126,255 results match your criteria increasing evidence

The battle to increase tobacco taxes: Lessons from Philippines and Ukraine.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 7;279:114001. Epub 2021 May 7.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, 2213 McElderry Street, Fourth Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Introduction: While increasing taxes on tobacco is one of the most effective tobacco control measures, its adoption has been slow compared to other tobacco control policies. Given this, there is an urgent need to better understand the political and economic dynamics that lead to its adoption despite immense tobacco industry opposition. The primary aim of this study is to explore the process, actors, and determinants that helped lead to the successful passage of the 2012 Sin Tax Reform Law in the Philippines and the 2017 seven-year plan for tobacco tax increases in Ukraine. Read More

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The relationship between chronic diseases and depression in middle-aged and older adults: A 4-year follow-up study from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 24;289:160-166. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Stress Research Institute, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence of the association between common chronic diseases and depression is sparse.

Methods: Totally 7819 participants aged 45+ without depression at baseline were followed-up (2011-2015) to detect incident depression. Chronic diseases and depression were defined by self-reported diagnosis and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D10), respectively. Read More

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Multifunctional PLGA nanoparticles combining transferrin-targetability and pH-stimuli sensitivity enhanced doxorubicin intracellular delivery and in vitro antineoplastic activity in MDR tumor cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 10:105192. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Targeted delivery aims to enhance cellular uptake and improve therapeutic outcome with higher disease specificity. The expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is upregulated on tumor cells, which make the protein Tf and its receptor vastly relevant when applied to targeting strategies. Here, we proposed Tf-decorated pH-sensitive PLGA nanoparticles containing the chemosensitizer poloxamer as a carrier for doxorubicin delivery to tumor cells (Tf-DOX-PLGA-NPs), aiming at alleviating multidrug resistance (MDR). Read More

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A Novel Report on the Compassionate Use of Baricitinib in Treating a Pediatric Patient With Severe Symptoms of COVID-19 Infection.

J Med Cases 2021 Mar 19;12(3):94-98. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY, USA.

Since the outbreak of the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been an increasing need for treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality of patients presenting with severe disease symptoms. There has been increasing evidence to suggest that the pathophysiological basis is a severe inflammatory response that resembles the cytokine release syndrome. Current strategies to counteract this involve modifiers of the immune response such as interleukin (IL)-6 receptor blockers and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. Read More

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A COVID-19 Case Complicated by and -Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

J Med Cases 2020 Dec 21;11(12):403-406. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, Staten Island, NY 10310, USA.

There has been increasing evidence of co-infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, which increases the severity of the disease. Organisms such as and have been previously isolated. We present a case of a COVID-19 patient treated with baricitinib and dexamethasone who later developed -carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and bloodstream infections, treated with meropenem/vaborbactam and micafungin, respectively. Read More

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December 2020

Prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251642. Epub 2021 May 13.

Unidad de Investigación para la Generación y Síntesis de Evidencias en Salud, Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Lima, Perú.

Aims: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).

Materials And Methods: We searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EMBASE and LILACS databases of published observational studies in LAC up to December 2020. Meta-analyses of proportions were performed using random-effects models using Stata Program 15. Read More

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Diet Before and After Breast Cancer.

Jung Eun Lee

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:545-566

Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

The incidence of breast cancer has dramatically increased recently in several Asian countries. This region has experienced rapid economic growth and demographic and environmental changes. Breast cancer rates vary substantially among countries, with a lower incidence in developing countries than that in Western countries. Read More

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January 2021

A Worksite Self-management Program for Workers with Chronic Health Conditions Improves Worker Engagement and Retention, but not Workplace Function.

J Occup Rehabil 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of South-Eastern Norway, Raveien 215, 3184, Borre, Norway.

Purpose An increasing number of workers in the US have chronic health conditions that limit their ability to work, and few worksite interventions have been tested to improve worker coping and problem solving at work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a worksite-based health self-management program designed to improve workplace function among workers with chronic health conditions. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of a worksite self-management program ("Manage at Work") (clinicaltrials. Read More

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Comparing 4-Year Changes in Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Ankle Arthroplasty and Arthrodesis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May;103(10):869-878

VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington.

Background: The rate of total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is increasing relative to ankle arthrodesis (AA) for patients seeking surgical treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Patients and providers would benefit from a more complete understanding of the rate of improvement, the average length of time to achieve maximal function and minimal pain, and whether there is a greater decline in function or an increase in pain over time following TAA compared with AA. The objectives of this study were to compare treatment changes in overall physical and mental function and ankle-specific function, as well as pain intensity at 48 months after TAA or AA in order to determine if the improvements are sustained. Read More

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Implementing Value-Added Medical Education: Lessons Learned From the Student-Initiated "Stanford Frontline" COVID-19 Consult Service.

Acad Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

B. Zhou is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0253-9179. C. Calkins is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4159-1957. T. Jayaraman is a third-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6732-6652. S. Cassells is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5470-8149. T. Rotto is a fourth-year medical student, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. L. Vaughan is a clinical assistant professor, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9394-0995. M. Srinivasan is a clinical professor, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9951-0016. E. Schillinger is a clinical professor and vice chief of education, Division of Primary Care and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0836-6237.

