30,047 results match your criteria increased steatosis

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Overlapping Mechanisms.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a condition with excess fat in the liver. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, averaging > 25% of the Western population. In 25% of the patients, NAFLD progresses to its more severe form: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and >25% of these progress to cirrhosis following activation of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Read More

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Secretory Galectin-3 promotes hepatic steatosis via regulation of the PPARγ/CD36 signaling pathway.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110043. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Gerontology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai, China; Research Center on Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Galectin-3 (Gal3) is an essential regulator of a number of metabolic disorders. Previous studies have established that Gal3 is a positive regulator of inflammation, fibrosis, and insulin resistance. However, its function in the early pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unresolved. Read More

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Myosteatosis in NAFLD patients correlates with plasma Cathepsin D.

Biomol Concepts 2021 May 15;12(1):27-35. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Molecular Genetics, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229ERMaastricht, the Netherlands.

Previously, we have shown that hepatic lipid accumulation induces the secretion of cathepsin D (CTSD), and that plasma CTSD levels are associated with increased inflammation and disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although it is clear that the liver is a major source of plasma CTSD, it is unknown whether other metabolically active organs such as the muscle, also associate with plasma CTSD levels in NAFLD patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relation between lipid accumulation in the muscle (myosteatosis) and plasma CTSD levels in forty-five NAFLD patients. Read More

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Prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by long-term exercise via the induction of phenotypic changes in Kupffer cells of hyperphagic obese mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14859

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, Japan.

Exercise ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by inducing phenotypic changes in Kupffer cells (KCs). p62/Sqstm1-knockout (p62-KO) mice develop NAFLD alongside hyperphagia-induced obesity. We evaluated (1) the effects of long-term exercise on the foreign-body phagocytic capacity of KCs, their surface marker expression, and the production of steroid hormones in p62-KO mice; and (2) whether long-term exercise prevented the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in p62-KO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Mpzl3 attenuates the negative metabolic effects of diet-induced obesity in mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14853

Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Previously, we demonstrated that global knockout (KO) of the gene encoding myelin protein zero-like 3 (Mpzl3) results in reduced body weight and adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and reduced hepatic lipid synthesis in mice. These mice also exhibit cyclic and progressive alopecia which may contribute to the observed hypermetabolic phenotype. The goal of the current study was to determine if acute and peripherally restricted knockdown of Mpzl3 could ameliorate the negative metabolic effects of exposure to a high-fat and sucrose, energy-dense (HED) diet similar to what was observed in global Mpzl3 KO mice in the absence of a skin phenotype. Read More

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Increased systemic exposure of once daily tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients on marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.

Transpl Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Renal Medicine, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

High daily doses of marine omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish and seafood may have beneficial cardiovascular effects in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) (1, 2). A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated that daily supplementation with high-dose marine omega-3 FAs lowered plasma triglyceride and C-reactive protein levels (1). In some parts of the world, high intake of marine omega-3 FAs is recommended for the general population and it is likely that RTRs use omega-3 FA supplements without consulting a transplant physician (2). Read More

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Blueberry-derived exosomes-like nanoparticles ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Chongqing Key Lab of Medicinal Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054, China.

Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we found that blueberry-derived exosomes-like nanoparticles (BELNs) could ameliorate oxidative stress in rotenone-induced HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. Preincubation with BELNs decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and prevented cell apoptosis by inducing the expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and decreasing the content of Bax in rotenone-treated HepG2 cells. Read More

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Knockdown of insulin-like growth factor 2 gene disrupts mitochondrial functions in the liver.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, the Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Even though insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its role in the progression of NAFLD and the potential mechanism remain largely unclear. Using in vitro models, we found that IGF2 was the key overexpressed gene in steatosis, suggesting a possible association between IGF2 and NAFLD. Interestingly, loss-of-function experiments revealed that inhibition of IGF2 protein impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Read More

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Application of Q-TOF-MS based metabonomics techniques to analyze the plasma metabolic profile changes on rats following death due to acute intoxication of phorate.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030001, People's Republic of China.

