5,140 results match your criteria indirect selection

Genetic variability and trait association in maize ( L.) varieties for growth and yield traits.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 4;7(9):e07939. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal.

The present study was carried out to study the variation, broad-sense heritability, genetic advance, correlation among traits for growth, yield, and its attributing traits in maize genotypes. Ten maize genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications from June 2019 to September 2019. The results indicated that the genotypes were significantly different for all traits. Read More

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September 2021

Anthropometrics of Estonian children in relation to family disruption: Thrifty phenotype and Trivers-Willard effects.

Evol Med Public Health 2021 20;9(1):276-286. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Zoology, University of Tartu, Vanemuise 46, Tartu 51014, Estonia.

Background And Objectives: The thrifty phenotype hypothesis proposes that at resource limitation, the growth of some organs/tissues is selectively spared to preserve more critical ones, such as the brain or lungs. The Trivers-Willard hypothesis (TWH) predicts that boys are more vulnerable in the case of resource limitation than girls. Both hypotheses were tested in children from disrupted families, differing in the extent of deprivation/adversities imposed on them. Read More

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[Annotating clause boundary labels to the written composition corpus of Japanese elementary and junior high school students].

F1000Res 2021 14;10:562. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8577, Japan.

To evaluate the development of children's writing ability, it is necessary not only to examine quantitative indices such as the dependency distance, but also to inquiry the types of structures they use. We conducted clause boundary labeling using Support Vector Machine (SVM) on a corpus of Japanese students' compositions to investigate the change in the tendency of clause use with the progression of school age. The analysis of clause label frequency per sentence exhibited an increase in attributive clauses, nominal clauses, quotation clauses, and continuous clauses, and a decrease in parallel clauses, conditional clauses, reason clauses, time clauses, indirect interrogative clauses, and main clauses. Read More

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Genetic Consequences of Biologically Altered Environments.

J Hered 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Evolvable traits of organisms can alter the environment those organisms experience. While it is well appreciated that those modified environments can influence natural selection to which organisms are exposed, they can also influence the expression of genetic variances and covariances of traits under selection. When genetic variance and covariance change in response to changes in the evolving, modified environment, rates and outcomes of evolution also change. Read More

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September 2021

Direct and indirect effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage in children hospitalised with pneumonia from formal and informal settlements in Mongolia: an observational study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Oct 30;15:100231. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI), Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, risk factors for pneumonia are concentrated among children living in informal settlements comprised of temporary shelters (gers). We used pneumococcal carriage surveillance among children from formal and informal settlements hospitalised with pneumonia to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against vaccine-type (VT) pneumococcal carriage following a phased introduction of PCV13.

Methods: We enrolled and collected nasopharyngeal swabs from children 2-59 months of age presenting to hospital. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of consumers and health providers working in partnership on health services planning, delivery and evaluation.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 15;9:CD013373. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Health Communication and Participation, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.

Background: Health services have traditionally been developed to focus on specific diseases or medical specialties. Involving consumers as partners in planning, delivering and evaluating health services may lead to services that are person-centred and so better able to meet the needs of and provide care for individuals. Globally, governments recommend consumer involvement in healthcare decision-making at the systems level, as a strategy for promoting person-centred health services. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors on Blood Pressure in Patients with Unresectable or Advanced Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma-Bayes-Mixed Treatment Comparison Meta-Analysis.

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Sep;48(9):1145-1151

Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ohu University.

Although cytokine therapy has been a common drug therapy for renal cell carcinoma for long since the 1980s, the evidence for the rationale of this therapy has been limited. Currently, 7 molecular targeted drugs(ie, sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, everolimus, and temsirolimus)are available in Japan. Among these molecular targeted drugs, we clinically evaluated 5 tyrosine kinase inhibitors(ie, sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and cabozantinib)in terms of their effects on blood pressure and the response rate by Bayes-mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis(Bayes- MTC analysis)to develop the decision-making model for the optimal treatment selection. Read More

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September 2021

Indirect costs attributed to headache: A nation-wide survey of an active working population.

