study, we found that the vasodilation of retinal arterioles induced by acetylcholine and BMS-191011, a large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channel opener, were diminished in diabetic rats. Currently, few agents ameliorate the impaired vasodilator responses of retinal blood vessels. Our recent finding that the intravenous infusion of L-citrulline dilated retinal arterioles, suggests that L-citrulline could be a potential therapeutic agent for circulatory disorders of the retina. Read More

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Tolerance to Proinsulin-1 Reduces Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:645817. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

St. Vincent's Institute, Fitzroy, VIC, Australia.

T-cell responses to insulin and its precursor proinsulin are central to islet autoimmunity in humans and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes. Mice have two proinsulin genes proinsulin -1 and 2 that are differentially expressed, with predominant proinsulin-2 expression in the thymus and proinsulin-1 in islet beta-cells. In contrast to proinsulin-2, proinsulin-1 knockout NOD mice are protected from autoimmune diabetes. Read More

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Insulin Resistance and Pellino-1 Mediated Decrease in the Activities of Vasodilator Signaling Contributes to Sunitinib-Induced Hypertension.

Front Pharmacol 2021 25;12:617165. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Departments of Cardiology and Clinical Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Institute of Metabolic Disease, Heilongjiang Academy of Medical Science, Heilongjiang key laboratory for Metabolic disorder and cancer related cardiovascular diseases, and Key Laboratories of Education Ministry for Myocardial Ischemia Mechanism and Treatment, Harbin, China.

Antiangiogenic tyrosine kinases inhibitors induce hypertension, which may increase the incidents of cardiovascular complications and limit their use. However, the mechanisms by which usage of TKIs results in hypertension have not been fully understood. Here, we report the potential mechanisms of how sunitinib, a widely used TKI, induces hypertension. Read More

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PSMA conjugated combinatorial liposomal formulation encapsulating genistein and plumbagin to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 26;203:111723. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Urology, Second Division of The First Hospital of Jilin University, 3302 Jilin Rd, Changchun, 130031, Jilin, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Although the biomedical sciences have achieved tremendous success in developing novel approaches to managing prostate cancer, this disease remains one of the major health concerns among men worldwide. Liposomal formulations of single drugs have shown promising results in cancer treatment; however, the use of multi drugs has shown a better therapeutic index than individual drugs. The identification of cancer-specific receptors has added value to design targeted drug delivering nanocarriers. Read More

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The interplay between Glucocerebrosidase, α-synuclein and lipids in human models of Parkinson's disease.

Biophys Chem 2020 Dec 25:106534. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Mutations in the gene GBA, encoding glucocerebrosidase (GCase), are the highest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). GCase is a lysosomal glycoprotein responsible for the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide into glucose and ceramide. Mutations in GBA cause a decrease in GCase activity, stability and protein levels which in turn lead to the accumulation of GCase lipid substrates as well as α-synuclein (αS) in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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December 2020

Physiology of pancreatic β-cells: Ion channels and molecular mechanisms implicated in stimulus-secretion coupling.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2021 8;359:287-323. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departamento de Fisiología, Genética y Microbiología, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante, Spain; Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universidad Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain. Electronic address:

The human and mouse islet of Langerhans is an endocrine organ composed of five different cells types; insulin-secreting β-cells, glucagon-producing α-cells, somatostatin-producing δ-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ɛ-cells that secretes ghrelin. The most important cells are the pancreatic β-cells that comprise around 45-50% of human islets and 75-80% in the mouse. Pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin at high glucose concentration, thereby finely regulating glycaemia by the hypoglycaemic effects of this hormone. Read More

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Diabetes and Frailty: An Expert Consensus Statement on the Management of Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The Foundation for Diabetes Research in Older People (fDROP) and King's College, London, UK.