Problem: Value-added medical education (VAME) has been difficult to implement due to student and educator constraints. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a mass transition to online learning, removed students from clinical settings, and underscored students' desires for meaningful VAME opportunities. The authors introduced the Stanford Frontline COVID-19 Consult Service (SFCS), through which off-service medical and physician assistant (PA) students provided assistance to clinicians in the form of rapid research regarding COVID-19 clinical questions. Read More

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The effect of host community functional traits on plant disease risk varies along an elevational gradient.

Elife 2021 May 13;10. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Quantifying the relative impact of environmental conditions and host community structure on disease is one of the greatest challenges of the 21 century, as both climate and biodiversity are changing at unprecedented rates. Both increasing temperature and shifting host communities towards more fast-paced life-history strategies are predicted to increase disease, yet their independent and interactive effects on disease in natural communities remains unknown. Here, we address this challenge by surveying foliar disease symptoms in 220, 0. Read More

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Adipokine role in physiopathology of inflammatory and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211015034

Rheumatology Clinic "Mario Carrozzo", Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia, "Policlinico Riuniti" University Hospital, Foggia, Italy.

We performed a systematic literature review to summarize the underlying pathogenic mechanisms by which adipokines influence rheumatological diseases and the resulting clinical manifestations. Increasing evidence display that numerous adipokines may significantly influence the development or clinical course of various rheumatological diseases. Despite the normal anti- or pro-inflammatory role of the cytokines, the serum level varies enormously in various rheumatological diseases. Read More

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Clinical Impact of Rectal Hyposensitivity: A Cross-Sectional Study of 2,876 Patients With Refractory Functional Constipation.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):758-768

1National Bowel Research Centre and GI Physiology Unit, Blizard Institute, Centre for Neuroscience, Surgery & Trauma, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Alfred Health and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Pragmatic Clinical Trials Unit, Centre for Primary Care and Public Health, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Introduction: Normal bowel function requires intact sensory pathways. Diminished rectal sensation (rectal hyposensitivity [RH]) is associated with constipation, although its clinical importance remains unclear.

Methods: Consecutive patients (aged 18-80) attending a tertiary center (2004-2016) for investigation of refractory functional constipation (Rome IV core criteria defined, applied post hoc) were included. Read More

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Side effects of long-term use of proton pump inhibitors: practical considerations.

Pol Arch Intern Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs, due to the increasing incidence of acid-related disorders but also to a large number of prescriptions with inappropriate indications. Despite PPIs being effective and well tolerated, there have been growing concerns of potential adverse effects associated with long-term use of PPIs. Indeed, pharmacovigilance agencies have issued broad-based product warnings on the association between PPIs treatment and long-term complications, including increased risk of fractures and impaired magnesium absorption. Read More

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[Conception and practice of "three dimensions and four stages" clinical orientation method for post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1967-1972

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

The article summarized the relevant researches on the clinical orientation of Chinese patent medicines, and put forward the post-marking principle and strategies of the clinical orientation. The principle could be illustrated by four criteria: overall design, step-by-step implementation, from easiness to hardness, gradual concentration. The strategies were as follows: first carrying out the projects with little cost of money and time, and then the projects requiring much cost of money and time, so that the possibility of fai-lure would be put forward at an early stage to reduce the loss caused by research failure as much as possible by consolidating the research projects with less investment at the early stage and gradually increasing the research projects with more investment at the later stage. Read More

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Increasing use of intraoperative cholangiogram in Australia: is it evidence-based?

ANZ J Surg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The role of routine intraoperative cholangiograms (IOCs) for prevention of bile duct injury (BDI) is contentious. There are recent reports of limited utility of IOC in preventing BDI. In Australia, IOCs are used more frequently than internationally. Read More

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Racial/ethnic disparities in use of surveillance mammogram among breast cancer survivors: a systematic review.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Increasing number of breast cancer survivors in the USA have led to greater focus on the long-term health outcomes and surveillance care among these women. However limited evidence exists of use of surveillance mammography among breast cancer survivors and how it varies across racial/ethnic groups.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to explore disparities in use of surveillance mammogram among women breast cancer survivors by searching for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2020 from Medline (Ovid), PubMed (National Library of Medicine), and PsycINFO (Ovid) bibliographic databases. Read More

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The effect of local intraoperative corticosteroid application on postoperative dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute, Capital Medical University, 45 Changchun Street, Beijing, 100053, China.

Dysphagia is a common complication following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). Although several literatures have reported the potential benefit of local corticosteroid application on dysphagia, its safety and efficacy are still unclear. A systematic review was performed aiming to evaluate the evidence of local corticosteroid application in prevention or treatment of postoperative dysphagia following ACSS. Read More

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Targeting the Gut Microbiota for Remediating Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

The rate of obesity is rapidly increasing and has become a health and economic burden worldwide. As recent studies have revealed that the gut microbiota is closely linked to obesity, researchers have used various approaches to modulate the gut microbiota to treat the condition. Dietary composition and energy intake strongly affect the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Read More

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Maternal Glycemia during pregnancy and Early Offspring Development: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Maternal, Child & Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Context: The association of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with neurodevelopmental outcomes remains controversial and evidence that maternal increasing levels of glucose during pregnancy associated with the risk for impaired neurodevelopment were limited.

