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Genome-wide SNPs clarify a complex radiation and support recognition of an additional cat species.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

PUCRS, Escola de Ciências da Saúde e da Vida, Laboratório de Biologia Genômica e Molecular, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Phylogenetic reconstruction and species delimitation are often challenging in the case of recent evolutionary radiations, especially when post-speciation gene flow is present. Leopardus is a Neotropical cat genus that has a long history of recalcitrant taxonomic problems, along with both ancient and current episodes of interspecies admixture. Here we employ genome-wide SNP data from all presently recognized Leopardus species, including several individuals from the tigrina complex (representing L. Read More

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Evaluation of Remote Check: A Clinical Tool for Asynchronous Monitoring and Triage of Cochlear Implant Recipients.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Cochlear Limited, 1 University Ave Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Background: A new Remote Check App permits remote self-testing of hearing function for Nucleus cochlear implant (CI) recipients and enables asynchronous review by their clinician to support patient-management decisions.

Objectives: To evaluate the Remote Check App for: (1) ease of use; (2) overall acceptance of the test battery by CI recipient or their carer in the home setting; (3) test-retest reliability of audiological threshold and speech recognition measures via wireless streaming; and (4) to compare outcomes from patient-driven measures with conventional clinician-driven measurements of aided-hearing function.

Design: Single-site, prospective, repeated-measures cohort study with 32 experienced CI users (28 adults and 4 children). Read More

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The effects of resveratrol supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Uncertainty remains about the estimates of the effects for resveratrol supplementation, including the certainty of the evidence for each estimate and the magnitude of the observed impact based on the minimal important difference.

Objective: We aimed to provide an overview of the effects of resveratrol supplementation, in comparison to control groups, for the management of cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science were searched from inception to May 2021. Read More

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Human mobility in a Bronze Age Vatya 'urnfield' and the life history of a high-status woman.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(7):e0254360. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Centre of Excellence, Budapest, Hungary.

In this study, we present osteological and strontium isotope data of 29 individuals (26 cremations and 3 inhumations) from Szigetszentmiklós-Ürgehegy, one of the largest Middle Bronze Age cemeteries in Hungary. The site is located in the northern part of the Csepel Island (a few kilometres south of Budapest) and was in use between c. 2150 and 1500 BC, a period that saw the rise, the apogee, and, ultimately, the collapse of the Vatya culture in the plains of Central Hungary. Read More

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Cytology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy revisited: A case report with a special reference to JC polyomavirus-infected oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.

Cytopathology 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Medical University Hospital, Japan.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a central nervous system demyelinating disease primarily affecting immunocompromised individuals, including those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, rheumatological diseases, or hematological malignancies. The disease is caused by JC polyomavirus (JCV), and oligodendroglial intranuclear inclusions, which are recognized in enlarged, hyperchromatic, and 'ground-glass' nuclei, are the pathologic hallmark of the disease.. Read More

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A Biofeedback App for Migraine: Development and Usability Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Jul 28;5(7):e23229. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Biofeedback is effective in treating migraines. It is believed to have a beneficial effect on autonomous nervous system activity and render individuals resilient to stressors that may trigger a migraine. However, widespread use of biofeedback is hampered by the need for a trained therapist and specialized equipment. Read More

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The Association between Dietary Calcium Intake and Breast Cancer Risk among Iranian Women.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 28:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

No information is available from Middle Eastern countries linking dietary calcium intake and odds of breast cancer.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake and odds of having breast cancer among Iranian women.

In this population-based case-control study, 350 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases were recruited and 700 age-matched subjects were enrolled as controls. Read More

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Challenges of Estimating Accurate Prevalence of Arm Weakness Early After Stroke.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 Jul 28:15459683211028240. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Physical Therapy, 574564University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

. Recent studies have reported lower statistics of upper limb (UL) weakness (48-57%) compared to widely cited values collected over 2 decades ago (70-80%). . Read More

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Long-Term Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in an Immunocompromised Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

mSphere 2021 Jul 28:e0024421. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Bioinformatics Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal.

Recent studies have shown that persistent SARS-CoV-2 infections in immunocompromised patients can trigger the accumulation of an unusual high number of mutations with potential relevance at both biological and epidemiological levels. Here, we report a case of an immunocompromised patient (non-Hodgkin lymphoma patient under immunosuppressive therapy) with a persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection (marked by intermittent positivity) over at least 6 months. Viral genome sequencing was performed at days 1, 164, and 171 to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Read More

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Molecular and Serological Prevalence of HCMV in Iranian Patients with Breast Cancer.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul 1;22(7):2011-2016. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Cancer Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is prevalent viral infection involved in several human cancers including breast cancer. The presence of HCMV genome in breast cancer tissue and footprint of viral last exposure patient's serum are considered as important factor in the process of breast cancer development.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate molecular and serological epidemiology of HCMV in patients with breast cancer in Iran for first time. Read More

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Estimating the future clinical and economic benefits of improving osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment among women in South Korea: a simulation projection model from 2020 to 2040.

