1,216 results match your criteria indicate paths

Supertetrahedral anions in the phosphidosilicates NaBaSiP and NaBaSiP.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Butenandtstrasse 5-13 (D), 83177 Munich, Germany.

Solid ionic conductors are one key component of all-solid-state batteries, and recent studies with lithium, sodium and potassium phosphidosilicates revealed remarkable ion conduction capabilities in these compounds. We report the synthesis and crystal structures of two quaternary phosphidosilicates with sodium and barium, which crystallize in new structure types. Na1. Read More

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Network Path Convergence Shapes Low-Level Processing in the Visual Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 24;15:645709. Epub 2021 May 24.

Computational Neuroscience and Complex Systems Research Group, Department of Computational Sciences, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest, Hungary.

Hierarchical counterstream via feedforward and feedback interactions is a major organizing principle of the cerebral cortex. The counterstream, as a topological feature of the network of cortical areas, is captured by the convergence and divergence of paths through directed links. So defined, the convergence degree (CD) reveals the reciprocal nature of forward and backward connections, and also hierarchically relevant integrative properties of areas through their inward and outward connections. Read More

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Unfolding the synergy and interaction of water-land-food nexus for sustainable resource management: A supernetwork analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 14;784:147085. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Construction Science Technology Group Co., Ltd of China, Beijing 100013, PR China.

Given the large amounts of water, land, and food embodied in the trade of goods and services, a key step in decoupling extensive resource consumption from the economic system is to understand the full impact of socioeconomic development on the water-land-food nexus. This study integrates input-output analysis, ecological network analysis, and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory into a supernetwork model to detect the water-land-food nexus among economic sectors with an aim to explore effective strategic paths for resource management and to facilitate the construction of a resource-saving society. Results show that most sectors of China are resource inefficient and that all resource systems are unsustainable as reflected in the low performance of their Finn's cycling index and system robustness. Read More

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A comprehensive survey of developmental programs reveals a dearth of tree-like lineage graphs and ubiquitous regeneration.

BMC Biol 2021 May 21;19(1):111. Epub 2021 May 21.

Center for Soft and Living Matter, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan, 44919, South Korea.

Background: Multicellular organisms are characterized by a wide diversity of forms and complexity despite a restricted set of key molecules and mechanisms at the base of organismal development. Development combines three basic processes-asymmetric cell division, signaling, and gene regulation-in a multitude of ways to create this overwhelming diversity of multicellular life forms. Here, we use a generative model to test the limits to which such processes can be combined to generate multiple differentiation paths during development, and attempt to chart the diversity of multicellular organisms generated. Read More

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Mapping spatial supply chain paths for embodied water flows driven by food demand in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;786:147480. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory for City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, People's Republic of China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, People's Republic of China.

Identifying critical spatial supply chain paths for embodied water flows driven by food demand can guide the development of more spatially explicit food-related policies for water savings. Previous studies have quantified water uses caused by food demand, but overlook intermediate transfer paths within and among regions. That is, spatial supply chain paths describing step-by-step transfer stages between water uses and final food demand have not been well characterized. Read More

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September 2021

Observation and mechanism of cryo N cleavage by a tantalum cluster.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 May;23(19):11345-11354

Fachbereich Chemie and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

We explore the cryogenic kinetics of N2 adsorption to Ta4+ and the infrared signatures of [Ta4(N2)m]+ complexes, m = 1-5. This is accomplished by N2 exposure of isolated ions within a cryogenic ion trap. We find stepwise addition of numerous N2 molecules to the Ta4+ cluster. Read More

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Synergistic aircraft and ground observations of transported wildfire smoke and its impact on air quality in New York City during the summer 2018 LISTOS campaign.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;773:145030. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, USA; NOAA - Cooperative Science Center for Earth System Sciences and Remote Sensing Technologies, New York, NY 10031, USA.

Air pollution associated with wildfire smoke transport during the summer can significantly affect ozone (O) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations, even in heavily populated areas like New York City (NYC). Here, we use observations from aircraft, ground-based lidar, in-situ analyzers and satellite to study and assess wildfire smoke transport, vertical distribution, optical properties, and potential impact on air quality in the NYC urban and coastal areas during the summer 2018 Long Island Sound Tropospheric Ozone Study (LISTOS). We investigate an episode of dense smoke transported and mixed into the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on August 15-17, 2018. Read More

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A computational investigation of the selectivity and mechanism of the Lewis acid catalyzed oxa-Diels-Alder cycloaddition of substituted diene with benzaldehyde.

