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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Overlapping Mechanisms.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a condition with excess fat in the liver. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, averaging > 25% of the Western population. In 25% of the patients, NAFLD progresses to its more severe form: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and >25% of these progress to cirrhosis following activation of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Read More

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Associations between malignancy and cardiovascular complications following emergency laparotomy - A retrospective cohort study.

Surg Oncol 2021 May 5;38:101591. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Surgical Science, Department of Surgery, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Systemic inflammation in patients with malignant disease has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The pro-inflammatory perturbations following surgical trauma may further promote adverse perioperative cardiovascular events and increase the risk of patients with cancer undergoing major surgery. Our objective was to estimate the association between malignant disease and postoperative cardiovascular complications. Read More

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MRI-visible perivascular space volumes, sleep duration and daytime dysfunction in adults with cerebrovascular disease.

Sleep Med 2021 Apr 19;83:83-88. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hurvitz Brain Sciences Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine (Neurology), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre and University of Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Recent studies suggest that interindividual genetic differences in glial-dependent CSF flow through the brain parenchyma, known as glymphatic flow, may trigger compensatory changes in human sleep physiology. In animal models, brain perivascular spaces are a critical conduit for glymphatic flow. We tested the hypothesis that MRI-visible PVS volumes, a putative marker of perivascular dysfunction, are associated with compensatory differences in real-world human sleep behavior. Read More

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The impact of sleep quality on the incidence of PTSD: Results from a 7-Year, Nationally Representative, Prospective Cohort of U.S. Military Veterans.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 May 1;81:102413. Epub 2021 May 1.

Veterans Affairs Connecticut Health Care System, 950 Campbell Ave., West Haven, CT, 06516, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, 300 George St., New Haven, CT, 06511, United States; U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for PTSD, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, 950 Campbell Ave., West Haven, CT, 06516, United States; Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Public Health, 60 College St., New Haven, CT, 06510, United States.

Sleep and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have a complex relationship, with some studies showing that disrupted sleep is associated with subsequent development of PTSD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sleep quality and the development of probable PTSD in U.S. Read More

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[Return rate to the Primary Care Emergency Service for elderly patients over 65 years old and their assistance requirements].

Aten Primaria 2021 May 12;53(8):102084. Epub 2021 May 12.

Grupo de Investigación Salud, Bienestar y Sostenibilidad Sociosanitaria (SALBIS), Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica y de Sistemas y Automática, Universidad de León , León, España.

Objective: To determine the unexpected return rate to the Primary Care Emergency Service of elderly patients over 65 years old within the following 72h of a previous visit, as well as to determine the clinical and assistance requirements of these patients.

Procedure: Retrospective and observational epidemiologic study.

Location: Cotolino's Primary Care Emergency Service in Cantabria, Spain. Read More

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Barriers and enablers experienced by health care workers in swabbing for COVID-19 in Papua New Guinea: a multi-methods cross-sectional study, November - December 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Newcastle, Australia, School of Medicine, University Dr, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to identify the barriers and enablers Papua New Guinean (PNG) Health Care Workers (HCWs) experienced in swabbing for COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional multi-methods study; a qualitative scoping exercise and a telephone survey. The target population was COVID-19 trained HCWs from all provinces of PNG. Read More

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REM sleep latency as an independent risk for cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14837

Department of Nephrology, Shirasagi Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Clinical significance of objectively measured poor sleep quality (SQ) as a risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is not well known in hemodialysis (HD) patients, independently of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) and sleep-related metabolic abnormality.

Methods: The present study investigated baseline levels of objective sleep architecture together with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA) using polysomnography in 88 HD study participants (M/F, 56/32; age 68.4 ± 9. Read More

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Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted Imaging and Multiple Models Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Facilitates Preoperative Risk Stratification of Early-Stage Endometrial Carcinoma.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Medical Imaging, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital and Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) risk stratification is generally based on histological assessment. It would be beneficial to perform risk stratification noninvasively by MRI.

Purpose: To investigate the application of amide proton transfer-weighted imaging (APTWI), monoexponential, biexponential, and stretched exponential intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) for the evaluation of risk stratification in early-stage EC. Read More

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Predictors of 30-Day Readmissions for Adrenal Insufficiency: A Retrospective National Database Study.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Endocrinology, South Shore University Hospital, Bay Shore, NY, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe rates and characteristics of non-elective 30-day readmission among patients hospitalized for adrenal insufficiency and to assess predictors of readmission.

