111,458 results match your criteria increases risk

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Metabolism among 10- to 17-Year-Old Overweight and Obese Lithuanian Children and Adolescents.

Obes Facts 2021 May 5:1-12. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Endocrinology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: Overweight (Ow) and obesity among adults and children increases the risk of metabolic consequences. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and impaired glucose metabolism are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS and impaired glucose metabolism among Ow and obese (Ob) children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) in Lithuania, and to evaluate the associations between insulin resistance (IR) indices and anthropometric parameters as well as metabolic disturbances. Read More

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Organophosphate pesticides and progression of chronic kidney disease among children: A prospective cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 May 2;155:106597. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Environmental Pediatrics, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY; NYU Wagner School of Public Service, New York, NY, USA; NYU College of Global Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to environmental chemicals, such as pesticides, impacts renal function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is not clear if pesticides may affect CKD progression and no studies exist in children.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine associations between serially measured urinary OP pesticide metabolites and clinical and laboratory measures of kidney function over time among children with CKD. Read More

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Mortality and Healthcare Utilization of Patients with Compensated Hypercapnia.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Michigan, 1259, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Rationale: Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure has been shown to be associated with worse outcomes for various disease states, but less is known about patients with compensated hypercapnic respiratory failure. Although these patients have a normal pH, it remains unknown whether chronically elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), irrespective of etiology, put patients at risk of adverse events.

Objectives: To understand the burden of and clinical factors associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with compensated hypercapnic respiratory failure. Read More

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Mouse models of sarcopenia: classification and evaluation.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Sarcopenia is a progressive and widespread skeletal muscle disease that is related to an increased possibility of adverse consequences such as falls, fractures, physical disabilities and death, and its risk increases with age. With the deepening of the understanding of sarcopenia, the disease has become a major clinical disease of the elderly and a key challenge of healthy ageing. However, the exact molecular mechanism of this disease is still unclear, and the selection of treatment strategies and the evaluation of its effect are not the same. Read More

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Axial length targets for myopia control.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA.

Purpose: Both emmetropic and myopic eyes elongate throughout childhood. The goals of this study were to compare axial elongation among untreated progressing myopes, progressing myopes treated with a myopia control contact lens and emmetropes, in order to place axial elongation in the context of normal eye growth in emmetropic children, and to consider whether normal physiological eye growth places limits on what might be achieved with myopia control.

Methods: Axial elongation data were taken from the 3-year randomised clinical trial of a myopia control dual-focus (MiSight® 1 day) contact lens. Read More

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Paying for performance to improve the delivery of health interventions in low- and middle-income countries.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 5;5:CD007899. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute for Global Health and Development, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: There is growing interest in paying for performance (P4P) as a means to align the incentives of healthcare providers with public health goals. Rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of these strategies in improving health care and health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is lacking; this is an update of the 2012 review on this topic.

Objectives: To assess the effects of paying for performance on the provision of health care and health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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Atrial fibrillation and oral anticoagulation in older people with frailty: a nationwide primary care electronic health records cohort study.

Age Ageing 2021 May;50(3):772-779

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in older people and is associated with increased stroke risk that may be reduced by oral anticoagulation (OAC). Frailty also increases with increasing age, yet the extent of OAC prescription in older people according to extent of frailty in people with AF is insufficiently described.

Methods: An electronic health records study of 536,955 patients aged ≥65 years from ResearchOne in England (384 General Practices), over 15. Read More

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Prospective estimation of the age of initiation of cigarettes among young adults (18-24 years old): Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1-4 (2013-2017).

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251246. Epub 2021 May 5.

Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth), Austin, Texas, United States of America.

Objectives: To prospectively estimate the age of cigarette initiation among young adults (18-24 years old) who were never cigarette users at their first wave of adult study participation overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity given recent increases in cigarette initiation occurring in young adulthood.

Methods: Secondary analyses were conducted using the PATH restricted-use adult datasets among young adult never users of cigarettes in waves 1-3 (2013-2016) with outcomes followed-up in waves 2-4 (2014-2017). Interval censoring survival methods were used to estimate the age of initiation of (i) ever, (ii) past 30-day, and (iii) fairly regular cigarette use. Read More

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Thromboembolic Complications of Vascular Catheters Used for Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Prevalence in a Single-Center, Retrospective Cohort.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Pediatric Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Clinical Science Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: Pediatric venous thromboembolic events are commonly associated with in situ central venous catheters. The risk for severe venous thromboembolism increases if a larger portion of the vessel lumen is occupied by the central venous catheter. A functioning vascular catheter is required when the continuous renal replacement therapy is used in critically ill children. Read More

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Internal medicine inpatients' prevalence of misdiagnosed severe osteoporosis.

Osteoporos Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Internal Medicine and Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43100, Parma, Italy.

