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Volume Reduction of the Dorsal Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Prior to the Onset of Frank Psychosis in Individuals with an At-Risk Mental State.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Toyama Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toyama 9300194, Japan.

Although some individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS) develop overt psychosis, surrogate markers which can reliably predict a future onset of psychosis are not well established. The dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to be involved in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In this study, 73 ARMS patients and 74 healthy controls underwent 1. Read More

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October 2021

The Incidence of Cancer Associated Thrombosis is Increasing Over Time.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

University of California-Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California, United States.

Cancer associated thrombosis (CAT) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with malignancy and varies by primary cancer type, stage and therapy. We aimed to characterize the incidence, risk factors, temporal trends and the effect on mortality of CAT. The California Cancer Registry was linked to the statewide hospitalization database to identify individuals with the 13 most common malignancies diagnosed 2005 -2017 and determine the 6 and 12-month cumulative incidence of CAT by venous thromboembolism (VTE) location, tumor type and stage after adjusting for competing risk of death. Read More

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October 2021

Functional Abnormality of the Executive Control Network in Individuals With Obesity During Delay Discounting.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Center for Brain Imaging, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, China.

Individuals with obesity (OB) prefer immediate rewards of food intake over the delayed reward of healthy well-being achieved through diet management and physical activity, compared with normal-weight controls (NW). This may reflect heightened impulsivity, an important factor contributing to the development and maintenance of obesity. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the greater impulsivity in OB remain unclear. Read More

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October 2021

Disability-Adjusted Life Years and Mortality Rate Attributed to Brain and Central Nervous System Cancer in the Middle East and North Africa Countries.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Oct 14:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Clinical Research Development Centre, Taleghani and Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Primary brain tumors are among the main causes of death. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological features of the brain and central nervous system cancer in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Methods: In this study, data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study were used to estimate the incidence, prevalence, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and mortality in 21 countries in the MENA region from 1990 to 2019 based on age and sex. Read More

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October 2021

Etiologies and Mechanisms of Ischemic Stroke Associated with Sexual Intercourse: A Literature Review.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Oct 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Exposure to some special events, also called stroke triggers, can precipitate the onset of ischemic stroke (IS). Previous studies have presented preliminary hypotheses about sexual intercourse as a trigger of IS in predisposed individuals, but the mechanisms of IS associated with sexual intercourse are still not well defined. This literature review summarizes the etiologies and mechanisms of IS associated with sexual intercourse. Read More

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October 2021

Telomerase-Positive Somatic Tissues of Honeybee Queens (Apis mellifera) Display No DNA Replication.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 Oct 14:1-6. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czechia.

Telomere biology is closely linked to the process of aging. The restoration of telomere length by maintaining telome-rase activity in certain cell types of human adults allows for the proliferative capacity of the cells and preserves the regeneration potential of the tissue. The absence of telome-rase, that leads to telomere attrition and irreversible cell cycle arrest in most somatic cells, acts as a protective mechanism against uncontrolled cancer growth. Read More

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October 2021

The superspreading places of COVID-19 and the associated built-environment and socio-demographic features: A study using a spatial network framework and individual-level activity data.

Health Place 2021 Oct 9;72:102694. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Institute of Space and Earth Information Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies observed that most COVID-19 infections were transmitted by a few individuals at a few high-risk places (e.g., bars or social gathering venues). Read More

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October 2021

Role of serum high-motility group box-1 (HMGB1) concentration as a prognostic factor in canine acute pancreatitis: A pilot study.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Sep 29;141:26-32. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Laboratory of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is an intranuclear molecule that is released extracellularly in cytotoxic conditions. In acute pancreatitis, extracellular HMGB1 acts as a stimulating factor in the mechanism associated with pancreatic injury. To evaluate the prognostic property of serum HMGB1 levels at the time of diagnosis of pancreatitis, the blood samples collected over 10 months from canine patients in Seoul National University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (n = 29). Read More

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September 2021

Discussing mental health difficulties in a "diagnosis free zone".