J Comput Chem 2021 Jul 30;42(18):1296-1311. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Université de Lyon, CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

The selectivity and the mechanism of the uncatalyzed and AlCl catalyzed hetero-Diels-Alder reaction (HDR) between ([E]-4-methylpenta-2,4-dienyloxy)(tert-butyl)dimethylsilane 1 and benzaldehyde 2 have been studied using density functional theory at the MPWB1K/6-31G(d) level of theory. The uncatalyzed HDR between diene 1 and alkene 2 is characterized by a polar character and proceeds via an asynchronous one-step mechanism for the meta paths and synchronous for the ortho ones. In the presence of AlCl catalyst, the mechanism changes to be stepwise, while the first step is the rate-determining step. Read More

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A Single-Cell Perspective on Memory T-Cell Differentiation.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Munich 81675 , Germany.

Memory differentiation of CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations has been extensively studied and many key molecular players and transcriptional networks have been identified. But how regulatory principles, identified on this population level, translate to immune responses that originate from single antigen-specific T cells is only now being elucidated. Here, we provide a short summary of the approaches used for mapping the fate of individual T cells and their progeny in vivo. Read More

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Evaluation of Parents' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Pediatric Dental Practice during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Oral Health Prev Dent 2021 Jan;19(1):271-277

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health crisis worldwide and it also has generated new challenges for dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of the parents of pediatric patients about dental treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic through a questionnaire.

Materials And Methods: A structured questionnaire consisting of 15 multiple-choice questions and demographic information about the knowledge and attitudes of parents regarding dental treatment during the COVID-19 outbreak was used for the study. Read More

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January 2021

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology and Substance Use in an Outpatient Concurrent Disorders Sample.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 Apr 20:7067437211011851. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, McMaster University & St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) present a complex and often severe clinical presentation within a concurrent disorders context. The objective of this study was to examine associations between PTSD symptoms and SUD outcomes to better understand the clinical phenomenon of comorbid PTSD and SUD. Multivariate statistical methods were used to test the hypothesis that elevated PTSD symptoms, both at the level of global severity and specific PTSD symptom clusters, are associated with greater substance use and related problems. Read More

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Counterexample Search in Diagram-Based Geometric Reasoning.

Cogn Sci 2021 Apr;45(4):e12959

CAOs Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.

Topological relations such as inside, outside, or intersection are ubiquitous to our spatial thinking. Here, we examined how people reason deductively with topological relations between points, lines, and circles in geometric diagrams. We hypothesized in particular that a counterexample search generally underlies this type of reasoning. Read More

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Changes in car drivers' attitudes and behaviours, and cyclist numbers following the introduction of a cyclist minimum passing distance law.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 16;156:106108. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, Australia.

Cyclists are vulnerable road users who are more likely than others to be involved and injured in accidents and crashes. To enhance cyclists' safety, governments around the world have introduced bicycle passing distance laws, yet research into the effectiveness of these laws is still limited. This study examines the changes in driver behaviour (passing distance, aggressive behaviour) and negative attitudes towards cyclists, as well as cyclist numbers on the roads following the introduction of a cyclist minimum passing distance law in Western Australia in 2017. Read More

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Covid-19 and the Brazilian Reality: The Role of Favelas in Combating the Pandemic.

Front Sociol 2020 17;5:611990. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Psychology Graduate Program, Psychology Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The consequences of coronavirus in favelas in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) point to social inequality as a structuring factor in Brazilian society. The contagion spread and multiple death cases reveal the multiplicity of existence ways that cohabit the urban context, indicating that in many of these scenarios, access to decent housing, drinking water, and minimum income is not a reality and recommendations from international health agencies are challenging to implement. Against government technopolitics that drive different forms of death to the poorest, black communities, and slum dwellers, territorial insurgencies indicate other paths for the construction of a dignified life and access to fundamental rights, targeted solidarity practices, territorial political organization and the construction of specific public policies to deal with the effects of the virus which takes into account the particularities and distinct realities of the territory. Read More

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December 2020

Squaring Things Up With R2: What it is, What it Can (and cannot) Tell You.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Toxicology, Laboratoire de sciences judiciaires et de médecine légale, 1701 Parthenais Street, Montréal, Québec H2K 3S7, Canada.

