1,272 results match your criteria indicating coat

Chitosan and putrescine modulate reactive oxygen species metabolism and physiological responses during chili fruit ripening.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 23;163:55-67. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology Research Unit, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 74 1235, Nadia, W.B., India. Electronic address:

We investigated the combined effect of chitosan (CHT) and putrescine (PUT) on the postharvest shelf life of Capsicum fruit concerning the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through direct and indirect effects on ripening characters cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme and ROS metabolism. The PUT and CHT directly affected quality indices like color, firmness and water loss with a concomitant oxidative bust in the development of O and HO in fruit pulp. This was accompanied by significant suppression of respiratory flux, a decrease of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content throughout postharvest storage. Read More

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Ethyl Cellulose-Assisted Host-Guest Framework for Depositing Solution-Processed Yttria Films on the Inner Surface of a Narrow Quartz Tube.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Materials Chemistry and Metal Fuel Cycle Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu, India.

Straightforward deposition protocols to coat flat surfaces are widely available. However, there are multiple constraints in coating a concave or convex surface, especially on the inner surface of narrow tubes. Coated surface helps in corrosion protection, internal cleanliness, strength, and alloy casting, and it also enhances product aesthetics. Read More

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A seed coat specific β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, KCS12, is critical for preserving seed physical dormancy.

Plant Physiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Grassland Agri-Husbandry Research Center, College of Grassland Science, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China.

Physical dormancy in seeds exists widely in seed plants and plays a vital role in maintaining natural seed banks. The outermost cuticle of the seed coat forms a water-impermeable layer, which is critical for establishing seed physical dormancy. We previously set up the legume plant Medicago truncatula as an excellent model for studying seed physical dormancy, and our studies revealed that a class II KNOTTED-like homeobox, KNOX4, is a transcription factor critical for controlling hardseededness. Read More

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R-locus for roaned coat is associated with a tandem duplication in an intronic region of USH2A in dogs and also contributes to Dalmatian spotting.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(3):e0248233. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Embark Veterinary, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Structural variations (SVs) represent a large fraction of all genetic diversity, but how this genetic diversity is translated into phenotypic and organismal diversity is unclear. Explosive diversification of dog coat color and patterns after domestication can provide a unique opportunity to explore this question; however, the major obstacle is to efficiently collect a sufficient number of individuals with known phenotypes and genotypes of hundreds of thousands of markers. Using customer-provided information about coat color and patterns of dogs tested on a commercial canine genotyping platform, we identified a genomic region on chromosome 38 that is strongly associated with a mottled coat pattern (roaning) by genome-wide association study. Read More

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Eight species of are hosting different genetic and pathogenic strains of in the Everglades Agricultural Area.

Phytopathology 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

CIRAD Biological Systems Department, 206941, Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France;

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in eight different species of the Poaceae family in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of south Florida: Broadleaf signalgrass (Urochloa platyphylla), Columbus grass (Sorghum almum), goosegrass (Eleusine indica), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), southern crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris), and sugarcane (Saccharum interspecific hybrids). Based on their coat protein (CP) gene sequence, 62 isolates of SCMV from Florida and 29 worldwide isolates representing the known genetic diversity of this virus were distributed into eight major phylogenetic groups. Read More

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February 2021

Effect of Grafting on Viral Resistance of Non-transgenic Plum Scion Combined With Transgenic PPV-Resistant Rootstock.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:621954. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Branch of Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Pushchino, Russia.

In stone fruit trees, resistance to (PPV) can be achieved through the specific degradation of viral RNA by the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic virus-resistant plants, however, raise serious biosafety concerns due to the insertion and expression of hairpin constructs that usually contain various selective foreign genes. Since a mature stone tree represents a combination of scion and rootstock, grafting commercial varieties onto transgenic virus-tolerant rootstocks is a possible approach to mitigate biosafety problems. Read More

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February 2021

Role of the Drosophila YATA protein in the proper subcellular localization of COPI revealed by in vivo analysis.