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 2;289:114364. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Tampere University, Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, 33014, Tampere University, Finland. Electronic address:

Being identified as "mentally ill" is a complicated social process that may be stigmatizing and socially problematic, as a mental illness diagnosis determines the criteria for what is considered normal. This has given rise to a number of anti-stigma campaigns designed to create awareness of the way stigmas affect people with mental health difficulties and to normalize those difficulties in society. One such campaign is the "diagnosis-free zone", which declares that those with mental health difficulties should not be categorized on the basis of their diagnosis; rather, they should be encountered as full individuals. Read More

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September 2021

Do intersecting identities structure social contexts to influence life course health? The case of school peer economic disadvantage and obesity.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 29;289:114424. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University, 2040 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL, 60208-4100, USA; Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, 1810 Hinman St., Evanston, IL, 60208-1310, USA.

Scholarship linking social contextual measures to health outcomes has grown in recent decades, but the role of individuals' intersecting identities in structuring social contexts to influence health remains unclear. Building on an existing intersectionality framework, we conceptualize how this may occur through social relationships. Then, we apply this framework to analyze whether adolescent peer social contextual disadvantage influences life-course obesity heterogeneously by individual gender, race, and early-life income. Read More

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September 2021

Seizure recurrence after prolonged seizure control: Patterns and risk factors.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Oct 11;124:108330. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Neurology, George Washington University, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, United States.

Objective: To identify the patterns and possible predictors of seizure recurrence after durable seizure freedom during maintenance of anti-seizure medication (ASM) treatment.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study that identified all adult individuals with epilepsy (IWE) at the George Washington University outpatient epilepsy clinic between 1/1/2014 and 12/31/2016 who had been seizure free for at least 2 years. We followed up the patients until 5/30/2020 for seizure recurrence. Read More

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October 2021

Healthcare inequities among adults with developmental disability: An integrative review with implications for nursing education.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Oct 2;57:103225. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

M. Louise Fitzpatrick College of Nursing, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, USA. Electronic address:

Aim: This integrative review synthesized research on the healthcare inequities experienced by adults with developmental disability in the United States and discussed implications for nursing education.

Background: Individuals with developmental disability are living longer with chronic comorbidities and experience healthcare inequities.

Method: Application of inclusion criteria to database and ancestry searches resulted in 26 articles that were assessed for quality and analyzed thematically. Read More

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October 2021

Serology-based therapeutic strategy in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 5;101(Pt B):108214. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital San Pedro, Logroño, La Rioja. C/Piqueras 98, PC 26006, Spain. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 infection can be a life-threatening disease. The optimal treatment of patients is not yet standardized. We use a serology-based therapeutic strategy based on the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, in which patients with positive serology receive aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment with high-dose dexamethasone and/or tocilizumab and patients with negative serology receive early convalescent plasma therapy. Read More

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October 2021

Serological anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies association to live virus neutralizing test titers in COVID-19 paucisymptomatic/symptomatic patients and vaccinated subjects.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Oct 4;101(Pt B):108215. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy; Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome, Italy; IFCC Emerging Technologies Division, Milan, Italy.

A large number of immunoassays have been developed to detect specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; however, not always they are functional to neutralize the virus. The reference test for the anti-spike neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) ability to counteract the viral infection is the virus neutralization test (VNT). Great interest is developing on reliable serological assays allowing antibodies concentration and antibody protective titer correlation. Read More

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October 2021

Lung cancer-associated T cell repertoire as potential biomarker for early detection of stage I lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2021 Sep 28;162:16-22. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Key Clinical Specialty, Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China; Xiangya Lung Cancer Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; Center for Molecular Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Background: Early detection of lung cancer in asymptomatic patients remains challenging, especially for stage I. Considering the substantial interaction with tumor immunogenicity, we hypothesized that lung cancer-associated TCR (LC-aTCR) may serve as potential biomarker in early detection of stage I lung cancer.