Prognosis and appropriate treatment goals for older adults with diabetes vary greatly according to frailty. It is now recognised that changes may be needed to diabetes management in some older people. Whilst there is clear guidance on the evaluation of frailty and subsequent target setting for people living with frailty, there remains a lack of formal guidance for healthcare professionals in how to achieve these targets. Read More

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Fibroblast growth factor induced Ucp1 expression in preadipocytes requires PGE2 biosynthesis and glycolytic flux.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21572

Department of Molecular Nutritional Medicine, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

High uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression is a characteristic of differentiated brown adipocytes and is linked to adipogenic differentiation. Paracrine fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) strongly induces Ucp1 transcription in white adipocytes independent of adipogenesis. Here, we report that FGF8b and other paracrine FGFs act on brown and white preadipocytes to upregulate Ucp1 expression via a FGFR1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 axis, independent of adipogenesis. Read More

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Careful use to minimize adverse events of oral antidiabetic medications in the elderly.

Authors:
André J Scheen

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2021 Apr 13:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (CIRM), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Introduction: An increasing number of older patients has type 2 diabetes treated with different oral antidiabetic agents whose safety may raise concern considering some particularities of a heterogeneous elderly population.

Areas Covered: This article discusses some characteristics of older patients that could increase the risk of adverse events, with a focus on hypoglycemia. It describes the most frequent and/or severe complications reported in the elderly in both randomized controlled trials and observational studies with metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins) and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (gliflozins). Read More

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Formation of filamentous fungal pellets in aerobic granular sludge via reducing temperature and dissolved oxygen: Characteristics of filamentous fungi and denitrification performance.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 26;332:125056. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China. Electronic address:

A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using glucose as carbon source was operated for 500 days to investigate the formation of filamentous organisms and their function on stability of AGS system. After 250 days' stable operation under conditions of 25 ± 2 °C and dissolved oxygen (DO) of 4-5 mg/L (stage I), the temperature and DO were reduced to 10 ± 2 °C and DO of 1-2 mg/L until 280 days (stage II), to induce the growth of filamentous microorganisms. After that until 500 days (stage III), overgrowth of filamentous microorganisms with relative abundances of up to 19. Read More

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Akkermansia muciniphila secretes a glucagon-like peptide-1-inducing protein that improves glucose homeostasis and ameliorates metabolic disease in mice.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

The gut microbiota, which includes Akkermansia muciniphila, is known to modulate energy metabolism, glucose tolerance, immune system maturation and function in humans. Although A. muciniphila is correlated with metabolic diseases and its beneficial causal effects were reported on host metabolism, the molecular mechanisms involved have not been identified. Read More

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Adjunctive vitamin A and D for glycemic control in patients with concurrent type 2 diabetes and tuberculosis: a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 Apr 6:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China.

The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin A, D and their interaction on the glycemic control in patients with both diabetes and tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection and its treatment induce hyperglycemia and complicate the glycemic control in patients with diabetes. A randomized controlled trial with a 2×2 factorial design was conducted in a tuberculosis-specialized hospital in Qingdao, China. Read More

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The effects of yam gruel on lowering fasted blood glucose in T2DM rats.

Open Life Sci 2020 14;15(1):763-773. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

School of Nursing, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, 350122, Fujian, China.

There is increasing evidence of the linkage between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gut microbiota. Based on our previous studies, we investigated the hypoglycemic mechanisms of yam gruel to provide a scientific basis for its popularization and application. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and T2DM model groups. Read More

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October 2020

Effect of hepatic sympathetic nerve removal on energy metabolism in an animal model of cognitive impairment and its relationship to expression.

Open Life Sci 2020 5;15(1):311-317. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Human Anatomy of Basic Medical College, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, 541004, China.

The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of hepatic sympathetic nerve removal on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats with cognitive impairment and to evaluate the relationship between these effects and liver expression. Hippocampal injection of Aβ was used to induce cognitive impairment. Impaired rats were divided into experimental, sham, and control groups. Read More

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Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Enhance the Antiseizure Effects of the Ketogenic Diet in Rats.