Objective: To identify the continuous association of increasing maternal glucose levels with neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring and explore the potential contribution of cord metabolites to this association.

Methods: The prospective birth cohort study included 1036 mother-child pairs. Read More

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Differential Impact on Isolated REM Sleep without Atonia by Varying Antidepressant Therapies.

J Affect Disord Rep 2020 Dec 25;1. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Mayo Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) is characterized by increased phasic or tonic muscle activity in electromyography channels during polysomnography and usually causes REM sleep behaviour disorder, but RSWA also exists within healthy populations without dream-enactment behaviour, especially in psychiatric populations receiving antidepressant therapies. Evidence for differential impact of antidepressants on RSWA, and whether RSWA persists or resolves following changes in antidepressant therapy, remains limited.

Case: We present a 56-year-old woman with depression undergoing 3 polysomnograms while receiving 3 different distinct antidepressants. Read More

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December 2020

How Genetics Might Explain the Unusual Link Between Malaria and COVID-19.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:650231. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Computational and Chemical Biology, Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been the subject of a large number of studies in recent times. Here, starting from the evidence that in Italy, the areas with the lowest number of COVID-19 cases were those with the highest incidence of malaria in the early 1900's, we explore possible inverse relationships between malaria and COVID-19. Indeed, some genetic variants, which have been demonstrated to give an advantage against malaria, can also play a role in the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections (e. Read More

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Which Way to Choose for the Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:659442. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Urology, Kidney and Urology Center, Pelvic Floor Disorders Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer among males in the world and the majority of patients will eventually progress to the metastatic phase. How to choose an effective way for the treatment of metastatic PCa, especially in the later stage of the disease is still confusing. Herein we reported the case of a patient diagnosed with metastatic PCa and conducted a literature review on this issue. Read More

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MicroRNA-199a-5p accelerates nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis and IVDD by inhibiting SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of p21.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 15;24:634-645. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Spine, The Affiliated Hospital of Binzhou Medical University, Binzhou 256603, P.R. China.

Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is a multifactorial pathological process associated with low back pain in which nucleus pulposus cell senescence is disrupted. Increasing evidence reveals that IVDD can be modulated by microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs). In the current study, we set out to elucidate the role of miR-199a-5p in nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis and IVDD progression. Read More

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Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage and Ocular Signs among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Aleta Chuko Woreda, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

J Nutr Metab 2021 23;2021:8878703. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Background: Periodic vitamin A supplementation to children is a cost-effective strategy to avert vitamin A deficiency. However, few pieces of evidence are available about the coverage of vitamin A supplementation at the community level in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess vitamin A supplementation coverage and prevalence of ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency among children aged 6-59 months. Read More

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Exercise training in chronic kidney disease-effects, expectations and adherence.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Apr 6;14(Suppl 2):ii3-ii14. Epub 2021 May 6.

KfH Kidney Center, Bischofswerda, Germany.

There is increasing evidence showing the health benefits of physical activity, such as better survival and possibly even a slower decline in kidney function, in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is convincing evidence that exercise training improves physical function measured as aerobic capacity, muscle endurance strength and balance at all ages and all stages of CKD. In fact, long-term adherence to well-designed and adequately monitored exercise training programmes is high. Read More

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Fecal Microbiota Transplantation as Therapy for Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2021 23;2021:6612970. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710032, China.

Aim: Increasing evidence supports the role of the gut microbiota in the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection; however, its efficacy in UC is still controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMT for treatment of active UC. Read More

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Genetic Susceptibility to Drug Teratogenicity: A Systematic Literature Review.

Front Genet 2021 27;12:645555. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Since the 1960s, drugs have been known to cause teratogenic effects in humans. Such teratogenicity has been postulated to be influenced by genetics. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current knowledge on genetic susceptibility to drug teratogenicity in humans and reflect on future directions within the field of genetic teratology. Read More

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The Potential Role of Awe for Depression: Reassembling the Puzzle.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:617715. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Recently, interest in the unique pathways linking discrete positive emotions to specific health outcomes has gained increasing attention, but the role of awe is yet to be elucidated. Awe is a complex and transformative emotion that can restructure individuals' mental frames so deeply that it could be considered a therapeutic asset for major mental health major issues, including depression. Despite sparse evidence showing a potential connection between depression and awe, this link has not been combined into a proposal resulting in specific intervention guidelines. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Berberine Alone for Several Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:653887. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Diabetes and Angiopathy, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning, China.

Metabolic activity is the basic life activity of organisms and the fundamental for maintaining body functions. With the improvement of living standards, the incidence of metabolic disorder is also increasing. At present, most of the clinical treatment strategies and meta-analysis for metabolic disorder uncover that combined medicines with berberine ameliorate several metabolic disorders. Read More

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