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Increased Glucose Activity in Subgenual Anterior Cingulate and Hippocampus of High Performing Older Adults, Despite Amyloid Burden.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Individuals at 80 years of age or above with exceptional memory are considered SuperAgers (SA), an operationalized definition of successful cognitive aging. SA showed increased thickness and altered functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex as a neurobiological signature. However, their metabolic alterations are yet to be uncovered. Read More

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Psychiatric Neural Networks and Precision Therapeutics by Machine Learning.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 8;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Faculty of Pharmacy, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Gunma 370-0033, Japan.

Learning and environmental adaptation increase the likelihood of survival and improve the quality of life. However, it is often difficult to judge optimal behaviors in real life due to highly complex social dynamics and environment. Consequentially, many different brain regions and neuronal circuits are involved in decision-making. Read More

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Shifted phase of EEG cross-frequency coupling in individuals with Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

Mol Autism 2021 04 28;12(1):29. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a rare condition caused by deletion or mutation of the SHANK3 gene. Individuals with PMS frequently present with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and other neurodevelopmental challenges. Electroencephalography (EEG) can provide a window into network-level function in PMS. Read More

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Early benefits of bariatric surgery on subclinical cardiac function: Contribution of visceral fat mobilization.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 8;119:154773. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Canada; Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: We explored the early effects of bariatric surgery on subclinical myocardial function in individuals with severe obesity and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction.

Methods: Thirty-eight patients with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥35 kg/m] and preserved LV ejection fraction (≥50%) who underwent bariatric surgery (biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch [BPD-DS]) (Surgery group), 19 patients with severe obesity managed with usual care (Medical group), and 18 age and sex-matched non-obese controls (non-obese group) were included. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) was evaluated with echocardiography speckle tracking imaging. Read More

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Prediction of parasitological cure in children infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using a novel multiplex serological approach: an observational, retrospective cohort study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Parasitology Service, Hospital de Niños "Ricardo Gutierrez" and Instituto Multidisciplinario de Investigacion en Patologias Pediatricas (IMIPP)-CONICET-GCBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Assessment of therapeutic response with standard serological diagnostic assays in patients with chronic Chagas disease is a major challenge due to the long persistence of parasite-specific antibodies. The current consensus for parasitological cure is to monitor conversion from positive to negative Trypanosoma cruzi serology (seroreversion). However, because of robust humoral immune response, seroreversion by standard serological tests can take years to decades. Read More

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Relation of the C/T-13910 LCT Polymorphism with Body Composition Measures and Their Modulation by Dairy Products in a Caucasian Men.

Am J Mens Health 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):15579883211007272

Department of Medical Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.

The C/T-13910 LCT is closely associated with lactase persistence and LCT has emerged as a new candidate gene for obesity, in particular in northern Europeans. The aim of this research is to investigate to what degree sex determines the association between the LCT variant and anthropometric traits in a cohort of healthy individuals. We recruited 1000 (500 males and 500 females aged 18-65 years) healthy blood donors. Read More

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Interleukin-8 genetic diversity, haplotype structure and production differ in two ethnically distinct South African populations.

Cytokine 2021 Apr 1:155489. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Centre for HIV and STIs, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 251 bases upstream from the IL-8 transcription start (-251A>T, rs4073), has been extensively investigated in cancers and inflammatory and infectious diseases in predominantly European and Asian populations. We sequenced the IL-8 gene of 109 black and 32 white South African (SA) individuals and conducted detailed characterization of gene variation and haplotype structure. IL-8 production in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a subset (black: N = 22; white: N = 32) of these individuals was measured using ELISA. Read More

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Sperm Methylome Profiling Can Discern Fertility Levels in the Porcine Biomedical Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 6;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Biomedical & Clinical Sciences (BKV), Linköping University, SE-58185 Linköping, Sweden.

A combined Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) protocol was used to identify-in parallel-genetic variation (Genomic-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and epigenetic differences of Differentially Methylated Regions (DMR) in the genome of spermatozoa from the porcine animal model. Breeding boars with good semen quality ( = 11) and specific and well-documented differences in fertility (farrowing rate, FR) and prolificacy (litter size, LS) ( = 7) in artificial insemination programs, using combined FR and LS, were categorized as High Fertile (HF, = 4) or Low Fertile (LF, = 3), and boars with Unknown Fertility (UF, = 4) were tested for eventual epigenetical similarity with those fertility-proven. We identified 165,944 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that explained 14-15% of variance among selection lines. Read More

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Prevalence and risk factors for chalazion in an older veteran population.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Health System, Miami, Florida, USA

Background: Chalazia are common inflammatory eyelid lesions, but their epidemiology remains understudied. This retrospective case-control study examined the prevalence, risk factors and geographic distribution of chalazia in a large veteran population.

