179,142 results match your criteria individuals compared


Change in outdoor walking behavior during the coronavirus disease pandemic in Japan: A longitudinal study.

Gait Posture 2021 May 9;88:42-46. Epub 2021 May 9.

Taiyo Life Insurance Company, 2-7-1 Nihonbashi, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo 103-6031, Japan.

Background: Due to the high infectivity and seriousness of coronavirus disease, people's daily activities were restricted in countries worldwide; governments implemented lockdown measures and advised individuals to perform self-restraint in terms of leaving the house. However, there have been few scientific reports on the effects of such behavioral restrictions on walking parameters.

Research Question: Did behavioral restrictions during the state of emergency in Japan effect walking parameters in daily life outdoor walking?

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, four walking parameters, namely, the average number of steps taken, walking speed, step length, and cadence, were measured using a smartphone application among 3901 participants (mean age ± standard deviation: 60. Read More

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Mobile phone use is detrimental for gait stability in young adults.

Gait Posture 2021 May 4;88:37-41. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Basic and Medical Biosciences, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King's College London, Guys Campus, Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT England, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Human walking is a highly automated motor task, however if the individual's attention is divided, gait can be negatively affected. Although the effect of divided attention has been usually tested with standardised cognitive tasks, the common task of walking while talking on the phone may represent an ecological dual task scenario.

Research Question: What is the effect of divided attention on locomotion when using a mobile phone?

Methods: Thirty-seven healthy participants were asked to walk while performing different cognitive tasks: counting and spelling backwards, talking on the phone (handset by the ear and hands-free), and texting. Read More

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A rapid review of measures to support people in isolation or quarantine during the Covid-19 pandemic and the effectiveness of such measures.

Rev Med Virol 2021 May 14:e2244. Epub 2021 May 14.

Health Information and Quality Authority, Dublin 7, Ireland.

This rapid review aimed to identify measures available to support those in isolation or quarantine during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, and determine their effectiveness in improving adherence to these recommendations and or reducing transmission. The rapid review consisted of two elements, the first was a review of guidance published by national and international agencies relating to measures to support those in isolation (due to case status) or quarantine (due to close contact status) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Five categories of support measures were identified in the international guidance, they were: Psychological, addiction and safety supports, Essential supplies, Financial aid, Information provision and Enforcement. Read More

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Evidence of Bilateral Localized, but Not Widespread, Pressure Pain Hypersensitivity in Patients with Upper Extremity Tendinopathy/Overuse Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Phys Ther 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Radiology, Rehabilitation and Physiotherapy Department, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Objective: The presence of altered nociceptive pain processing in patients with upper extremity tendinopathy/overuse injury is conflicting. Our aim was to compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in symptomatic and distant pain-free areas between patients with upper extremity tendinopathy/overuse injury and controls.

Methods: Five databases were searched from inception to October 15, 2020. Read More

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"What can her body do?" Reducing weight stigma by appreciating another person's body functionality.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251507. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, England.

Objective: Weight stigma is prevalent across multiple life domains, and negatively affects both psychological and physical health. Yet, research into weight stigma reduction techniques is limited, and rarely results in reduced antipathy toward higher-weight individuals. The current pre-registered study investigated a novel weight stigma reduction intervention. Read More

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Functional connectivity-based prediction of Autism on site harmonized ABIDE dataset.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 May 14;PP. Epub 2021 May 14.

Objective: The larger sample sizes available from multi-site publicly available neuroimaging data repositories makes machine-learning based diagnostic classification of mental disorders more feasible by alleviating the curse of dimensionality. However, since multi-site data are aggregated post-hoc, i.e. Read More

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The Effect of Habitat Choice on Evolutionary Rescue in Subdivided Populations.

Am Nat 2021 Jun 14;197(6):625-643. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

AbstractEvolutionary rescue is the process by which a population, in response to an environmental change, successfully avoids extinction through adaptation. In spatially structured environments, dispersal can affect the probability of rescue. Here, we model an environment consisting of patches that degrade one after another, and we investigate the probability of rescue by a mutant adapted to the degraded habitat. Read More

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Occupational performance issues in older adults with subjective cognitive decline.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 14:1-8. Epub 2021 May 14.

Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose: To describe and categorize difficulties in daily activities of older adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) compared to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods: Deductive quantitative content analysis was used to classify reported issues in the performance of meaningful daily activities, in older adults with SCD ( = 67; age= 70 ± 6.3) or MCI ( = 42; age= 72 ± 6. Read More

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Information Technology Use and Associated Trends among Individuals Living with Chronic Diseases.