Cephalalgia 2021 Sep 14:3331024211043795. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Public Health National School, 50106Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: The economic burden of headache in European countries is substantial, mostly related to indirect work-productivity loss costs, yet data for Portugal is scarce.

Methods: An anonymous web-based survey of headache was distributed to a convenience sample of Portuguese companies' workforces, to assess last-year headache and "yesterday"-point prevalence. Preexisting headaches were classified into migraine and non-migraine headache and work impact (absenteeism and presenteeism) was evaluated in relation to point prevalence. Read More

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September 2021

Best research practices for using the Implicit Association Test.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Interest in unintended discrimination that can result from implicit attitudes and stereotypes (implicit biases) has stimulated many research investigations. Much of this research has used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure association strengths that are presumed to underlie implicit biases. It had been more than a decade since the last published treatment of recommended best practices for research using IAT measures. Read More

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September 2021

Interactions of gall-formers and leaf-chewers on a tropical tree fern: evidence for non-repulsion and co-occurrence between insect guilds.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red de Ecología Funcional, Xalapa, Veracruz, México.

Host plant selection by herbivores is driven by a complex array of cues, including leaf traits and previous leaf damage. Herbivore-associated cues to host selection at the plant and leaf scale aid understanding of mechanisms responsible for host preference that might translate into increased performance, as well as processes structuring herbivore populations mediated by interactions. We investigated how changes induced by a galling insect in the tropical fern Cyathea phalerata act as repellent or attractant cues for sawfly feeding and the effects of leaf size on herbivory levels. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of Ethnicities and Skin Color Variations in Different Populations: A Review.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Adam-Vital Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: In the world scientific tradition, skin color is the primary physical characteristic used to divide humans into groups. Human skin has a wide range of tones and colors, which can be seen in a wide range of demographic populations. Many factors influence the color of people's skin, but the pigment melanin is by far the most important. Read More

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Neuroimmunological complications arising from chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity and opioid exposure in female dark agouti rats.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Cancer patients may experience symptom clusters, including chemotherapy-induced (CI) gut toxicity (CIGT) and cognitive impairment. Analgesic selection for pain associated with CIGT is difficult as opioids induce glial reactivity and unwanted side effects. This study quantified central glial reactivity and proinflammatory effects in rats with CIGT using three mechanistically different analgesics. Read More

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September 2021

Exploring women's decisions of where to give birth in the Peruvian Amazon; why do women continue to give birth at home? A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257135. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Despite improvements in maternal mortality globally, hundreds of women continue to die daily. The World Health Organisation therefore advises all women in low-and-middle income countries to give birth in healthcare facilities. Barriers to seeking intrapartum care have been described in Thaddeus and Maine's Three Delays Model, however these decisions are complex and often unique to different settings. Read More

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September 2021

Stable transfection system for Babesia sp. Xinjiang.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 9;14(1):463. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, China.

Background: Stable transfection systems have been described in many protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium falciparum, Cryptosporidium parvum, Babesia bovis, Babesia ovata, and Babesia gibsoni. For Babesia sp. Xinjiang (Bxj), which is the causative pathogen of ovine babesiosis and mainly prevails across China, the platform of those techniques remains absent. Read More

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September 2021

Mechanisms of Binding Specificity among bHLH Transcription Factors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 24;22(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Neurogenomics Group, Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB), Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), DCEXS, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

The transcriptome of every cell is orchestrated by the complex network of interaction between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites on DNA. Disruption of this network can result in many forms of organism malfunction but also can be the substrate of positive natural selection. However, understanding the specific determinants of each of these individual TF-DNA interactions is a challenging task as it requires integrating the multiple possible mechanisms by which a given TF ends up interacting with a specific genomic region. Read More

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Analysis of Hazard Rate of Municipalities in Slovakia in Terms of COVID-19.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 28;18(17). Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Fire Protection, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, YMS, a. s., 960 01 Trnava, Slovakia.