Methods: Individuals who received low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening were enrolled in the study. Read More

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September 2021

Circular RNAs; powerful microRNA sponges to overcome diabetic nephropathy.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Sep 15;227:153618. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), is a drastic renal complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Poorly controlled DM over the years, may disrupt kidneys' blood vessels, leading to the hypertension (HTN) and DN onset. During DN, kidneys' waste filtering ability becomes disturbed. Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 Vaccination Patterns and Attitudes Among American Pregnant Individuals.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Oct 11:100507. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, CA.

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October 2021

Development of a 2-step algorithm to identify emergency department patients for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Oct 6;51:6-12. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Highland Hospital, Alameda Health System, Oakland, CA, United States of America.

Background: Expanded access to HIV PrEP is a central pillar of the "Ending the HIV Epidemic" initiative. Identification of PrEP eligible individuals in EDs remains understudied. Our goal was to estimate the accuracy of the Denver HIV Risk Score (DHRS), a quantitative HIV risk tool, for determining PrEP eligibility, and to incorporate it into a novel screening algorithm to optimize sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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October 2021

Protective Immunity after Natural Infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - Kentucky, USA, 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Kentucky Department for Public Health, USA; Career Epidemiology Field Officer Program, Center for Preparedness and Response, CDC, USA.

Background: As vaccine supply and access remain limited in many parts of the world, understanding the duration of protection from reinfection after natural infection is important.

Methods: Distinct individuals testing positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 between March 6, 2020, and August 31, 2020, in Kentucky, USA, were identified using the Kentucky National Electronic Disease Surveillance System. Individuals were followed for occurrence of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 from 91 days after their initial test result through December 31, 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Modulating medial prefrontal cortex activity using real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Effects on reality monitoring performance and associated functional connectivity.

Neuroimage 2021 Oct 11:118640. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton, Grove House, Roehampton Lane, London, SW15 5PJ, UK; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK; Department of Psychiatry, Icahn Medical Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1230, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Neuroimaging studies have found 'reality monitoring', our ability to distinguish internally generated experiences from those derived from the external world, to be associated with activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the brain. Here we probe the functional underpinning of this ability using real-time fMRI neurofeedback to investigate the involvement of mPFC in recollection of the source of self-generated information. Thirty-nine healthy individuals underwent neurofeedback training in a between groups study receiving either Active feedback derived from the paracingulate region of the mPFC (21 subjects) or Sham feedback based on a similar level of randomised signal (18 subjects). Read More

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October 2021

OUTDOOR MOULD AND RESPIRATORY HEALTH: State of Science of Epidemiological Studies.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Équipe d'Épidémiologie respiratoire intégrative, CESP, 94807, Villejuif, France.

Background: Fungal spores are the predominant biological particulates in outdoor air. However, in contrast to pollens or outdoor air pollution, little is known about their respiratory health risks.

Objectives: The objectives were to conduct the first review of epidemiological studies on the short and long-term effects of outdoor mould exposure on respiratory health in children and adults. Read More

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October 2021

Brief Report: Impact of joint lung cancer screening and cessation interventions under the new USPSTF recommendations.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Office of the Director, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: In 2021, the USPSTF revised its lung cancer screening recommendations expanding its eligibility. As more smokers become eligible, cessation interventions at the point of screening could enhance the benefits. Here we assess the effects of joint screening and cessation interventions under the new recommendations. Read More

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October 2021

Health Plans Struggle to Report on Depression Quality Measures that Require Clinical Data.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

National Committee for Quality Assurance (E Morden, S Byron, L Roth, SS Olin and H Scholle), Wash.

Objective: Depression quality measures aligned with evidence-based practices require that health care organizations use standardized tools for tracking and monitoring patient-reported symptoms and functioning over time. This study describes challenges and opportunities for reporting five HEDIS measures which use electronic clinical data to assess adolescent and perinatal depression care quality.