The coefficient of correlation (r) and the coefficient of determination (R2 or r2) have long been used in analytical chemistry, bioanalysis and forensic toxicology as figures demonstrating linearity of the calibration data in method validation. We clarify here what these two figures are and why they should not be used for this purpose in the context of model fitting for prediction. R2 evaluates whether the data are better explained by the regression model used than by no model at all (i. Read More

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Transmission of SARS-Cov-2 and other enveloped viruses to the environment through protective gear: a brief review.

EuroMediterr J Environ Integr 2021 7;6(2):48. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Transport Phenomena and Biotechnology, Department of D.I.M.E.S, University of Calabria, Via- P. Bucci, Cubo-42a, 87036 Rende, CS Italy.

Over the past two decades, several deadly viral epidemics have emerged, which have placed humanity in danger. Previous investigations have suggested that viral diseases can spread through contaminants or contaminated surfaces. The transmission of viruses via polluted surfaces relies upon their capacity to maintain their infectivity while they are in the environment. Read More

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Reducing SARS-CoV-2 Pathological Protein Activity with Small Molecules.

J Pharm Anal 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

NanoBiomedical Center of the Adam Mickiewicz University, Wszechnicy Piastowskiej 3, 61-614, Poznań, Poland.

Coronaviruses are dangerous human and animal pathogens. The newly identified coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 outbreak, which is a real threat to human health and life. The world has been struggling with this epidemic for about a year, yet there are still no targeted drugs and effective treatments are very limited. Read More

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Age-Related Changes in Spatial Navigation Are Evident by Midlife and Differ by Sex.

Psychol Sci 2021 May 5;32(5):692-704. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Accumulating evidence suggests that distinct aspects of successful navigation-path integration, spatial-knowledge acquisition, and navigation strategies-change with advanced age. Yet few studies have established whether navigation deficits emerge early in the aging process (prior to age 65) or whether early age-related deficits vary by sex. Here, we probed healthy young adults (ages 18-28) and midlife adults (ages 43-61) on three essential aspects of navigation. Read More

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A two-step vaccination technique to limit COVID-19 spread using mobile data.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Jul 27;70:102886. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, but due to limitations in vaccines' availability, especially when faced with a new disease such as COVID-19, not all individuals in the community can be vaccinated. A limited number of candidates should be selected when the supply of vaccines is limited. In this paper, a method is introduced to prioritize the individuals for vaccination in order to achieve the best results in preventing the spread of COVID-19. Read More

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Communication Planning for Cooperative Terrain-Based Underwater Localization.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Collaborative Robotics and Intelligent Systems Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA.

This paper presents a decentralized communication planning algorithm for cooperative terrain-based navigation (dec-TBN) with autonomous underwater vehicles. The proposed algorithm uses forward simulation to approximate the value of communicating at each time step. The simulations are used to build a directed acyclic graph that can be searched to provide a minimum cost communication schedule. Read More

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Inter-species Variabilities of Droplet Transport, Size Change, and Deposition in Human and Rat Respiratory Systems: An Study.

J Aerosol Sci 2021 May 23;154. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

To speculate on human responses from animal studies, scale-up factors (body weight, lung volume, or lung surface area ratios) are currently used to extrapolate aerosol lung deposition from animal to human. However, those existing scale-up methods between animals and humans neglected two important inter-subject variability factors: (1) the effect of anatomical differences in respiratory systems from mouth/nose to peripheral lungs between human and rat, and (2) the effect of spatial distributions and temporal evolutions of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on droplet size change dynamics between the two species. To test the above-mentioned inter-species variability effects on droplet fates in pulmonary routes and generate correlations as a precise scale-up method for lung deposition estimation, this study simulated the transport of pure-water droplets in both human and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat respiratory systems. Read More

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Incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in human atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 Mar;23(Supplement_1):i123-i132

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aims: Repetitive conduction patterns in atrial fibrillation (AF) may reflect anatomical structures harbouring preferential conduction paths and indicate the presence of stationary sources for AF. Recently, we demonstrated a novel technique to detect repetitive patterns in high-density contact mapping of AF. As a first step towards repetitive pattern mapping to guide AF ablation, we determined the incidence, prevalence, and trajectories of repetitive conduction patterns in epicardial contact mapping of paroxysmal and persistent AF patients. Read More

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Response of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) to pipelines in Alberta.