Popul Health Manag 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Health Systems and Population Health Sciences, Humana Integrated Health System Sciences Institute, University of Houston College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Health information technology (HIT) can enhance optimal health care access and utilization among individuals living with chronic diseases. This study aimed to provide population-level information on racial/ethnic disparities in HIT use and associated trends among those living with chronic diseases. The study sample consisted of adult respondents (≥18 years) of the 2011-2018 National Health Interview Survey living with at least 1 chronic condition. Read More

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Lumbar Disc Herniation is a Nonnegligible Factor for the Degeneration of Sacroiliac Joints.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):E357-E365

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, China; The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, China.

Background: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) abnormality is a potential source of low back pain (LBP), therefore numerous patients receive various treatments because of the degenerative changes of SIJ. However, the outcome is unfavorable for patients because these morphologic alterations are common but not the origins of LBP. Previous studies revealed lumbar fusion and transitional vertebra increased the prevalence of degeneration of SIJ. Read More

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Pharmacotherapy for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Retention in Outpatient Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23;82(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: To assess the relationship between short- and longer-term retention in outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and pharmacotherapy for comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study conducted in a single addiction psychiatry clinic, electronic health record data from July 14, 2014, through January 15, 2020, were queried for clinical ADHD diagnosis (DSM-5 criteria), ADHD pharmacotherapy, treatment duration, demographic variables, comorbid psychiatric and SUD diagnoses, and buprenorphine therapy. Individuals with ADHD (n = 203) were grouped by ADHD pharmacotherapy status (171 receiving medication compared to 32 receiving none). Read More

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February 2021

Inclusion of Albumin in the Initial Resuscitation of Adult Patients with Medical Sepsis or Septic Shock: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

Shock 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Introduction: The impact of albumin resuscitation on sepsis outcomes is debated, particularly in the initial phase of resuscitation. We aimed to investigate the association between albumin use in the initial six hours of resuscitation and subsequent outcomes in adult septic patients.

Methods: This single-center, retrospective, propensity score-matched cohort study included adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis or septic shock from January 1, 2006, to May 4, 2018, at a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

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Teeth loss and its association with locomotive syndrome among patients visiting the outpatient department of a dental school in Mahbubnagar, India-A cross sectional study.

Acta Biomed 2021 May 12;92(2). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Periodontics, SVS Institute Of Dental Sciences, Mahbubnagar, Telangana, India.

Background: Locomotive syndrome (LoS) is condition wherein mobility functions such as sit-to-stand or gait are declined due to locomotive organ impairment. The important risk factors for the LoS are ageing and physical factors. Physical factors significantly associated with dental status Aim: To investigate the relationships between teeth lost and locomotive syndrome. Read More

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A retrospective examination of care pathways in individuals with treatment-resistant depression.

BJPsych Open 2021 May 14;7(3):e101. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Background: Individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) experience a high burden of illness. Current guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for treating depression, but the extent to which best-practice care pathways are adhered to is unclear.

Aims: To explore the extent and nature of 'treatment gaps' (non-adherence to stepped care pathways) experienced by a sample of patients with established TRD (non-response to two or more adequate treatments in the current depressive episode) across three cities in the UK. Read More

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Who let the dogs In? An epidemiological study quantifying domestically sourced and imported dogs in Southern Ontario, Canada.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Dogs are reservoirs for many zoonoses. In southern Ontario, Canada, minimal data exist on the sources from which domestic dogs are acquired (i.e. Read More

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Resilience and associated characteristics in adults with spina bifida.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Aim: To measure resilience and identify associated demographic and clinical factors in individuals with spina bifida.

Method: An anonymous survey was distributed via Facebook advertising to individuals with congenital urological conditions. Respondents 18 years or older with spina bifida were included in this study. Read More

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Brain Microstructural Properties Related to Subjective Well-Being: Diffusion Tensor Imaging Analysis.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Although it is known that health is not merely the absence of disease, the positive aspects of mental health have been less comprehensively researched compared with its negative aspects. Subjective well-being is one of the indicators of positive psychology, and high subjective well-being is considered to benefit individuals in multiple ways. However, the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in subjective well-being remain unclear, particularly in terms of brain microstructural properties as detected by diffusion tensor imaging. Read More

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Memory precision of object-location binding is unimpaired in ε4-carriers with spatial navigation deficits.

Brain Commun 2021 23;3(2):fcab087. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.