Methods: Data on all individuals seen at a Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic between October 2010 and October 2015 were extracted from the VA health database. Read More

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Native T1 mapping in diffuse myocardial diseases using 3-Tesla MRI: An institutional experience.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2020 Oct-Dec;30(4):465-472. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Barnard Institute of Radiology, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Aims: Newer cardiac magnetic resonance techniques like native T1 mapping are being used increasingly as an adjunct to diagnose myocardial diseases with fibrosis. However, its full clinical utility has not been tested extensively, especially in the Indian population. The purpose of this study was to find native T1 values in healthy individuals without cardiac disease in our 3-Tesla MRI system and examine whether native myocardial T1 values can be used to differentiate between normal and diffuse myocardial disease groups. Read More

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January 2021

Kleine-Levin syndrome is associated with birth difficulties and genetic variants in the gene loci.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

Histocompatibility Department, Blood Center of the Community of Madrid, 28032 Madrid, Spain.

Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder characterized by severe episodic hypersomnia, with cognitive impairment accompanied by apathy or disinhibition. Pathophysiology is unknown, although imaging studies indicate decreased activity in hypothalamic/thalamic areas during episodes. Familial occurrence is increased, and risk is associated with reports of a difficult birth. Read More

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Identification and validation of distinct latent neurodevelopmental profiles in the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine; Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Regardless of the precise mechanism, all neurodevelopmental models of risk assume that, at the population level, there exist subgroups of individuals that share similar patterns of neural function and development-and that these subgroups somehow relate to psychiatric risk. However, the existence of multiple neurodevelopmental subgroups at the population level has not been assessed previously.

Methods: In the current study, cross-validated latent profile analysis was used to test for the presence of empirically derived, brain-based developmental subgroups using fMRI data from 6,758 individuals (49. Read More

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Reasons influencing the preferences of prospective patients and orthodontists for different orthodontic appliances.

Korean J Orthod 2021 Mar;51(2):115-125

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the reasons influencing the preferences for a certain type of orthodontic appliance over another among prospective patients (PP) and orthodontists.

Methods: A total of 49 PP and 51 orthodontists were asked about their preferences for the following appliances: clear aligners (CA), lingual metallic brackets (LMB), polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets, and buccal metallic brackets (BMB). The participants rated the importance of 17 potential reasons that would explain their choices. Read More

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Metabolic factors and the risk of small intestine cancers: Pooled study of 800 000 individuals in the metabolic syndrome and cancer project.

Int J Cancer 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

To explore the largely unknown etiology of small intestine cancer, we examined metabolic factors and risk of small intestine cancer overall and by subtypes. Among 404 220 women and 403 265 men in six European cohorts, we applied Cox regression with adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI), to calculate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of small intestine cancer by levels of BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We also calculated HRs for these factors combined (metabolic score; MetS) and used Wald test statistics to investigate pairwise interactions between metabolic factors on risk. Read More

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February 2021

Complement C4 associations with altered microbial biomarkers exemplify gene-by-environment interactions in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder with genetic and environmental factors contributing to its etiology. Complement C4 genes are schizophrenia susceptibility loci and are activated in response to infections and gut microbiome imbalances. We hypothesize that C4 genetic susceptibility predisposes individuals to neuropathological effects from pathogen exposures or a microbiome in dysbiosis. Read More

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February 2021

Partial recovery of senescence in circulating follicular helper T cells after Dasatinib treatment.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 22;94:107465. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Cellular senescence is an irreversible arrest of cell proliferation triggered by different stimuli, including DNA damage, telomere shortening and oncogenic stress. Senescent cells, by releasing the senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype (SASP), contribute to various diseases pathogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaque contains cells with multiple markers of senescence that associate with disease severity. Read More

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Dry eye and percentage of body fat: a cross-sectional prospective study.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 24;41(5):1855-1861. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Mackenzie Evangelical School of Medicine Paraná, Rua Padre Anchieta, 2770, Curitiba, Paraná, 80730-000, Brazil.

Background: Dry eyes are common in the general population. Some studies associate high prevalence of dry eyes with lipid metabolic changes and body fat composition.

Aim: To study the association of dry eye with percentage of body fat. Read More

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Opioid Mortality Following Implementation of Medical Cannabis Programs in the United States.

Pharmacopsychiatry 2021 Mar 23;54(2):91-95. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine, Scranton, PA, USA.

Introduction: The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose epidemic. Emerging evidence suggests that medical cannabis (MC) may reduce use of opioids for pain in some individuals, with potential impacts on opioid-related overdose. However, there may be other important differences between states that did, and did not, adopt MC. Read More

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Factors associated with access to healthcare in Burkina Faso: evidence from a national household survey.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Feb 15;21(1):148. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Burkina Faso has undertaken major reforms, the cornerstone of which has been the decentralization of the health system to increase access to primary healthcare and to increase the effectiveness, efficiency, financial viability and equity of health services. This study aims to analyze the socio-demographic determinants of households' access to healthcare in Burkina Faso.