Arch Osteoporos 2021 Jul 28;16(1):115. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

Using a microsimulation model, the impact of increased diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis on anticipated reduction in fractures and associated costs in South Korea from 2020 to 2040 was projected.

Introduction: The economic burden of osteoporosis was US $5.1B in 2011 in South Korea. Read More

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"Be Careful What You Swallow": A Case Series of Swallow Syncope.

JACC Case Rep 2021 Mar 17;3(3):469-473. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Imperial Syncope Unit, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Swallow (deglutition) syncope is a rare form of neurally mediated cardioinhibitory reflex syncope occurring during swallowing. Patients may present to clinicians across multiple disciplines, so high awareness and careful evaluation are essential. We report 3 such individuals, describing our strategies in diagnosis, investigation and treatment, particularly focusing on conservative management. Read More

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Health Care Workers and Patients as Trojan Horses: a COVID19 ward outbreak.

2020 Sep 4;2(3):100073. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Public Health Wales Microbiology Department, 8 Eaton Cres, Sketty, Swansea, SA2 8QA, UK.

Background: Transmission in healthcare settings can result in significant infections in healthcare workers and patients. Understanding infection dynamics has important implications for methods employed in hospitals to prevent nosocomial transmission events.

Methods: In this case series report we describe a cluster of COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) in a tertiary care university hospital, in the early phases of the epidemic, after hospital visiting had been stopped and when the UK lockdown was in place. Read More

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September 2020

Cohabitation With a Known Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Is Associated With Greater Antibody Concentration and Symptom Severity in a Community-Based Sample of Seropositive Adults.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 24;8(7):ofab244. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

In a community-based sample of seropositive adults (n = 1101), we found that seropositive individuals who lived with a known coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case exhibited higher blood anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G concentrations and greater symptom severity compared to seropositive individuals who did not live with a known COVID-19 case. Read More

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The Spectrum of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Endocrine Profile of Male Infertility with Nonobstructive Semen Abnormality: A Case-Control Study.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):175-183. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Community Medicine, Adichunchanagiri Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagara, Karnataka, India.

Background: Primary infertility is a common occurrence which affects approximately 15% of couples who desire to begin their family. Chromosomal abnormalities are well-established causes of pregnancy loss but may also have a role in explaining the cause of male infertility, especially with nonobstructive semen abnormalities. Hence, awareness regarding safety of artificial reproductive technology in these individuals due to underlying sperm aneuploidy is required. Read More

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Comparison of COVID-19 outcomes among shielded and non-shielded populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15278. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, 1 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK.

Many western countries used shielding (extended self-isolation) of people presumed to be at high-risk from COVID-19 to protect them and reduce healthcare demand. To investigate the effectiveness of this strategy, we linked family practitioner, prescribing, laboratory, hospital and death records and compared COVID-19 outcomes among shielded and non-shielded individuals in the West of Scotland. Of the 1. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of rapid antigen tests in asymptomatic and presymptomatic close contacts of individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection: cross sectional study.

BMJ 2021 Jul 27;374:n1676. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands

Objective: To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of two rapid antigen tests in asymptomatic and presymptomatic close contacts of people with SARS-CoV-2 infection on day 5 after exposure.

Design: Prospective cross sectional study.

Setting: Four public health service covid-19 test sites in the Netherlands. Read More

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Deletion of 2 amino acids in IHH in a Japanese family with brachydactyly type A1.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Jul 27;14(1):190. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pain Pharmacogenetics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by uniform shortening of the middle phalanges in all digits. It is associated with variants in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene, which plays a key role in endochondral ossification. To date, heterozygous pathogenic IHH variants involving several codons, which are restricted to a specific region of the N-terminal active fragment of IHH, have been reported. Read More

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Chronic subdural hematoma-induced parkinsonism: A systematic review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 21;208:106826. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia; Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Background: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical cases, especially in elderly individuals. Secondary parkinsonism due to CSDH is a rare entity. The mechanism of parkinsonism symptoms in chronic subdural hematoma has been suggested to include direct mechanical compression of the basal ganglia due to hematoma or indirectly through brain structure changes due to space lesions and vascular disorders. Read More

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Amyloidosis of the urinary bladder: a systematic review and a proposed management algorithm.

Urology 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Urology Department, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Urology Department, The Pennine Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Manchester, UK.

Objective: To propose an algorithm for the management of bladder amyloidosis based on a systematic review of the literature, given that the bladder is the second most commonly affected organ of the urinary tract in the course of systemic or localized amyloidosis.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases utilizing PRISMA methodology from inception to November 30, 2020 (PROSPERO: CRD42020207855).

