Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.
Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. We first review the well-known sex difference in incidence of MDD, with women being twice as likely to be diagnosed as men, and briefly summarize how the impact of MDD varies between men and women, with sex differences in symptoms, severity, and antidepressant drug response. We then attempt to deconstruct the biological bases for MDD and discuss implications for sex differences research. Read More