Research suggests that tests of memory fidelity, feature binding and spatial navigation are promising for early detection of subtle behavioural changes related to Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of longitudinal data, one way of testing the early detection potential of cognitive tasks is through the comparison of individuals at different genetic risk for Alzheimer's dementia. Most studies have done so using samples aged 70 years or older. Read More

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APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism and lung cancer risk in the southern Chinese population.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):656

Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Approximately 80-85% of lung cancer is the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, which ranks as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. (A3B) was reported to be a key source of mutations in NSCLC. However, the role of the A3B deletion polymorphism in the etiology of NSCLC has not been well-documented. Read More

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Residual β-cell function after 10 years of autoimmune type 1 diabetes: prevalence, possible determinants, and implications for metabolism.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):650

National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Disease, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has long been considered a progressive autoimmune disease resulting in the failure of pancreatic β-cell function and absolute endogenous insulin deficiency. However, several studies have demonstrated patients with T1D have detectable C-peptide levels long after diagnosis, which has remarkable clinical significance. Since this issue has not been systematically explored in non-Caucasian populations, we aimed to identify the prevalence of residual β-cell function and its related clinical features in Chinese long-term T1D patients. Read More

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Right ventricular systolic function is associated with health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in community-dwelling populations.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):640

Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Considerable evidence has been presented that heart and health-related quality of life are directly linked in patients with various diseases. This exploratory study investigated whether cardiac structure and function were associated with health-related quality of life in the general population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in five villages of Shunyi, a suburban district of Beijing, from June 2013 to April 2016. Read More

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Necessity of facial contouring in feminization surgery for Chinese transgender females.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):603

Department of Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: An increasing number of transgender females are suffering from a critical gender dysphoria, which often presents as depression and self-destructive behavior. Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is an effective method to alleviate symptoms of gender dysphoria, which could be more important than genital reassignment surgery for Chinese. Facial contour surgery is perceived as an ordinary FFS for the Chinese women to improve their facial appearance. Read More

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Marriage contributes to higher obesity risk in China: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):564

China-Australia Joint Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, Xi'an, China.

Background: To investigate the association between marriage and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in China.

Methods: We conducted cross-sectional and retrospective cohort analyses using a nationwide sample of 36,310 individuals from the China Health and Nutrition Survey [2004-2015].

Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 28. Read More

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Pupillary Response to Postural Demand in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 27;9:617028. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, School of Health Professions, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States.

Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) may need to spend more mental and physical effort (i.e., cognitive workload) to maintain postural control. Read More

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Salivette, a relevant saliva sampling device for SARS-CoV-2 detection.

J Oral Microbiol 2021 Apr 30;13(1):1920226. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Unité Parasitologie Et Entomologie, Département Microbiologie Et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut De Recherche Biomédicale Des Armées, Marseille, France.

The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis relies on quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens, but NPSs present several limitations. The simplicity, low invasive and possibility of self-collection of saliva imposed these specimens as a relevant alternative for SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, the discrepancy of saliva test results compared to NPSs made of its use controversial. Read More

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Body composition among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer.

Prz Gastroenterol 2021 26;16(1):47-55. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Vascular and Internal Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland.

Introduction: Nutritional status assessment is an important part of preoperative patient evaluation, but the standard anthropometric parameters do not appear to be adequate.

Aim: To determine the changes in the values of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in patients 3 months after undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC).

Material And Methods: BIA and nutritional status assessment parameters were determined in 80 patients prior to undergoing surgery for CRC. Read More

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Protein-Based Immunome Wide Association Studies (PIWAS) for the Discovery of Significant Disease-Associated Antigens.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:625311. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Serimmune, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, United States.

Identification of the antigens associated with antibodies is vital to understanding immune responses in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Discovering antigens at a proteome scale could enable broader identification of antigens that are responsible for generating an immune response or driving a disease state. Although targeted tests for known antigens can be straightforward, discovering antigens at a proteome scale using protein and peptide arrays is time consuming and expensive. Read More

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Social Perception in Schizophrenia: Evidence of Reduced Prejudiced Attitudes Among People With a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia.

Front Psychol 2021 27;12:644488. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Independent Researcher, Pordenone, Italy.

Only recently research in social psychology has started to systematically investigate intergroup attitudes among members of stigmatized minority groups. In particular, the study of the way people with mental health problems perceive the social groups around them is so far very scarce. In this work, we focused on people with schizophrenia, analyzing their attitudes toward another stigmatized group, namely Black individuals. Read More

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Adult mortality among second-generation immigrants in France: Results from a nationally representative record linkage study.

Demogr Res 2019 Jan-Jun;40:1603-1644. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

SUDA, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: France has a large population of second-generation immigrants (i.e., native-born children of immigrants) who are known to experience important socioeconomic disparities by country of origin. Read More

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