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Differentiation of Brain Tumor Microvasculature From Normal Vessels Using Optical Coherence Angiography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas Austin, Austin, Texas, 78712, USA.

Background And Objectives: Despite rapid advances and discoveries in medical imaging, monitoring therapeutic efficacy for malignant gliomas and monitoring tumor vasculature remains problematic. The purpose of this study is to utilize optical coherence angiography for vasculature characterization inside and surrounding brain tumors in a murine xenograft brain tumor model. Features included in our analysis include fractional blood volume, vessel tortuosity, diameter, orientation, and directionality. Read More

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Seasonal dynamics of biochemical composition and fatty acids of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the Southeast Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 9;169:105388. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centro de Investigación en Biodiversidad y Ambientes Sustentables (CIBAS), Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile; Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Casilla 297, Concepción, Chile. Electronic address:

In the Southeast Pacific Ocean, Xiphias gladius migrates through the Chilean coastal zone for feeding. Here, it forages for different prey items from autumn to spring, acquiring a great variety of energy and nutritional reserves. We evaluated seasonal variations in the biochemical reserves (i. Read More

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Age-dependent modulation of motor network connectivity for skill acquisition, consolidation and interlimb transfer after motor practice.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May 8;132(8):1790-1801. Epub 2021 May 8.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Human Movement Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands; Institute of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Faculty of Sciences, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary; Somogy County Kaposi Mór Teaching Hospital, Kaposvár, Hungary.

Objective: Age-related differences in neural strategies for motor learning are not fully understood. We determined the effects of age on the relationship between motor network connectivity and motor skill acquisition, consolidation, and interlimb transfer using dynamic imaging of coherent sources.

Methods: Healthy younger (n = 24, 18-24 y) and older (n = 24, 65-87 y) adults unilaterally practiced a visuomotor task and resting-state electroencephalographic data was acquired before and after practice as well as at retention. Read More

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D-cycloserine normalizes long-term motor plasticity after transcranial magnetic intermittent theta-burst stimulation in major depressive disorder.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Apr 21;132(8):1770-1776. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with glutamatergic alterations, including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R). The NMDA-R plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, and individuals with MDD have been shown to have impairments in repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) motor plasticity. Here, we test whether D-cycloserine, a NMDA-R partial agonist, can rescue TMS motor plasticity in MDD. Read More

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Direct 3D ultrasound fusion for transesophageal echocardiography.

Comput Biol Med 2021 May 21;134:104502. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital and Laboratory of Cardiac Imaging and 3D Printing, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has been increasingly used in clinic for fast 3D analysis of cardiac anatomy and function. However, 3D TEE still suffers from the limited field of view (FoV). It is challenging to adopt conventional multi-view fusion methods to 3D TEE images because feature-based registration methods tend to fail in the ultrasound scenario, and conventional intensity-based methods have poor convergence properties and require an iterative coarse-to-fine strategy. Read More

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Amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends of the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 matrix protein are important for virion and virus-like particle release.

Virology 2021 Jun 6;561:17-27. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Paramyxovirus matrix (M) proteins are key drivers of virus particle assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. To identify regions important for the M protein function, we generated a series of deletion mutants of the bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) M protein. We found that M proteins lacking 10 amino acids in the amino-terminal end (ΔN10) or 4 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal end (ΔC4) did not support M-deficient BPIV3 virion release and M protein-induced virus-like particle (VLP) release. Read More

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Long range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in MEG-data during emerging psychosis: Relationship to symptoms, medication-status and clinical trajectory.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jun 8;31:102722. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTCs) index the capacity of the brain to optimally process information. Previous research has shown that patients with chronic schizophrenia present altered LRTCs at alpha and beta oscillations. However, it is currently unclear at which stage of schizophrenia aberrant LRTCs emerge. Read More

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Treatment breaks in first line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: An individual patient data meta-analysis.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 May 19;99:102226. Epub 2021 May 19.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Intermittent systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) may improve quality of life without compromising overall survival (OS). We aimed to use individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) from multiple randomised controlled trials evaluating intermittent strategies to inform clinical practice. We also aimed to validate whether thrombocytosis as a predictive biomarker identified patients with significantly reduced OS receiving a complete treatment break. Read More

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Extensive sex-specific and regional variations observed in the microbiome of Dermacentor reticulatus.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 4;12(5):101767. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical, Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address:

Recent progress in DNA sequencing technologies and advanced bioinformatic tools have enabled researchers to rapidly decipher the tick microbiome. To date, however, a number of microbiome studies performed on Dermacentor reticulatus ticks is still quite limited. Despite the importance of this ixodid tick for veterinary and human medicine, only two investigations have examined its microbiome. Read More

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Diagnosing Strongylus vulgaris in pooled fecal samples.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jun 8;296:109494. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Texas Tech University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Amarillo, TX, USA.

Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic intestinal helminth parasite infecting horses. The migrating larvae in the mesenteric blood vessels can cause non-strangulating intestinal infarctions, which have a guarded prognosis for survival. Infections are typically diagnosed by coproculture, but a PCR test is available in some countries. Read More

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Quantifying effects of reverse linear perspective as a visual cue on vehicle and platoon crash risk variations in car-following using path analysis.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jun 12;159:106215. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430205, China. Electronic address:

Road markings are prevalent in practice as perceptual countermeasures to crashes, and a great deal of them have been used for speed reduction. However, there is rare seen any equivalent measures especially for distance control. More importantly, the visual perceptual mechanism of road markings on driving behaviors and crash risk is still blur. Read More

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Personality disorders as predictors of intimate partner violence: A meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 May 28;88:102047. Epub 2021 May 28.

Purdue University, United States of America.

Despite years of research demonstrating a relation between personality pathology and intimate partner violence (IPV), no meta-analysis has been published examining how well, or poorly, all ten personality disorders (PDs) predict IPV perpetration or victimization, nor has any meta-analysis examined these relations across types of IPV. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to synthesize existing research on the effects of all ten PDs, as well as psychopathy and global PD symptoms, on physical, psychological, and sexual IPV perpetration and victimization. An initial search in PsycINFO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts yielded 3988 results. Read More

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Dynamic stability during stair negotiation after total knee arthroplasty.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jun 10;87:105410. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Background: The assessment of dynamic stability is crucial for the prevention of falls in the elderly and people with functional impairments. Evidence that total knee arthroplasty improves balance in patients with severe osteoarthritis is scarce and no information exists about how the surgery affects dynamic stability during stair negotiation.

Methods: This study aims to investigate if patients before and one year after surgery are less stable compared to asymptomatic controls. Read More

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Children are safe in schools: a review of the Irish experience of reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Public Health 2021 Jun 12;195:158-160. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Office of the Clinical Director for Health Protection, HSE, Ireland; Department of Public Health, HSE Midlands, Tullamore, Ireland.

Objectives: Schools in the Republic of Ireland reopened to students and staff in late August 2020. We sought to determine the test positivity rate of close contacts of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in schools during the first half-term of the 2020/2021 academic year.

Methods: National-level data from the schools' testing pathway were interrogated to determine the positivity rate of close contacts of cases of COVID-19 in Irish primary, postprimary and special schools during the first half-term of 2020/2021 academic year. Read More

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The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase RIPK regulates broad-spectrum ROS signaling in multiple layers of plant immune system.

Mol Plant 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the activity of respiratory burst oxidase homologs (RBOHs) plays a vital role in multiple layers of the plant immune system, including pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (DTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). It is generally established that RBOHD was activated by different receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) in responses to different immune elicitors. In this study, we found that RPM1-INDUCED PROTEIN KINASE (RIPK), an RLCK VII subfamily member, contributes to ROS production in multiple layers of the plant immune system. Read More

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Trisomy 21 results in modest impacts on mitochondrial function and central carbon metabolism.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Linda Crnic Institute for Down Syndrome, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, USA. Electronic address:

Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are reported to be etiological factors for many of the DS-related comorbidities and have previously been reported in a number of in vitro and in vivo models of DS. The purpose of this study was to test for the presence of mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblast cells obtained via skin biopsy from individuals with DS, and to assess the impact of trisomy 21 on central carbon metabolism. Read More

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Cola nitida infusion modulates cardiometabolic activities linked to cardiomyopathy in diabetic rats.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 12:112335. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biochemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Durban, 4000, South Africa.

This study investigated the therapeutic mechanism of Cola nitida seeds on diabetic cardiomyopathy in hearts of diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats were treated with C. nitida infusion at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight (bw). Read More

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Niujiaodihuang Detoxify Decoction inhibits ferroptosis by enhancing glutathione synthesis in acute liver failure models.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 12:114305. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Pharmacy,Guangdong Medical University,Dongguan 524023,China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Niujiaodihuang Detoxify Decoction (NDD) is an integrated traditional Chinese medicine prescription that has been used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute liver failure (ALF). However, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear.

Aim Of The Study: To determine the protective effect of NDD on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced ALF and explore the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Reduced TMS-evoked fast oscillations in the motor cortex predict the severity of positive symptoms in first-episode psychosis.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 12;111:110387. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence points to neurophysiological abnormalities of the motor cortex in Schizophrenia (SCZ). However, whether these abnormalities represent a core biological feature of psychosis rather than a superimposed neurodegenerative process is yet to be defined, as it is their putative relationship with clinical symptoms. in this study, we used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation coupled with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to probe the intrinsic oscillatory properties of motor (Brodmann Area 4, BA4) and non-motor (posterior parietal, BA7) cortical areas in twenty-three first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and thirteen age and gender-matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Read More

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Attention orienting to the eyes in violent female and male offenders: An eye-tracking study.

Biol Psychol 2021 Jun 12:108136. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

University of Tübingen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Tübingen, Germany; University Hospital Tübingen, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Tübingen, Germany.