Design: We analyzed the 2018 National Readmission Database. Adrenal insufficiency hospitalizations were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revisions, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for principal diagnostic codes of primary adrenal insufficiency, Addisonian crisis, drug-induced adrenocortical insufficiency, and other and unspecified adrenocortical insufficiency. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Clinical Predictive Model for Bacterial Infection in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department and Institute of Infectious Disease, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095, Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Introduction: Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent complications in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF), which leads to high mortality. However, a predictive model for bacterial infection in HBV-ACLF has not been well established. This study aimed to establish and validate a predictive model for bacterial infection in two independent patient cohorts. Read More

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Is the link between elevated TSH and gestational diabetes mellitus dependant on diagnostic criteria and thyroid antibody status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocrine 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Purpose: Clinical studies have investigated the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). While some studies demonstrate a clear association, others do not. It is possible this may be due to varied diagnostic criteria for SCH and the presence of thyroid antibodies (TA). Read More

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Pulmonary hypertension in late onset neonatal sepsis using functional echocardiography: a prospective study.

J Ultrasound 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Division of Neonatology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar.

Purpose: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in the newborn period is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Sepsis has been identified as an independent risk factor for PH in newborns. Data on the proportion and severity of PH in association with neonatal sepsis are scarce. Read More

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Daily Associations Between Positive Emotion and Obesity-Related Behaviors and Their Interconnections Within Adolescent-Caregiver Dyads.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV, USA.

Background Greater overall positive emotion has been linked with increased physical activity and overeating. High approach positive emotions (HAPEs), a subtype of positive emotion, are theorized to facilitate this goal-driven behavior. However, the day-to-day associations of HAPE and physical activity and overeating, including both at the individual level and within caregiver-adolescent dyads, remain unknown. Read More

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Identification of a glycolysis-related gene signature associated with clinical outcome for patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Med 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), one of the main types of lung cancer, has caused a huge social burden. There has been no significant progress in its therapy in recent years, Resulting in a poor prognosis. This study aims to develop a glycolysis-related gene signature to predict patients' survival with LUSC and explore new therapeutic targets. Read More

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Validation and demonstration of a new comprehensive model of Alzheimer's disease progression.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Cognitive Neuroscience Division of the Department of Neurology and Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Identifying the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for individual patients is important for numerous clinical applications. Ideally, prognostic models should provide information about a range of clinical features across the entire disease process. Previously, we published a new comprehensive longitudinal model of AD progression with inputs/outputs covering 11 interconnected clinical measurement domains. Read More

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Prognosis of the non-ST elevation myocardial infarction complicated with early ventricular fibrillation at higher age.

Geroscience 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University, Városmajor u. 68, Budapest, 1122, Hungary.

Early ventricular fibrillation (EVF) predicts mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Data are lacking about prognosis and management of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) EMI with EVF, especially at higher age. In the daily clinical practice, there is no clear prognosis of patients surviving EVF. Read More

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Risk factors for anastomotic leakage after surgical resections for esophageal cancer.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Surgery, Krankenhaus Reinbek St. Adolf-Stift, Hamburger Strasse 41, 21465, Reinbek, Germany.

Purpose: Surgery for esophageal cancer is a challenging procedure that is associated with a high rate of complications such as sepsis, nutritional disorders, and anastomotic leakage (AL). The rate of complications following esophageal surgery rises exponentially in the presence of risk factors. This study aims to identify the risk factors for AL following esophageal cancer surgery. Read More

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Visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure and cardiovascular events among the working-age population in Japan: findings from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

Hypertens Res 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Mitsui Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Increased visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure, which is calculated based on several readings, has been suggested to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of mean blood pressure. This study examined associations between the VVV of systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured annually and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among 72,617 Japanese subjects. Data were obtained from the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological survey of workers in Japan. Read More

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Predictive SNPs for β-thalassemia/HbE disease severity.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10352. Epub 2021 May 14.

Thalassemia Research Center, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.

β-Thalassemia/HbE disease has a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes ranging from asymptomatic to dependent on regular blood transfusions. Ability to predict disease severity is helpful for clinical management and treatment decision making. A thalassemia severity score has been developed from Mediterranean β-thalassemia patients. Read More

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Influence of Minimally Invasive Resection Technique on Sphincter Preservation and Short-term Outcome in Low Rectal Cancer in the Netherlands.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Netherlands Department of Surgery, Amphia, Breda, Netherlands Department of Surgery, Reinier de Graaf Hospital, Delft, the Netherlands. Department of Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Free University Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Department of Surgery, Gelderse Vallei Hospital, Ede, the Netherlands.

Background: Transanal and robotic-assisted total mesorectal excision are techniques that can potentially overcome challenges encountered with a pure laparoscopic approach in patients with rectal cancer.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion and predictive factors of restorative procedures and subsequent short-term outcomes of three minimally invasive techniques to treat low rectal cancer.