Results: We included 76 studies with 184 patients (9 case series and 67 case reports). Read More

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Hospitalization Risk for Medicare Beneficiaries With Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease.

Chest 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, US.

Background: Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is an uncommon mycobacterial infection characterized by worsening lung function and increased healthcare resource utilization; however, overall risk for hospitalization among patients with NTM-PD remains unclear.

Study Design And Methods: A retrospective, nested, case-control study was conducted using the Medicare claims database. Cases were defined as patients with ≥2 NTM-PD claims ≥30 days apart between 1/1/07 and 12/31/15. Read More

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Bipolar symptoms, somatic burden and functioning in older-age bipolar disorder: Analyses from the Global Aging & Geriatric Experiments in Bipolar Disorder Database project.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, and Desert-Pacific Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: Literature on older-age bipolar disorder (OABD) is limited. This first-ever analysis of the Global Aging & Geriatric Experiments in Bipolar Disorder Database (GAGE-BD) investigated associations among age, BD symptoms, comorbidity, and functioning.

Methods: This analysis used harmonized, baseline, cross-sectional data from 19 international studies (N = 1377). Read More

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The Mean Unfulfilled Lifespan (MUL): A new indicator of the impact of mortality shocks on the individual lifespan, with application to mortality reversals induced by COVID-19.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0254925. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

California Center for Population Research (CCPR), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

Declines in period life expectancy at birth (PLEB) provide seemingly intuitive indicators of the impact of a cause of death on the individual lifespan. Derived under the assumption that future mortality conditions will remain indefinitely those observed during a reference period, however, their intuitive interpretation becomes problematic when period conditions reflect a temporary mortality "shock", resulting from a natural disaster or the diffusion of a new epidemic in the population for instance. Rather than to make assumptions about future mortality, I propose measuring the difference between a period average age at death and the average expected age at death of the same individuals (death cohort): the Mean Unfulfilled Lifespan (MUL). Read More

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Chronic opioid use modulates human enteric microbiota and intestinal barrier integrity.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1946368

Departments of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, USA.

Over the past three decades the United States has experienced a devastating opioid epidemic. One of the many debilitating side effects of chronic opioid use is opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. We investigated the impact of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on the gut microbiome, the gut bacterial metabolite profile, and intestinal barrier integrity. Read More

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Random Control Selection for Conducting High-throughput Adverse Drug Events Screening using Large-scale Longitudinal Health Data.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ohio State University, OH, USA, 43210.

Case-control design based high-throughput pharmacoinformatics study using large-scale longitudinal health data is able to detect new adverse drug events (ADEs) signals. Existing control selection approaches for case-control design including dynamic/super control selection approach. Dynamic/super control selection approach requires all individuals to be evaluated at all ADE case index dates, as the individuals' eligibilities as control depend on ADE/enrolment history. Read More

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Duration on ART, Alcohol Use and HIV Stage May Predict Risky Sexual Behavior in a Resource-Limited Environment: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Curr HIV Res 2021 Jul 25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States.

Background: The intention of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and regular clinic visits is to engender safe sex attitudes among HIV-infected individuals. However, this may not be the case due to the perceived therapeutic benefits of ART and may result in exposure to drug-resistant HIV strains.

Objective: We aimed to determine the prevalence and predict the factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among ART users in a resource-limited environment. Read More

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Feasibility and longitudinal effects of repeated participation in an annual, brief and intense exercise program in individuals with Parkinson's disease: A case report.

Physiother Theory Pract 2021 Jul 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Physical Therapy, Arcadia University, Glenside, PA, United States.

Background: Functional decline is expected over time in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Intense exercise (RPE ≥ 5-7/10), incorporating motor learning principles, may be beneficial. The purpose of this case report is to describe the feasibility and longitudinal effects after individuals with PD participated in multiple, 3. Read More

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Racism, healthcare access and health equity for people seeking asylum.

Nurs Inq 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Monash Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University Clayton Campus, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

People seeking asylum are at risk of receiving poorer quality healthcare due, in part, to racist and discriminatory attitudes, behaviours and policies in the health system. Despite fleeing war and conflict; exposure to torture and traumatic events and living with uncertainty; people seeking asylum are at high-risk of experiencing long-term poor physical and mental health outcomes in their host country. This article aims to raise awareness and bring attention to some common issues people seeking asylum face when seeking healthcare in high-income countries where the health system is dominated by a Western biomedical view of health. Read More

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Neurophysiological changes of brain and spinal cord in individuals with patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 26;11(7):e049882. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Introduction: Reduced neuromuscular control due to altered neurophysiological functions of the central nervous system has been suggested to cause movement deficits in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, the underlying neurophysiological measures of brain and spinal cord in this population remain to be poorly understood. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for altered cortical and spinal cord functions in individuals with PFP. Read More

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