Methods: We used data from a national household survey conducted in 2014 in Burkina Faso. Read More

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February 2021

Association of the CD2AP locus with cognitive functioning among middle-aged individuals with a family history of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Nov 5;101:50-56. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

The Joseph Sagol Neuroscience Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; The Danek Gertner Institute of Human Genetics, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address:

First-degree family history is an established risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the association of late-onset AD risk loci with cognitive functioning among 315 offspring of AD patients. Participants were cognitively normal Jewish individuals, aged 40-65 years, from the Israel Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (IRAP) study. Read More

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November 2020

Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3): A Novel Marker for Lymphoma Development among Patients with Young Onset Sjogren's Syndrome.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Physiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Background: Primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease with a strong predilection for lymphoma development, with earlier disease onset being postulated as an independent risk factor for this complication. Variations of the gene have been previously shown to increase susceptibility for both SS and non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) in the general population. We aimed to investigate whether variations of the gene could predispose for lymphoma development in the context of SS. Read More

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February 2021

Urinary stone disease prevalence and associations in cystic fibrosis.

Urolithiasis 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Maine Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, c/o Karen Kinne, 22 Bramhall Street, Portland, ME, 04102, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) may predispose patients to urinary stone disease (USD), but reported prevalence of USD in patients with CF in previous small studies is variable. To date, analysis of risk factors for USD within the CF population has been limited. We studied 29,396 patients in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry to calculate age and sex-stratified prevalence of USD. Read More

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February 2021

Statin use and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical College and Hospital Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Purpose: Observations studies have shown that prior use of statins is associated with a reduced risk of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. However, the available data are limited, inconsistent and conflicting. Besides, no randomised controlled trial exists in this regard. Read More

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February 2021

Risk factors associated with the development of interstitial lung abnormalities.

Eur Respir J 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, "Ismael Cosío Villegas", México

Background: Around 8-10% of individuals over 50 years, present interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), but their risk factors are uncertain.

Methods: From 817 individuals recruited in our "Lung Aging Program", 80 (9.7%) showed ILA and were compared with 564 individuals of the same cohort with normal HRCT to evaluate demographic and functional differences, and with 80 individuals, randomly selected from the same cohort for biomarkers. Read More

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January 2021

Exome-wide scan identifies significant association of rs4788084 in IL27 promoter with increase in hepatic fat content among Indians.

Gene 2021 Apr 12;775:145431. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global epidemic that often progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast to most world populations where NAFLD is mostly prevalent among obese, NAFLD among Indians and generally among South and South-East Asians is unique and highly prevalent among individuals who are lean. Genetics of NAFLD in Indian populations is understudied. Read More

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Outcomes in Previously Healthy Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis Patients treated with Pulse - Taper Corticosteroids for Post-infectious Inflammatory Syndrome.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology (LCIM), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) is a major cause of mortality in immunosuppressed patients and previously healthy individuals. In the latter, a post-infectious inflammatory response syndrome (PIIRS) is associated with poor clinical response despite antifungal therapy and negative CSF cultures. Data on effective treatment are limited. Read More

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December 2020

Stigma and policy preference toward individuals who transition from prescription opioids to heroin.

Addict Behav 2021 04 16;115:106784. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Economics, Connecticut College, New London, CT, USA.

Background: There is a lack of understanding of what contributes to attitudes toward individuals with an opioid addiction and preferences for policies that support them.

Methods: This study aimed to investigate stigmatization of an opioid addiction and support for publicly funded drug treatment. A randomized, between-subjects case vignette study (N = 1998) was conducted with a nation-wide online survey. Read More

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Pro-Inflammatory Interleukin-18 is Associated with Hepatic Steatosis and Elevated Liver Enzymes in People with HIV Monoinfection.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 May 25;37(5):385-390. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Metabolism Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

People with HIV (PWH) are at an increased risk of developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Interleukin (IL)-18 is regulated by inflammasomes in response to pathogens and danger signals and has been implicated in both the pathogenesis of NAFLD and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that increased IL-18 may be associated with NAFLD and liver injury in PWH. Read More

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Social Isolation Is Linked to Inflammation in Aging People With HIV and Uninfected Individuals.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Apr;86(5):600-606

Psychiatry; and.

Background: Even in the era of suppressive antiretroviral therapy, people with HIV (PWH) suffer greater exposure to inflammation than their uninfected peers. Although poor social support and social isolation have been linked to systemic inflammation in the general population, it is not known whether this is true also among PWH.

Methods: People with and without HIV infection were enrolled in a community-based, single-center study. Read More

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Comorbidity effect on processing speed test and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis patients.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Nov 21;46:102593. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Mellen Center for Multiple Sclerosis Treatment and Research, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Comorbid conditions are known to affect the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to determine the impact of comorbidities on the processing speed test (PST).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal analysis of all patients who completed PST testing from June 2015 - August 2019 at our center. Read More

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November 2020