Genes Genet Syst 2021 Mar 13;95(6):303-314. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University.

yata mutants of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit phenotypes including progressive brain shrinkage, developmental abnormalities and shortened lifespan, whereas in mammals, null mutations of the yata ortholog Scyl1 result in motor neuron degeneration. yata mutation also causes defects in the anterograde intracellular trafficking of a subset of proteins including APPL, which is the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian APP, a causative molecule in Alzheimer's disease. SCYL1 binds and regulates the function of coat protein complex I (COPI) in secretory vesicles. Read More

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Tracking pesticide exposure to operating workers for risk assessment in seed coating with tebuconazole and carbofuran.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Coating seed with pesticides is an effective way to control plant pests, however, factory-based coating processes may carry a potential risk to operational workers of chemical exposure. To study the risk, carbofuran and tebuconazole were used to coat corn seed and their subsequent distribution on the bodies of workers was measured at manufacturers XFS and LS (Shanxi, China). Clothing was collected from workers during operations and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Read More

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February 2021

Two-dimensional real-time quality assurance dosimetry system using μ-AlO:C,Mg radioluminescence films.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2020 Oct 5;16:26-32. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Landauer, Stillwater Crystal Growth Division, Stillwater, USA.

Background And Purpose: There is a continual need for more accurate and effective dosimetric systems for quality assurance (QA) as radiotherapy evolves in complexity. The purpose of this project was to introduce a new system that minimally perturbs the main beam, while assessing its real time 2D dose-rate and field shapes. The system combined reusability, linear dose-rate response, and high spatial and time resolution in a single radiation detection technology that can be applied to surface dose estimation and QA. Read More

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October 2020

Prediction of putative regulatory elements in the subgenomic promoters of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and their interactions with the RNA dependent RNA polymerase domain.

Virusdisease 2020 Dec 5;31(4):503-516. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Advanced Centre for Plant Virology, Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, 110012 India.

Characterization of the subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) promoter of many plant viruses is important to understand the expression of downstream genes and also to configure their genome into a suitable virus gene-vector system. Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, genus ) is one of the RNA viruses, which is extensively being exploited as the suitable gene silencing and protein expression vector. Even though, characters of the sgRNA promoters (SGPs) of CGMMV are yet to be addressed. Read More

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December 2020

Rapid visual detection method for barley yellow mosaic virus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP).

Plant Dis 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Shanghai, China;

Barley yellow mosaic disease, caused mainly by barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), is a devastating disease of barley and is a threat to Eurasian barley production. Early detection is essential for effective management of the pathogens and to assure food security. In the present study, a simple, rapid, specific, sensitive, and visual method was developed to detect BaYMV using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Read More

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December 2020

Mouse Hair Significantly Lightened Through Replacement of the Cysteine Residue in the N-Terminal Domain of Mc1r Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System.

J Hered 2020 12;111(7):640-645

and Division of Developmental Genetics, Institute of Resource Development and Analysis, Kumamoto University, Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan.

A loss-of-function mutation in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R), which switches off the eumelanin production, causes yellowish coat color variants in mammals. In a wild population of sables (Martes zibellina) in Hokkaido, Japan, the mutation responsible for a bright yellow coat color variant was inferred to be a cysteine replacement at codon 35 of the N-terminal extracellular domain of the Mc1r receptor. In the present study, we validated these findings by applying genome editing on Mc1r in mouse strains C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6N, altering the codon for cysteine (Cys33Phe). Read More

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December 2020

Potential for small RNA production against Bombyx mori latent virus in Bombyx mori ovaries.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 Feb 22;106(2):e21761. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Agrobiology and Bioresources, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi, Japan.

Bombyx mori latent virus (BmLV) is a positive, single-stranded insect RNA virus closely related to plant maculaviruses. BmLV was first isolated from Bombyx mori ovary-derived cell line BmN-4, and this virus has already infected most B. mori-derived cultured cell lines. Read More

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February 2021

Poly(oxanorbornene)-Coated CdTe Quantum Dots as Antibacterial Agents.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2020 Feb 1;3(2):1097-1104. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland.

In this study, synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides based on poly(oxanorbornene) molecules (or PONs) were used to coat CdTe quantum dots (QDs). These PONs-CdTe QDs were investigated for their activity against , a bacterium with antibiotic resistant strains. At the same time, the antibacterial activity of the PONs-CdTe QDs was compared to the antibacterial activity of free PONs and free CdTe QDs. Read More

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February 2020

Structure and Functions of Cocoons Constructed by Eri Silkworm.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

College of Textile Science and Engineering (International Institute of Silk), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310000, China.