Attention to the eyes and eye contact form an important basis for the development of empathy and social competences including prosocial behavior. Thus, impairments in attention to the eyes of an interaction partner might play a role in the etiology of antisocial behavior and violence. For the first time, the present study extends investigations of eye gaze to a large sample (N = 173) including not only male but also female violent offenders and a control group. Read More

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Maternal gestational mercury exposure in relation to cord blood T cell alterations and placental gene expression signatures.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111385. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine and the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth; Hanover, NH, USA.

The immunotoxic impacts of mercury during early life is poorly understood. We investigated the associations between gestational mercury exposure and frequency of cord blood T cells as well as placental gene expression. Frequency of natural Treg cells was positively associated with prenatal and postpartum mercury toenail concentrations. Read More

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Effect of different rice farming practices on the bioavailability of mercury: A mesocosm experiment with common goldfish (Carassius auratus).

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111486. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Wetlands such as rice paddies are important ecosystems that provide habitat for a numerous range of species but are considered as a major source of mercury in the most toxic form of methylmercury. An in situ mesocosm experiment was conducted during the rice cultivation season of 2018 in rice paddies from the Ebro Delta (NE, Spain) to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. Common goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to three types of rice-fields subject to different agricultural management (conventional or ecological agriculture) and different hydric practices (wet, dry) and were sampled monthly. Read More

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CAR T cells need a pitstop to win the race.

Cancer Cell 2021 Jun;39(6):756-758

Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105. Electronic address:

Prolonged TCR-driven stimulation can induce a dysfunctional T cell state, broadly described as T cell exhaustion, limiting the clinical potential of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Recent findings in Science indicate that early cessation of CAR T cell tonic signaling can prevent stabilization of exhaustion-associated epigenetic programs, enabling a prolonged anti-tumor response. Read More

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Leptin receptor-expressing pericytes mediate access of hypothalamic feeding centers to circulating leptin.

Cell Metab 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H4A 3J1, Canada. Electronic address:

Knowledge of how leptin receptor (LepR) neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) access circulating leptin is still rudimentary. Employing intravital microscopy, we found that almost half of the blood-vessel-enwrapping pericytes in the MBH express LepR. Selective disruption of pericytic LepR led to increased food intake, increased fat mass, and loss of leptin-dependent signaling in nearby LepR neurons. Read More

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The oldest peracarid crustacean reveals a Late Devonian freshwater colonization by isopod relatives.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210226. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Taxonomy and Systematics, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Peracarida (e.g. woodlice and side-swimmers) are, together with their sister-group Eucarida (e. Read More

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Characteristics of femoroacetabular impingement morphology and relation with skeletal maturity among asymptomatic adolescents.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):47-54

The aim of this study was to analyze presence of the morphological characteristics and prevalence of FAI in asymptomatic adolescents and assess the relation of skeletal maturation with development of FAI morphology. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) of 265 adolescents (9-19 years old) who were admitted to the emergency department between 2011 and 2016 were evaluated retrospectively. Radial reformatted CT images from the femoral neck were created using the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) method. Read More

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Unraveling the Interplay of Image Formation, Data Representation and Learning in CT-based COPD Phenotyping Automation: The Need for a Meta-Strategy.

Med Phys 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Siemens Healthineers, CT R&D Image Analytics, Forchheim, Germany.

Purpose: In the literature on automated phenotyping of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), there is a multitude of isolated classical machine learning and deep learning techniques, mostly investigating individual phenotypes, with small study cohorts and heterogeneous meta-parameters, e.g. different scan protocols or segmented regions. Read More

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Prevalence, drug resistance, and virulence genes of potential pathogenic bacteria in pasteurized milk of Chinese Fresh Milk Bar.

J Food Prot 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Qingdao Agricultural University College of Food Science and Engineering No.700 Changcheng Road, Chengyang District, Qingdao CHINA Qingdao 266109.

Fresh Milk Bar (FMB), an emerging dairy retail franchise, is used to instantly produce and sell pasteurized milk and other dairy products in China. However, the quality and safety of pasteurized milk in FMB have received little attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence genes of Escherichia coli (E. Read More

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Association among pterygium, cataracts, and cumulative ocular ultraviolet exposure: A cross-sectional study in Han people in China and Taiwan.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253093. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa, Japan.

Purpose: Pterygium is an ocular surface disorder mainly caused by ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. This study explored the relationships between six cataract types with pterygium and UV exposure.

Methods: We have previously studied cataracts in residents of three regions in China and Taiwan with different UV intensities. Read More

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Spinning pupil aberration measurement for anisoplanatic deconvolution.

Opt Lett 2021 Jun;46(12):2884-2887

The aberrations in an optical microscope are commonly measured and corrected at one location in the field of view, within the so-called isoplanatic patch. Full-field correction is desirable for high-resolution imaging of large specimens. Here we present, to the best of our knowledge, a novel wavefront detector, based on pupil sampling with subapertures, measuring the aberrated wavefront phase at each position of the specimen. Read More

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