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Pain and mortality among older adults in Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Sep 7:e2021058. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Graduated School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: With the rising elderly population subject to chronic disease, pain becomes crucial to understand and design an appropriate approach to it. While pain is a noted mortality risk factor, limited studies exists due to various causes of pain and subjectivity of pain expression. This study aims to examine the relationship between pain and mortality, controlling for other disease and socio-cultural factors. Read More

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September 2021

The estimated prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in older Americans living with possible dementia by healthcare utilization.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, NDSU Dept 2620, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108, USA.

Background: Screening for dementia in relevant healthcare settings may help in identifying low cognitive functioning for comprehensive cognitive assessments and subsequent dementia treatment after diagnosis.

Aims: This study sought to estimate the prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in a nationally-representative sample of older Americans with a cognitive impairment consistent with dementia (CICD) by healthcare utilization.

Methods: The unweighted analytical sample included 1514 Americans aged ≥ 65 years that were identified as having a CICD without history of stroke, cancers, neurological conditions, or brain damage who participated in at least one-wave of the 2010-2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Safety Associated With Chlorthalidone vs Hydrochlorothiazide in Older Adults With Varying Levels of Kidney Function.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2123365. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Importance: Thiazide diuretics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, a disease highly prevalent among older individuals and in those with chronic kidney disease. How specific thiazide diuretics compare in regard to safety and clinical outcomes in these populations remains unknown.

Objective: To compare safety and clinical outcomes associated with chlorthalidone or hydrochlorothiazide use among older adults with varying levels of kidney function. Read More

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September 2021

Risk Factors Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Farmworkers in Monterey County, California.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124116. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.

Importance: Essential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study invited farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley (Monterey County) receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites to participate. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of the factors associated with the short-term prognosis between elderly and non-elderly patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a retrospective observational study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Nephrology, Shinshu University Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan.

Objectives: The difference in factors associated with the prognosis between elderly and non-elderly patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is uncertain. We aimed to elucidate the clinical factors associated with the short-term prognosis (within 6 months from the start of the treatment) and investigate the differences in the associated factors between elderly and non-elderly individuals.

Methods: We performed a dual centre retrospective observational study of patients newly treated with AAV (eosinophilic granulomatous with polyangiitis was excluded). Read More

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September 2021

Associations Between Cancer Fatalism, Causal Attributions, and Perceptions of Benefits and Barriers to Screening for Colorectal Cancer.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Social Work, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the associations between cancer causal attributions (divine providence, chance or luck, environmental or genetic factors, weak personal resilience), cancer fatalistic beliefs (cancer occurrence and outcome beliefs), and benefits of and barriers to screening for early detection of colorectal cancer.

Methods: It was a cross-sectional study of 252 individuals (46% men and 54% women) aged 50-75. Participants completed measures of cancer causal attributions, Powe's cancer fatalism questionnaire, and the benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening subscales of the health belief model. Read More

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September 2021

Computerised cognitive remediation to enhance mobility in older adults: a single-blind, single-centre, randomised trial.

Lancet Healthy Longev 2021 Sep 2;2(9):e571-e579. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

(Prof J Verghese MBBS, J R Mahoney PhD, E Ayers MPH, C Wang PhD, Prof R Holtzer PhD), (Prof J Verghese), (A Ambrose MD), (C Wang), (Prof R Holtzer).

Background: Decline in executive functions and related cognitive processes is associated with mobility decline, and these functions might be amenable to cognitive remediation. This study aimed to examine whether a computerised cognitive remediation programme would improve walking in adults aged 70 years and older.

Methods: This single-blind, randomised trial at one academic centre in the USA evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week computerised programme (also known as brain games) of progressive intensity and complexity to improve walking in older adults at high-risk for mobility disability. Read More

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September 2021

Smoking, Hypertension, and GG Genotype of the IL-6 rs1800796 Polymorphism are Independent Risk Factors for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Han Population.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 7;14:1115-1121. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huaian City, 223300, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recent researches have investigated the link between the rs1800796 polymorphism (-572G/C) in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene and the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, no Chinese studies have addressed the association between the risk of AAA and this polymorphism.

Methods: This case-control study included 153 AAA patients and 205 controls. Read More

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September 2021

Obesity, Disability and Self-Perceived Health Outcomes in Australian Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis Using 14 Annual Waves of the HILDA Cohort.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 7;13:777-788. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Centre for Health Research, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD, 4350, Australia.