The coronavirus became a phenomenon in 2020, which is making an unwanted but wide space for the study of various scientific disciplines. The COVID-19 pandemic situation which has reached almost the whole civilized world by its consequences thus offers a unique possibility to analyze the graphic space and the human activities inside it. The aim of this study is to predict and identify the potential rate of threat on the example of COVID-19 in Slovakia through an established model. Read More

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Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks Using the Improved Markov Blanket Discovery Algorithm.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Computer Science, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, China.

Inferring gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from microarray data can help us understand the mechanisms of life and eventually develop effective therapies. Currently, many computational methods have been used in inferring GRNs. However, owing to high-dimensional data and small samples, these methods often tend to introduce redundant regulatory relationships. Read More

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September 2021

Mapping freezing tolerance QTL in alfalfa: based on indoor phenotyping.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Sep 6;21(1):403. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Institute of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Genomics, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: Winter freezing temperature impacts alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) persistence and seasonal yield and can lead to the death of the plant. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of alfalfa freezing tolerance (FT) using high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping is crucial to select suitable germplasm and develop winter-hardy cultivars. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of bacterial functional characteristics on the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in Expanded Granular Sludge Bed reactor treating the antibiotic wastewater.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 4;225:112714. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China.

To explore the fate and spreading mechanism of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in antibiotics wastewater system, a laboratory-scale (1.47 L) Expanded Granular Sludge Bed (EGSB) bioreactor was implemented. The operating parameters temperature (T) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were mainly considered. Read More

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September 2021

Experimental animal models for moyamoya disease and treatment: a pathogenesis-oriented scoping review.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 09;51(3):E5

Objective: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an intracranial steno-occlusive pathology characterized by progressive narrowing of proximal large vessels, including the terminal internal carotid arteries (ICAs), middle cerebral arteries, or anterior cerebral arteries. Named for the "puff of smoke" appearance of the anomalous vascularization visualized on cerebral angiography, MMD lacks a well-defined etiology, although significant insights have been made, including the identification of a susceptibility gene, RNF213, in humans with the disease. A limitation to advancing the understanding and treatment of MMD has been the lack of experimental animal models that authentically reflect the clinical pathogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Supporting Physiological Trait for Indirect Selection for Grain Yield in Drought-Stressed Popcorn.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jul 23;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Plant Breeding Laboratory, Agricultural Science and Technology Center, North Fluminense State University, Av. Alberto Lamego 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes 28013-602, Brazil.

The identification of traits associated with drought tolerance in popcorn is a contribution to support selection of superior plants under soil water deficit. The objective of this study was to choose morphological traits and the leaf greenness index, measured on different dates, to estimate grain yield (GY) and popping expansion (PE), evaluated in a set of 20 popcorn lines with different genealogies, estimated by multiple regression models. The variables were divided into three groups: morpho-agronomic traits-100-grain weight (GW), prolificacy (PR), tassel length (TL), number of tassel branches, anthesis-silking interval, leaf angle (FA) and leaf rolling (FB); variables related to the intensity of leaf greenness during the grain-filling period, at the leaf level, measured by a portable chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and at the canopy level, calculated as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Read More

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Overview and Strategy Analysis of Technology-Based Nonpharmacological Interventions for In-Hospital Delirium Prevention and Reduction: Systematic Scoping Review.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Aug 26;23(8):e26079. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Design, Production, and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Background: Delirium prevention is crucial, especially in critically ill patients. Nonpharmacological multicomponent interventions for preventing delirium are increasingly recommended and technology-based interventions have been developed to support them. Despite the increasing number and diversity in technology-based interventions, there has been no systematic effort to create an overview of these interventions for in-hospital delirium prevention and reduction. Read More