Front Neurosci 2021 19;15:637288. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Japan.

The classic ketogenic diet (KD) can be used successfully to treat medically refractory epilepsy. However, the KD reduces seizures in 50-70% of patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and its antiseizure effect is limited. In the current study, we developed a new modified KD containing leucine (Leu)-enriched essential amino acids. Read More

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An inhibitory and beneficial effect of chlorpromazine and promethazine (C + P) on hyperglycolysis through HIF-1α regulation in ischemic stroke.

Brain Res 2021 Apr 1;1763:147463. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Department of Research & Development Center, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201, USA. Electronic address:

Background: After ischemic stroke, the increased catabolism of glucose (hyperglycolysis) results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX). A depressive or hibernation-like effect of C + P on brain activity was reported to induce neuroprotection. The current study assesses the effect of C + P on hyperglycolysis and NOX activation. Read More

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Inherent Beta Cell Dysfunction Contributes to Autoimmune Susceptibility.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 30;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

The pancreatic beta cell is a highly specialized cell type whose primary function is to secrete insulin in response to nutrients to maintain glucose homeostasis in the body. As such, the beta cell has developed unique metabolic characteristics to achieve functionality; in healthy beta cells, the majority of glucose-derived carbons are oxidized and enter the mitochondria in the form of pyruvate. The pyruvate is subsequently metabolized to induce mitochondrial ATP and trigger the downstream insulin secretion response. Read More

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L-Carnitine Stimulates In Vivo Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Type 1 Diabetic Heart as Demonstrated by Hyperpolarized MRI.

Metabolites 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiac Metabolism Research Group, Department of Physiology Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.

The diabetic heart is energetically and metabolically abnormal, with increased fatty acid oxidation and decreased glucose oxidation. One factor contributing to the metabolic dysfunction in diabetes may be abnormal handling of acetyl and acyl groups by the mitochondria. L-carnitine is responsible for their transfer across the mitochondrial membrane, therefore, supplementation with L-carnitine may provide a route to improve the metabolic state of the diabetic heart. Read More

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Toxicity Induced by Cytokines, Glucose, and Lipids Increase Apoptosis and Hamper Insulin Secretion in the 1.1E7 Beta Cell-Line.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Inflammation, Nutrition, Metabolism and Oxidative Stress Study Group (INMOX), Biomedical Research and Innovation Institute of Cádiz (INiBICA), Research Unit, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, 11009 Cádiz, Spain.

Basic research on types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus require early stage studies using beta cells or cell lines, ideally of human origin and with preserved insulin secretion in response to glucose. The 1.1E7 cells are a hybrid cell line resulting from the electrofusion of dispersed human islets and PANC-1 cells, capable of secreting insulin in response to glucose, but their survival and function under toxic conditions remains untested. Read More

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The 'Jekyll and Hyde' of Gluconeogenesis: Early Life Adversity, Later Life Stress, and Metabolic Disturbances.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Immune Endocrine and Epigenetics Research Group, Department of Infection and Immunity, Luxembourg Institute of Health (LIH), L-4354 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

The physiological response to a psychological stressor broadly impacts energy metabolism. Inversely, changes in energy availability affect the physiological response to the stressor in terms of hypothalamus, pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and sympathetic nervous system activation. Glucocorticoids, the endpoint of the HPA axis, are critical checkpoints in endocrine control of energy homeostasis and have been linked to metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Protects SH-SY5YCells from DEHP-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 29;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Torre Biologica, Via Santa Sofia 97, 95125 Catania, Italy.

(MO) is a medicinal plant that has been shown to possess antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antibiotic activities. In a rat model, MO extract (MOe) has been shown to have a protective effect against brain damage and memory decline. As an extending study, here, we have examined the protective effect of MOe against oxidative stress and apoptosis caused in human neuroblastome (SH-SY5Y) cells by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer known to induce neurotoxicity. Read More

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