Environ Manage 2021 06 18;67(6):1158-1170. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Scientist and Program Lead, Grizzly Bear Program, fRI Research, 1176 Switzer Drive, Hinton, AB, T7V 1V3, Canada.

This research provides the first in-depth analysis of fine-scale grizzly bear habitat selection and movement patterns in response to the linear footprints cleared for below-ground pipelines in Alberta. Using an extensive set of GPS location data from collared grizzly bears, we were able to determine that grizzly bears selected for younger pipelines (mean age since last construction~6.5 years), which are known to have a greater abundance of important bear foods. Read More

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Deciphering groundwater flow-paths in fault-controlled semiarid mountain front zones (Central Chile).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 29;771:145456. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Centro de Excelencia en Geotermia de los Andes (CEGA), Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The Mountain-Block Recharge (MBR), also referred to as the hidden recharge, consists of groundwater inflows from the mountain block into adjacent alluvial aquifers. This is a significant recharge process in arid environments, but frequently discarded since it is imperceptible from the ground surface. In fault-controlled Mountain Front Zones (MFZs), the hydrogeological limit between the mountain-block and adjacent alluvial basins is complex and, consequently, the groundwater flow-paths reflect that setting. Read More

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Proton path reconstruction for pCT using neural networks.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

FBK, Trento, 38100, ITALY.

The Most Likely Path formalism (MLP) is widely established as the most statistically precise method for proton path reconstruction in proton computed tomography (pCT). However, while this method accounts for small-angle Multiple Coulomb Scattering (MCS) and energy loss, inelastic nuclear interactions play an influential role in a significant number of proton paths. By applying cuts based on energy and direction, tracks influenced by nuclear interactions are largely discarded from the MLP analysis. Read More

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Differences in anchoring strategy underlie differences in coordination in novice jugglers.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2021 Apr 16;215:103273. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Sport and Health Science, Tokai Gakuen University, Miyoshi 470-0207, Japan.

The learning process of ball juggling is characterized by considerable individual differences in acquired coordination patterns. Previous research has shown that the coordination patterns observed in novice jugglers can be roughly divided into two classes: the high ratio pattern, in which the ball is held for a relatively long time, and the low ratio pattern, in which the ball is held for a relatively short time. To account for these differences in coordination patterns, we examined the anchoring strategies employed by novice jugglers for controlling the juggling movements. Read More

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A prenatal programming perspective on the intergenerational transmission of maternal adverse childhood experiences to offspring health problems.

Am Psychol 2021 Feb-Mar;76(2):337-349

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University.

Decades of research indicate that individuals exposed to childhood adversity are at risk for poor physical and mental health across their life span. More recently, intergenerational transmission of trauma and prenatal programming frameworks suggest an even longer reach for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), with consequences that extend to subsequent generations. Beyond the individual-level consequences typically observed by empirical studies of ACEs, mothers' experiences of early adversity may also compromise the maternal-child dyadic relationship. Read More

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February 2022

Understanding the Exposure Process in the Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography.

Sang-Kon Kim

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Aug;21(8):4466-4469

The Faculty of Liberal Arts, Hongik University, Seoul 04066, Republic of Korea.

Although being the optical lithography, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography with 13.5-nm wavelength is very different from the deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography with 193-nm wavelength. Hence, the understanding of the complex detailed EUV mechanisms to cause a chemical reaction in chemically amplified resists (CARs) is required to develop EUV resists and exposure process. Read More

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Analysis of the effect of COVID-19 on air pollution: perspective of the Spanish case.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022, València, Spain.

The pandemic caused by coronavirus COVID-19 is having a worldwide impact that affects health and the economy and indirectly affects air pollution in cities. In Spain, the effect has evolved from being anecdotal in January 2020 to become the second country in Europe with the highest number of cases (614,000 cases by 17/09/2020), which has affected the health system and caused major mobility restrictions. In contrast, COVID-19 has affected air pollution and energy consumption in the country. Read More

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Large-Scale Transcriptomics Studies Provide Insight Into Sex Differences in Depression.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. We first review the well-known sex difference in incidence of MDD, with women being twice as likely to be diagnosed as men, and briefly summarize how the impact of MDD varies between men and women, with sex differences in symptoms, severity, and antidepressant drug response. We then attempt to deconstruct the biological bases for MDD and discuss implications for sex differences research. Read More

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January 2021