Eri silkworm cocoons (E cocoons) are natural composite biopolymers formed by continuous twin silk filaments (fibroin) bonded by sericin. As a kind of wild species, E cocoons have characteristics different from those of cocoons (B cocoons). E cocoons have an obvious multilayer (5-9 layers) structure with an eclosion hole at one end and several air gaps between the layers, which can be classified into three categories-cocoon coat, cocoon layer, and cocoon lining-with varying performance indexes. Read More

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November 2020

Conformal Coating of Orthopedic Plates with X-ray Scintillators and pH Indicators for X-ray Excited Luminescence Chemical Imaging through Tissue.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 12;12(47):52343-52353. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Departments of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technology (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, United States.

We describe a pH-indicating material that can be directly implanted or coated on orthopedic implant surfaces to provide high-spatial-resolution pH mapping through tissue by X-ray excited luminescence chemical imaging (XELCI). This is especially useful for detecting local pH changes during treatment of implant-associated infections. The material has two layers: an X-ray scintillator layer with GdOS:Eu in epoxy, which emits 620 and 700 nm light when irradiated with X-rays, and a pH indicator dye layer, which absorbs some of the 620 nm light in a pH-dependent fashion. Read More

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November 2020

Deposition patterns of iatrogenic lanthanum and gadolinium in the human body depend on delivered chemical binding forms.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jan 24;63:126665. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Recently, gadolinium from linear GBCAs has been reported to deposit in various regions of the body. Besides gadolinium, other lanthanides are used in medical care. In the current study, we investigated deposition of lanthanum in two patients who received lanthanum carbonate as a phosphate binder due to chronic kidney injury and compared it to additionally found Gd deposition. Read More

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January 2021

Genetic diversity analysis of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus isolates infecting transgenic papaya "Huanong No. 1" in South China.

Ecol Evol 2020 Oct 22;10(20):11671-11683. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease Control College of Agriculture South China Agricultural University Guangzhou China.

The commercialized genetically modified papaya "Huanong No. 1" has been utilized to successfully control the destructive virus-papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in South China since 2006. However, another new emerging virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), was found in some PRSV-resistant transgenic plants in Guangdong and Hainan provinces of South China through a field investigation from 2012 to 2019. Read More

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October 2020

Assessment of Phenotypic Characteristics and Work Suitability for Working Donkeys in the Central Highlands in Kenya.

Vet Med Int 2020 16;2020:8816983. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

University of Nairobi, Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nairobi, Kenya.

The study aimed to assess the phenotypic characteristics of donkeys and their suitability for work. Data were collected on age, sex, coat color, height at withers, body length, and heart girth from 360 randomly sampled donkeys raised in a highland agroecological system in Kenya between the months of June and September 2018. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA with the sex of the donkey and age group treated as sources of variation. Read More

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October 2020

Dopachrome tautomerase variants in patients with oculocutaneous albinism.

Genet Med 2021 Mar 26;23(3):479-487. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Rare Diseases, Genetics and Metabolism, INSERM U1211, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Albinism is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition. Despite analysis of the 20 known genes, ~30% patients remain unsolved. We aimed to identify new genes involved in albinism. Read More

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First Report of Garlic virus B infecting Garlic in India.

Plant Dis 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Directorate of Onion and Garlic Research, ICAR, Pune, Maharashtra, India;

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an economically important spice and vegetable crop grown throughout the world. Garlic viral disease complex caused by multiple virus infections is an important constraint in exploiting the potential yield of garlic. Read More

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October 2020

Genetic characterization and population structure of different coat colour variants of Badri cattle.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Nov 15;47(11):8485-8497. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal, 132001, India.

The present study aimed to genetically characterize the Badri cattle and its three colour variants and assess their population structure using 24 microsatellite markers. Out of 96 animals analyzed, 32 each were collected from grey (GVBC), brown (BrVBC) and black (BVBC) colour variants of Badri cattle (BC). The genetic diversity parameters including allele frequencies, observed and effective number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity, PIC, Shannon's indices and F-statistics were estimated using POPGENE software. Read More

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November 2020

Genetic characterization of Kushum horses in Kazakhstan based on haplotypes of mtDNA and Y chromosome, and genes associated with important traits of the horses.