Vertebral fractures (VF) related to osteoporosis (i.e., severe OP) increase the risk of disability and mortality, but they are often neglected. Read More

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): fatter is better? A review on the role of obesity in RCC.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

C Buttigliero, Department of Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano, Italy.

Obesity represents a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma development. Several studies evaluated the relationship between obesity and outcome in patients with non-metastatic and metastatic renal cell carcinoma using different parameters such as body mass index, visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area. These studies suggest that obesity is associated with a better prognosis in renal cell carcinoma patients. Read More

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Association of sarcopenia with mortality and end-stage renal disease in those with chronic kidney disease: a UK Biobank study.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Leicester Kidney Lifestyle Team, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Background: Sarcopenia, a degenerative and generalized skeletal muscle disorder involving the loss of muscle function and mass, is an under-recognized problem in clinical practice, particularly in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in individuals with CKD, its risk factors, and its association with all-cause mortality and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Methods: UK Biobank participants were grouped according to the presence of CKD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1. Read More

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The operational feasibility of vaccination programs targeting influenza risk groups in the WHO African and South-East Asian Regions.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Influenza vaccination is uncommon in low-resource settings. We evaluated aspects of operational feasibility of influenza vaccination programs targeting risk groups in the WHO African (AFR) and South-East Asian (SEAR) Regions.

Methods: We estimated routine immunization and influenza vaccination campaign doses, doses per vaccinator, and cold storage requirements for one simulated country in each region using evidence-based population distribution, vaccination schedule, and vaccine volumes. Read More

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(r)HDL in theranostics: how do we apply HDL's biology for precision medicine in atherosclerosis management?

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3185-3208

CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain and Institut de Recerca de l'Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau-Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques (IIB) Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona, Spain.

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are key players in cholesterol metabolism homeostasis since they are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver. Imbalance in this process, due to either excessive accumulation or impaired clearance, results in net cholesterol accumulation and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore, significant effort has been focused on the development of therapeutic tools capable of either directly or indirectly enhancing HDL-guided reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Read More

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Revelations from the Clinic: Protective Behaviors and Perceptions among People at High Risk for Severe Illness from COVID-19.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211014722

Central Michigan College of Medicine, Mount Pleasant, MI, USA.

Objectives: The CDC has warned of increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness among those with certain preexisting conditions. Protective behaviors such as social distancing and mask-wearing have been shown effective at curbing infection rates. These practices are subject to individual perceptions of risk and responsibility. Read More

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Neurologic Complications of Poverty: the Associations Between Poverty as a Social Determinant of Health and Adverse Neurologic Outcomes.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 May 5;21(7):29. Epub 2021 May 5.

University of Notre Dame, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Increasing attention has been paid in recent decades to social determinants of health as a risk factor for disease development and disease severity. While traditionally heart disease, family history, lipid profile, and tobacco use have all been associated with increased risk of neurological disease, numerous studies now show that the influence of poverty may be just as strong a risk factor. This study summarizes the recent literature on poverty as it contributes to neurological disease. Read More

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Impact of artificial intelligence support on accuracy and reading time in breast tomosynthesis image interpretation: a multi-reader multi-case study.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, Geert Grooteplein 10, 6525 GA, Post 766, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) increases sensitivity of mammography and is increasingly implemented in breast cancer screening. However, the large volume of images increases the risk of reading errors and reading time. This study aims to investigate whether the accuracy of breast radiologists reading wide-angle DBT increases with the aid of an artificial intelligence (AI) support system. Read More

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When can we stop wearing masks? Agent-based modeling to identify when vaccine coverage makes nonpharmaceutical interventions for reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections redundant in indoor gatherings.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

As vaccination efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic are ramping up worldwide, there are rising concerns that individuals will begin to eschew nonpharmaceutical interventions for preventing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and attempt to return to pre-pandemic normalcy before vaccine coverage levels effectively mitigate transmission risk. In the U.S. Read More

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Orthostatic hypotension and age-related sarcopenia.

Turk J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Mar 4;67(1):25-31. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, University of Health Sciences, Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: This study aims to determine the association of sarcopenia with orthostatic hypotension (OH) which is a significant precursor to falls and related injuries in elderly patients.

Patients And Methods: A total of 91 outpatients (18 males, 73 females; mean age 79.3±4. Read More

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Updated guidance on the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) in pre- and postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer.