Background: Both obesity and disability have been widely recognised as major public health challenges because they play significant roles in determining self-perceived general and mental health. Longitudinal studies of the relationship between obesity and disability with self-reported health outcomes are scarce. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between obesity and disability with self-perceived general and mental health among Australian adults aged 15 years and above. Read More

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September 2021

New Strategies to Improve Patient Adherence to Medications for Noncommunicable Diseases During and After the COVID-19 Era Identified via a Literature Review.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 7;14:2453-2465. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Global Medical and Clinical, Viatris, Canonsburg, PA, USA.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) place a huge burden on healthcare systems and society as a whole. Relatively early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, clinicians became aware that in individuals infected with COVID-19, those with preexisting NCDs such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were at a greater risk of poor outcomes and mortality than those without. The importance of adherence to medications and lifestyle changes to control and prevent NCDs has been a major focus for many years, but with limited success - the proportion of patients adherent and persistent to their medications remains very low. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular underpinnings of division of labour among workers in a socially complex termite.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18269. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Evolutionary Biology & Ecology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Division of labour characterizes all major evolutionary transitions, such as the evolution of eukaryotic cells or multicellular organisms. Social insects are characterized by reproductive division of labour, with one or a few reproducing individuals (queens) and many non-reproducing nestmates (workers) forming a colony. Among the workers, further division of labour can occur with different individuals performing different tasks such as foraging, brood care or building. Read More

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September 2021

Attitudes of Chinese immigrants in Canada towards the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine for prevention and management of COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey during the early stages of the pandemic.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 14;11(9):e051499. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Objection: The objective of this study was to assess attitudes towards the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for COVID-19 among Chinese immigrants in Canada during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2020 in Canada. Individuals aged 16 or older who were of Chinese origin and living in Canada at the time of the survey were invited to participate in an online survey. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the optimal time interval between growth measurements using a combined data set of weights and heights from 5948 infants.

Arch Dis Child 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Population Policy and Practice department, UCL GOS Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Current guidance on the optimum interval between measurements in infancy is not evidence based. We used routine data to explore how measurement error and short-term variation ('noise') might affect interpretation of infant weight and length gain ('signal') over different time intervals.

Method: Using a database of weights and lengths from 5948 infants aged 0-12 months, all pairs of measurements per child 2, 4 and 8 weeks apart were extracted. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence estimates of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Belgium: results from two cross-sectional studies.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14;21(1):947. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Service Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Sciensano, Rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070, Anderlecht, Belgium.

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) is the most diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in Belgium. Screening programs focus on young women, due to the implications of chronic asymptomatic infections for reproductive health. Thereby, the frequency of infections in men and older adults is underestimated. Read More

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September 2021

Changing age-specific trends in incidence, comorbidities and mortality of hospitalised heart failure in Western Australia between 2001 and 2016.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Incident heart failure (HF) hospitalisation rates in most high-income countries are stable or declining. However, HF incidence may be increasing in younger people linked to changing risk factor profiles in the general population. We examined age and sex-specific patterns of incidence, comorbidities and mortality of hospitalised HF in Western Australia (WA) between 2001 and 2016. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of revised EWGSOP2 criteria of sarcopenia in patients with cancer using different parameters of muscle mass.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0257446. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.

Calf circumference (CC) has been established as a marker of muscle mass (MM) with good performance for predicting survival in individuals with cancer. The study aims to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2 (EWGSOP2) criteria and to evaluate the accuracy of sarcopenia using low CC relative to MM assessment by computed tomography (CT) at third lumbar vertebra level (L3) as a reference. Cross-sectional study with cancer patients aged ≥ 60 years. Read More

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September 2021

Sarcopenia as a prognostic predictor of liver cirrhosis: a multicentre study in China.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia have not been established in Chinese. This study established criteria based on the L3-skeletal muscle index (L3-SMI) and assessed its value for outcomes predicting in cirrhotic Chinese patients.

Methods: Totally 911 subjects who underwent a CT scan at two centres were enrolled in Cohort 1 (394 male and 417 female subjects, aged 20-80 years). Read More

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September 2021

Factors influencing participation in preventive interventions for gastric cancer: the results from the GISTAR study.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Clinical and Preventive Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia Department of Research, Riga East University hospital Digestive Diseases Centre GASTRO Institute of Information Technology, Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France Centro Javeriano de Oncología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio. Bogotá, Colombia Agencia Costarricense de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Fundación INCIENSA, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Objectives: Search-and-treat strategy for Helicobacter pylori and surveillance of patients with precancerous lesions are recommended to decrease the burden of gastric cancer in high-risk areas. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of the target population to these strategies.

Methods: We applied a search-and-treat strategy combined with biomarker screening (pepsinogens I and II, gastrin-17) for atrophic gastritis to healthy individuals aged 40-64 years within the GISTAR Pilot study. Read More

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September 2021

The Effects of 3D Immersion Technology (3Scape) on Mental Health in Outpatients From a Short-Term Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Treatment Program: Feasibility Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Sep 14;10(9):e25017. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Mental health conditions are prevalent among Canadians and are a leading cause of disability. Each year, 1 in 5 Canadians experiences a mental health issue. A total of 5% of people aged ≥65 years perceive their mental health as fair or poor, and 6. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing the Longitudinal Relationship between Theta-Gamma Coupling and Working Memory Performance in Older Adults.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto M6J 1H4, Canada.