J Equine Sci 2020 Oct 5;31(3):35-43. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

The Kushum is a relatively new breed of horses in Kazakhstan that was established in the middle of the 20th century through a cross between mares of Kazakhstan local horses and stallions of Thoroughbred, Trotter, and Russian Don breeds to supply military horses. To reveal the genetic characteristics of this breed, we investigated haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the Y chromosome, as well as genotypes of five functional genes associated with coat color, body composition, and locomotion traits. We detected 10 mtDNA haplotypes that fell into 8 of the 17 major haplogroups of horse mtDNA, indicating a unique haplotype composition with high genetic diversity. Read More

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October 2020

RNA editing of BFP, a point mutant of GFP, using artificial APOBEC1 deaminase to restore the genetic code.

Sci Rep 2020 10 14;10(1):17304. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Area of Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, M1-4F, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi City, Ishikawa, 923-1292, Japan.

Many genetic diseases are caused by T-to-C point mutations. Hence, editing of mutated genes represents a promising strategy for treating these disorders. We engineered an artificial RNA editase by combining the deaminase domain of APOBEC1 (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1) with a guideRNA (gRNA) which is complementary to target mRNA. Read More

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October 2020

Alginate Calcium Microbeads Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles for Controlled Insulin Release.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Feb 7;193(2):463-478. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.

Effective delivery system for oral insulin administration is a promising way for diabetes therapy. Herein, we prepared alginate microbeads containing chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) for controlled release of insulin. CNP was developed by reaction between tripolyphosphate (TPP) and chitosan. Read More

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February 2021

Evolution of isolated systolic hypertension with normal central blood pressure in adolescents-prospective study.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Feb 3;36(2):361-371. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Nephrology, Kidney Transplantation and Hypertension, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Aleja Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension with normal central blood pressure known as spurious hypertension (sHT) in adolescents and its evolution over time is not known.

Methods: The aim of this study was to analyze changes in office, ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM), central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), hemodynamic parameters, and target organ damage (TOD) over a 1-year follow-up in a group of non-obese children with sHT.

Results: Of 294 patients referred for primary hypertension, 138 patients (31 girls; 22%) had hypertension confirmed by ABPM. Read More

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February 2021

Age and mitochondrial DNA copy number influence the association between outdoor temperature and cognitive function: Insights from the VA Normative Aging Study.

Environ Epidemiol 2020 Aug 5;4(4):e0108. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Background: General cognitive function deteriorates with aging, a change that has been linked to outdoor temperature. Older individuals have reduced ability to adapt to changes in outdoor temperature than younger people. However, to what extent short-term changes in outdoor temperature interact with mitochondria to affect cognition in older people has not yet been determined. Read More

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Interactive Alignment and Lexical Triggering of Code-Switching in Bilingual Dialogue.

Front Psychol 2020 22;11:1747. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States.

When bilingual speakers use two languages in the same utterance, this is called code-switching. Previous research indicates that bilinguals' likelihood to code-switch is enhanced when the utterance to be produced (1) contains a word with a similar form across languages (lexical triggering) and (2) is preceded by a code-switched utterance, for example from a dialogue partner (interactive alignment/priming of code-switching). Both factors have mostly been tested on corpus data and have not yet been studied in combination. Read More

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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a coffee polyphenol, inhibits DNA methylation in vitro and in vivo.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Nov 8;887:173464. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Steroid Drug Discovery and Development, School of Life and Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518172, China; Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA. Electronic address:

DNA methylation represents an important epigenetic regulation of the genome. Earlier studies have suggested that dietary phenolic compounds including those contained in coffee, tea and soy products may modulate the level of DNA methylation. In this study, we first characterize the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and other dietary phenolic compounds on DNA methylation in vitro. Read More

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November 2020

Inhibitory effect of protein Y3 from Coprinus comatus on tobacco mosaic virus.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Sep 23;168:104474. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031, China. Electronic address:

The antiviral protein Y3 produced by the edible mushroom Coprinus comatus disrupts the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and inhibits the multiplication of TMV in Nicotiana tabacum; however, the detailed mechanism of its activity remains unclear. In this study, Y3 was demonstrated to interact with TMV coat protein (TMV-CP) in vitro as well as in tobacco plants by using a yeast two-hybrid system and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). To explore the interaction site between Y3 and TMV-CP, the phenylalanine (Phe) at the 43rd and arginine (Arg) at the 55th amino acid of Y3 were individually converted to cysteine (Cys) and serine (Ser), named Y3T1 and Y3T2, respectively, and were then used in BiFC assays. Read More

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September 2020