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Unveiling the Gut Microbiota and Resistome of Wild Cotton Mice, , from Heavy Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Sites in the Southeastern United States.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 25;9(1):e0009721. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

The prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) can be driven by direct selection from antibiotic use and indirect selection from substances such as heavy metals (HMs). While significant progress has been made to characterize the influence of HMs on the enrichment and dissemination of ARGs in the environment, there is still much we do not know. To fill this knowledge gap, we present a comprehensive analysis of gut bacteria associated with wild cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) trapped from several areas affected by legacies of HM and radionuclide contamination. Read More

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September 2021

Direct Electrochemical Determination of Peroxide-Type Explosives Using Well-Dispersed Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyethyleneimine-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes.

Anal Chem 2021 08 16;93(33):11451-11460. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Engineering Faculty, Chemistry Department, Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320, Turkey.

The sensitive and selective determination of peroxide-based explosives (PBEs) in the field/on site is an important analytical challenge. Most methods claiming to detect PBEs are indirect, actually detecting their decomposition product, HO. Here, we present an electrochemical sensor for direct detection of organic peroxide explosives, that is, triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine (HMTD), using well-dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyethyleneimine (MWCNTs/PEI)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode, namely, GC/MWCNTs/PEI electrode. Read More

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Review: Production factors affecting poultry carcass and meat quality attributes.

Animal 2021 Aug 18:100331. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, University of Bologna, 47522 Cesena, Italy.

Poultry meat mainly comes from standard production system using high growth rate strains reared under indoor intensive conditions. However, it is possible to find also different alternative systems using outdoor extensive rearing conditions and slow-growing lines. These different production systems can affect carcass and meat quality. Read More

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Free fatty acids, glicentin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide as potential major determinants of fasting substrate oxidation.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 17;11(1):16642. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

The selection of carbohydrates or fat to generate intracellular energy is thought to be crucial for long-term metabolic health. While most studies assess fuel selection after a metabolic challenge, the determinants of substrate oxidation in the fasted state remain largely unexplored. We therefore assessed the respiratory quotient by indirect calorimetry as a read-out for substrate oxidation following an overnight fast. Read More

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Local reputation, local selection, and the leading eight norms.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16560. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Humans are capable of solving cooperation problems following social norms. Social norms dictate appropriate behaviour and judgement on others in response to their previous actions and reputation. Recently, the so-called leading eight norms have been identified from many potential social norms that can sustain cooperation through a reputation-based indirect reciprocity mechanism. Read More

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Review: Factors affecting sheep carcass and meat quality attributes.

Animal 2021 Aug 13:100330. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Université Paris Est, Anses, Risk Assessment Department, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Sheep meat comes from a wide variety of farming systems utilising outdoor extensive to indoor intensive with animals of various ages at slaughter. In Europe, slaughter may occur from 4 weeks of age in suckling light lambs to adult ages. More than any other animal species used for meat production, there are strong country-specific preferences for sheep meat quality linked to production system characteristics such as dairy or grassland-based systems. Read More

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Interventional resealing of preterm premature rupture of the membranes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Aug 16:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Division, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness and outcomes of interventional resealing of membranes, "amniopatch" for spontaneous vs. iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of the membranes (sPPROM and iPPROM).

Methods: We performed a systematic review of literature involving an electronic search of the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Scopus. Read More

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Isolation and characterization of a novel GRP78-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) using ribosome display method.

Med Oncol 2021 Aug 14;38(9):115. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahed University, P.O. Box 18155/159, Tehran, Iran.

Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a well-characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperon frequently overexpressed at the surface of tumor cells and associated with tumor survival, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Hence, potential GRP78 binders emerge as promising candidates for cancer therapy and diagnosis. We applied ribosome display to isolate a single-chain variable domain (scFv) specific for the C-terminal domain of a recombinant human GRP78 (CGRP). Read More

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