Theta-gamma coupling (TGC) is a neurophysiologic mechanism that supports working memory (WM). TGC is associated with N-back performance, a WM task. Similar to TGC, theta and alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) and desynchronization (ERD) are also associated with WM. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term Blood Pressure Variability and Kidney Function in Participants of the ASPREE Trial.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University; Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Whether long-term blood pressure variability (BPV) predicts kidney function decline in generally healthy older adults is unknown. We investigated this association in ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial participants.

Methods: Between 2010-2014, Australian and US individuals aged ≥70 years ( ≥65 if US minority) were recruited and followed with annual study visits for a median of 4. Read More

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September 2021

Job dissatisfaction as a predictor of poor health among middle-aged workers: a 14-wave mixed model analysis in Japan.

Authors:
Takashi Oshio

Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8603, Japan.

Objective This study aimed to examine the association between job dissatisfaction (JD) and health outcomes among middle-aged workers. Methods This study used longitudinal data comprising 156 823 observations of 24 056 workers (13 177 men and 10 879 women) collected from a 14-wave nationwide population-based survey in Japan that began in 2005, involving individuals aged 50-59 years. Mixed models were estimated to examine the association between JD and the risk of psychological distress (PD), poor self-rated health (SRH), and health-related resignation (HRR). Read More

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September 2021

Health status of individuals referred to first-line intervention for hip and knee osteoarthritis compared with the general population: an observational register-based study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 13;11(9):e049476. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Orthopaedicst, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of comorbidities in a population referred to standardised first-line intervention (patient education and exercise) for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), in comparison with the general population. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate if eventual differences were associated with socioeconomic inequalities.

Design: Register-based study. Read More

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September 2021

Associations of ophthalmic and systemic conditions with incident dementia in the UK Biobank.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Guangdong Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China

Aims: To examine independent and interactive associations of ophthalmic and systemic conditions with incident dementia.

Methods: Our analysis included 12 364 adults aged 55-73 years from the UK Biobank cohort. Participants were assessed between 2006 and 2010 at baseline and were followed up until the early of 2021. Read More

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September 2021

National and State-Level Composite Completion of Recommended Vaccines Among Adolescents in the United States, 2015-2018.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Routine adolescent vaccination recommendations in the United States include tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis, quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Although coverage for these individual vaccines is known, limited data are available on composite completion for all three vaccines.

Methods: This cross-sectional analysis of pooled 2015-2018 National Immunization Survey-Teen data used logistic regression to estimate model-adjusted composite vaccination completion nationally and by state among United States adolescents aged 17 years. Read More

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September 2021

A mixed-methods systematic review of the prevalence, reasons, associated harms and risk-reduction interventions of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines misuse, abuse and dependence in adults.

J Pharm Policy Pract 2021 Sep 13;14(1):76. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Pharmacy, Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences (CMDS), University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are typically safe. However, there is evidence that OTC medicines can sometimes cause harm as a result of their misuse, abuse and dependence.

Aim Of The Review: To review the literature on OTC medicines misuse, abuse and dependence in adults and identify the implicated medicines, contributing factors, associated harms and risk-mitigating interventions. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence of and risk factors for hallux rigidus: a cross-sectional study in Japan.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 13;22(1):786. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu city, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Background: Hallux rigidus (HR) is a common osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. However, the epidemiology and risk factors of this pathology have yet to be clarified.

Methods: We have been conducting cohort studies among individuals over 50 years old every 2 years since 1997. Read More

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September 2021

Current status survey of the extramural hospital management of venous thromboembolism after total hip and knee arthroplasty in China.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 13;22(1):787. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Division of Joint Surgery and Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, 430071, PR China.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a potentially fatal complication after arthroplasty. Numerous prophylactic strategies and studies to reduce VTEs have focused on the duration of the hospital stay and on few extramural hospitals. This study aimed to investigate extramural hospital management of VTE after total hip/knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA) in China with a novel survey tool. Read More

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September 2021

Inflammation, depressive symptoms, and emotion perception in adolescence.

J Affect Disord 2021 Sep 2;295:717-723. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Psychiatry, USA.

Background: Individuals with depression often demonstrate an altered peripheral inflammatory profile, as well as emotion perception difficulties. However, correlations of inflammation with overall depression severity are inconsistent and inflammation may only contribute to specific symptoms. Moreover, measurement of the association between inflammation and emotion perception is sparse in adolescence, despite representing a formative window of emotional development and high-risk period for depression onset. Read More

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September 2021