Design: This is a nationwide observational comparative registry study. Read More

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Associations of Hepatosteatosis with Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients: The Liverpool HIV-Heart Project.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool UK Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Liverpool Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Liverpool and Liverpool Heart & Chest Hospital, Liverpool UK School of Computer Science and Mathematics, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool UK.

Background: Hepatosteatosis (HS) has been associated with cardiovascular disorders in the general population. We sought to investigate whether HS is a marker of CVD risk in HIV-positive individuals given that metabolic syndrome is implicated in the increasing CVD burden in this population.

Aims: To investigate the association of hepatosteatosis (HS) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Read More

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Lower step rate is associated with a higher risk of bone stress injury: a prospective study of collegiate cross country runners.

Br J Sports Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Objectives: To determine if running biomechanics and bone mineral density (BMD) were independently associated with bone stress injury (BSI) in a cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I cross country runners.

Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of 54 healthy collegiate cross country runners over three consecutive seasons. Whole body kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and BMD measures were collected during the preseason over 3 years via motion capture on an instrumented treadmill and total body densitometer scans. Read More

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Socializing One Health: an innovative strategy to investigate social and behavioral risks of emerging viral threats.

One Health Outlook 2021 May 14;3(1):11. Epub 2021 May 14.

One Health Institute, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

In an effort to strengthen global capacity to prevent, detect, and control infectious diseases in animals and people, the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) PREDICT project funded development of regional, national, and local One Health capacities for early disease detection, rapid response, disease control, and risk reduction. From the outset, the EPT approach was inclusive of social science research methods designed to understand the contexts and behaviors of communities living and working at human-animal-environment interfaces considered high-risk for virus emergence. Using qualitative and quantitative approaches, PREDICT behavioral research aimed to identify and assess a range of socio-cultural behaviors that could be influential in zoonotic disease emergence, amplification, and transmission. Read More

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Evaluation of the durability of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Guatemala.

Malar J 2021 May 14;20(1):219. Epub 2021 May 14.

Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Background: Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are widely used for the prevention and control of malaria. In Guatemala, since 2006, ITNs have been distributed free of charge in the highest risk malaria-endemic areas and constitute one of the primary vector control measures in the country. Despite relying on ITNs for almost 15 years, there is a lack of data to inform the timely replacement of ITNs whose effectiveness becomes diminished by routine use. Read More

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Donor-specific antibodies and primary graft failure in allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a systematic review and meta-analysis: DSA and primary graft failure in allo-HSCT.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: With increase in the number of non-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), there has been growth in evidence regarding factors affecting graft outcomes. One of the factors affecting graft outcomes that are currently being evaluated is anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (anti-HLA DSAs).

Objective: We designed our study to analyze the clinical relevance of anti-HLA DSAs in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant at a population level by conducting a systematic review of existing literature. Read More

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Robotic distal pancreatectomy reduces pancreatic fistula in patients without visceral obesity as compared to open distal pancreatectomy: A propensity score matching retrospective cohort study.

Int J Surg 2021 May 11:105960. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of General Surgery, Pancreatic Disease Center, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Several studies have suggested an association between visceral obesity and adverse perioperative outcomes in pancreatic surgery. However, no study has reported the impact of visceral obesity on robotic pancreatic surgery. This study aimed to assess the impact of preoperative visceral obesity on clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients following robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) or open distal pancreatectomy (ODP). Read More

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The effect of internal limiting membrane peel for idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Kensington Vision and Research Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling with internal limiting membrane peeling (ERM/ILM) and without (ERM) for the treatment for idiopathic ERM.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A comprehensive search of Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, and Embase Ovid for randomized controlled trials comparing ERM/ILM and ERM was performed. Read More

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Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Triglyceride-Glucose Index and Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease.

Am J Med Sci 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, HeBei, China. Electronic address:

Background: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are strongly associated with atherogenesis of the coronary artery. This study aimed to investigate the association of the AIP, TyG index, and MLR with subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and evaluate their ability to predict subclinical CAD.

Methods: A total of 697 asymptomatic patients were enrolled in this study and assigned to the subclinical CAD group (n=332) and control group (n=365). Read More

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Esophageal fistula after definitive concurrent chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251811. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background: The literature regarding esophageal fistula after definitive concurrent chemotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains lacking. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of esophageal fistula among ESCC patients undergoing definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) via IMRT technique.

Methods: A total of 129 consecutive ESCC patients receiving definitive CCRT with IMRT between 2008 and 2018 were reviewed. Read More

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