Methods: Two learning collaboratives were convened with 10 health plans from five states to support reporting of the depression measures. Read More

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October 2021

Vasopressin to control blood loss during hysterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Objective: Minimizing intraoperative blood loss during hysterectomy is crucial to lessen associated perioperative morbidity. The aim of this investigation is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared vasopressin versus normal saline in controlling intraoperative blood loss during hysterectomy.

Data Sources: We screened five major databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception till July 18, 2021. Read More

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October 2021

Stress analysis in AAA does not predict rupture location correctly in patients with intraluminal thrombus.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Mines Saint-Etienne, Univ Lyon, INSERM, U 1059 Sainbiose, Centre CIS, F - 42023 Saint-Etienne France. Electronic address:

Objectives: A biomechanical approach to the rupture risk of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) could be a solution to ensure a personalized estimate of this risk. It is still difficult to know in what conditions, the assumptions made by biomechanics, are valid. The objective of this work was to determine the individual biomechanical rupture threshold and to assess the correlation between their rupture sites and the locations of their maximum stress comparing two computed tomography scan (CT) before and at time of rupture. Read More

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October 2021

IQ alteration induced by lead in developed and underdeveloped/developing countries: A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 11:118316. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Pb exposure on full-scale IQ score in pediatric subjects. Following PRISMA guidelines, the data from January 2010 to April 2020 were systematically searched and collected on electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Embase). The eligibility criteria included cross-sectional, cohort, and case-control studies that were published in English, from 2010 to 2020, that analyzed the blood Pb levels of pediatric subjects (0-19 years) and possible changes in the full-scale IQ score. Read More

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October 2021

Fragility of nocturnal interactions: Pollination intensity increases with distance to light pollution sources but decreases with increasing environmental suitability.

Environ Pollut 2021 Oct 11;292(Pt A):118350. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Laboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva y Biología Floral, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, Casilla de Correo 495, X5000ZAA, Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Light pollution represents a widespread long-established human-made disturbance and an important threat to nocturnal pollination. Distance from the niche centroid where optimal environmental conditions join may be related to species sensitivity to habitat change. We estimated the environmental suitability of the plant species Erythrostemon gilliesii and of its guild of hawkmoth pollinators. Read More

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October 2021

Cardiorespiratory fitness and prefrontal cortex oxygenation during Stroop task in older males.

Physiol Behav 2021 Oct 11:113621. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Laboratoire MOVE (EA 6314), Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France; Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Montréal, Canada; Ecole de Kinésiologie et des Sciences de l'Activité Physique (EKSAP), Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada.

Aim: The aim of the current study was to assess whether executive function and prefrontal oxygenation are dependent on fitness level and age in older adults.

Methods: Twenty-four healthy males aged between 55 and 69 years old were recruited for this study. They were stratified by age, leading to the creation of two groups: 55-60 years old and 61-69 years old. Read More

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October 2021

ELUCIDATING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND COGNITION IN MIDDLE-AGED ADULTS: APPLICATION OF DIMENSIONAL AND CATEGORICAL APPROACHES.

J Affect Disord 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Level 6, 18 Innovation Walk, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: In older adults, depressive and anxiety symptoms are associated with dementia risk, and represent a manifestation of the dementia prodrome. Understanding how these symptoms are related to cognition in midlife may inform risk models of dementia.

Methods: This study examined the relationship between depressive and anxiety symptoms, and cognition, in a sample (n = 2,657) of participants enrolled in the Healthy Brain Project. Read More

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October 2021

Predicting Duration of Outpatient Physical Therapy Episodes for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Based on Locomotor Training Strategy.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Professor, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Director, Center for Rehabilitation Outcomes Research, Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, USA.

Objective: To characterize individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) who use outpatient physical therapy (PT) or community wellness services for locomotor training and predict the duration of services (DOS) controlling for demographic, injury, quality of life, and service and financial characteristics. We explore how DOS is related to locomotor strategy.

Design: Observational study of participants at four SCI Model Systems centers with survival Weibull regression model to predict DOS. Read More

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October 2021