J Bone Oncol 2021 Jun 18;28:100355. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Bone Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Adjuvant endocrine therapy induces bone loss and increases fracture risk in women with hormone-receptor positive, early-stage breast cancer (EBC). We aimed to update a previous position statement on the management of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) induced bone loss and now included premenopausal women.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search of the medical databases from January 2017 to May 2020 and assessed 144 new studies. Read More

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Cordycepin inhibits the proliferation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells through the p53/Sp1/tubulin pathway.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1247-1266. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Systems Biology Seattle, Washington, USA.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common hereditary neurocutaneous disorders. In addition to skin pigmentation and cutaneous neurofibroma, some patients developed the plexiform neurofibroma since birth. Plexiform neurofibroma has abundant Schwann cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, blood vessels, and connective tissues, which increases the risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). Read More

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Strategy to reduce radiation exposure in postoperative spinal computed tomography scans.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 14;12:159. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brain and Spine Surgeons of New York, West Harrison, New York, United States.

Background: When diagnosing and treating spinal disorders, spine surgeons commonly utilize computed tomography (CT) scans preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively.

Methods: This article reviews the literature regarding the potentially harmful effects of X-rays, specifically from CT scans.

Results: The risk for damaging DNA and developing cancer increases with increasing scan length (e. Read More

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Obesity, Even in the Metabolically Healthy, Increases the Risk of Poor Physical Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study of Older People in a Chinese Community.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 27;16:697-706. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We examined the association between obesity and physical performance under different metabolic status.

Methods: The sample included 1395 Chinese community-dwelling participants (mean age, 71.88 ± 5. Read More

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Risk factors for non-communicable diseases related to obesity among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi migrants living in north-east or south-east England.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anthropology, Durham University, Durham, UK.

Background: Obesity is a global burden, which significantly increases the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). More than a quarter of adults in the United Kingdom are obese, but prevalence varies by ethnicity, and South Asians have the largest burden of NCDs. This paper assesses how sex, generation, and region interplay to vary the predisposition to obesity-related (OR) NCDs among UK Bangladeshis. Read More

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Neck circumference and waist circumference associated with cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes (Beijing Community Diabetes Study 23).

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9491. Epub 2021 May 4.

Diabetes Trials Unit, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Obesity increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases. We intended to compare three different anthropometric indicators of obesity, in predicting the incidence of cardiovascular events in Chinese type 2 diabetes. Beijing Community Diabetes Study was a prospective multi-center study conducted in Beijing community health centers. Read More

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Genetic factors affect the susceptibility to bacterial infections in diabetes.

Sci Rep 2021 May 4;11(1):9464. Epub 2021 May 4.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Diabetes increases the risk of bacterial infections. We investigated whether common genetic variants associate with infection susceptibility in Finnish diabetic individuals. We performed genome-wide association studies and pathway analysis for bacterial infection frequency in Finnish adult diabetic individuals (FinnDiane Study; N = 5092, Diabetes Registry Vaasa; N = 4247) using national register data on antibiotic prescription purchases. Read More

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The pitfalls of modelling the effects of COVID-19 on gender-based violence: lessons learnt and ways forward.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5)

Department of Public Policy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Since early 2020, global stakeholders have highlighted the significant gendered consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, including increases in the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). Researchers have sought to inform the pandemic response through a diverse set of methodologies, including early efforts modelling anticipated increases in GBV. For example, in April 2020, a highly cited modelling effort by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and partners projected headline global figures of 31 million additional cases of intimate partner violence due to 6 months of lockdown, and an additional 13 million child marriages by 2030. Read More

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Effectiveness of a national mass distribution campaign of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying on clinical malaria in Malawi, 2018-2020.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 May;6(5)

University of North Carolina Project-Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Introduction: Malawi's malaria burden is primarily assessed via cross-sectional national household surveys. However, malaria is spatially and temporally heterogenous and no analyses have been performed at a subdistrict level throughout the course of a year. The WHO recommends mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) every 3 years, but a national longitudinal evaluation has never been conducted in Malawi to determine LLIN effectiveness lifespans. Read More

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Insulin Dependence Increases the Risk of 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Ankle Fracture Surgery in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Patients with diabetes mellitus that undergo ankle fracture surgery have higher rates of postoperative complications compared to patients without diabetes mellitus. We evaluated the rate of complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, and patients without diabetes in the 30-day postoperative period following ankle fracture surgery. We also analyzed hospital length of stay, unplanned readmission, unplanned reoperation, and death. Read More

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Inequality of weight status in urban Cuba: 2001-2010.

Popul Health Metr 2021 May 4;19(1):24. Epub 2021 May 4.

Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Although understanding changes in the body weight distribution and trends in obesity inequality plays a key role in assessing the causes and persistence of obesity, limited research on this topic is available for Cuba. This study thus analyzed changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) distributions and obesity inequality over a 9-year period among urban Cuban adults.

Methods: Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were first applied to the data from the 2001 and 2010 National Survey on Risk Factors and Chronic Diseases to identify a rightward shift in both the BMI and WC distributions over the 2001-2010 period. Read More

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