Organophosphorus pesticides (OP) are widely used in the world, and many poisoning cases were caused by them. Phorate intoxication is especially common in China. However, there are currently few methods for discriminating phorate poisoning death from phorate exposure after death and interpretation of false-positive results due to the lack of effective biomarkers. Read More

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Polar and neutral lipid composition of the copepod Lernaeocera lusci and its host Merluccius merluccius in relationship with the parasite intensity.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center of Urgent Medical Assistance of Tunis, Laboratory of Toxicology and Environment LR12SP07, University Tunis El Manar, Montfleury, 1008, Tunis, Tunisia.

Parasitic copepod Lernaeocera lusci is a common mesoparasite of the hake Merluccius merluccius. Although widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean, little is known about this pathogen. The current study was designed to assess the impact of different L. Read More

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Dairy consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

Bodo C Melnik

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):736

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

This review provides epidemiological and translational evidence for milk and dairy intake as critical risk factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Large epidemiological studies in the United States and Europe identified total dairy, milk and butter intake with the exception of yogurt as independent risk factors of HCC. Enhanced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a hallmark of HCC promoted by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Read More

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Serum metabolomic profiling reveals an increase in homocitrulline in Chinese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a retrospective study.

PeerJ 2021 3;9:e11346. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Jinling Hospital, the First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Backgrounds: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has multiple causes, is triggered by individual genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and metabolic disturbances, and may be triggered by acquired metabolic stress. The metabolic profiles of NAFLD show significant ethnic differences, and the metabolic characteristics of NAFLD in Chinese individuals are unclear. Our study aimed to identify the metabolites and pathways associated with NAFLD in a Chinese cohort. Read More

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Annexin A2-Mediated Plasminogen Activation in Endothelial Cells Contributes to the Proangiogenic Effect of Adenosine A Receptors.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:654104. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Departament of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

Adenosine A receptor mediates the promotion of wound healing and revascularization of injured tissue, in healthy and animals with impaired wound healing, through a mechanism depending upon tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a component of the fibrinolytic system. In order to evaluate the contribution of plasmin generation in the proangiogenic effect of adenosine A receptor activation, we determined the expression and secretion of t-PA, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and annexin A2 by human dermal microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the selective agonist CGS-21680. The plasmin generation was assayed through an enzymatic assay and the proangiogenic effect was studied using an endothelial tube formation assay in Matrigel. Read More

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Comparison of Clinical Characteristics Between Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD).

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 6;14:2029-2039. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Gastroenterolgy & Hepatology, China-Japan Union Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, 130033, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), previously thought to predominantly affect obese individuals, has also been shown to occur in subjects who have a relatively normal body mass index (BMI). Due to the normal BMI, non-obese NAFLD are easily to be ignored and eventually lead to potential liver injuries.

Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 1608 cases with normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels who were divided into an obese group (BMI ≥25 kg/m) and a non-obese group (BMI <25 kg/m). Read More

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[Mechanism of microRNA-29a regulating steatosis in the human hepatocyte via targeting silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):284-288

Key Laboratory of Trace Element Nutrition, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China;National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression of microRNA-29 a(miR-29 a) in the human steatotic hepatocyte model and the mechanism of targeting silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1(Sirt1)to regulate fat deposition of steatotic hepatocyte.

Methods: The nonalcoholic fatty liver cell model was induced by a mixture of oleic acid and palmitic acid. After successful validation model, the expression of miR-29 a and Sirt1 was measured by PCR. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of an aspalathin-rich green rooibos extract, pioglitazone and atorvastatin combination therapy in diabetic db/db mice.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251069. Epub 2021 May 13.

Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform (BRIP), South African Medical Research Council (MRC), Tygerberg, South Africa.

Oral therapeutics used to treat type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease often fail to prevent the progression of disease and their comorbidities. Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), an endemic South African plant used as an herbal tea, has demonstrated positive effects on glycemia and hypercholesterolemia. However, the treatment efficacy of rooibos extract in combination with conventional hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medications on blood glucose and lipid profiles has not been established. Read More

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Hepatocyte steatosis inhibits hepatitis B virus secretion via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, 201 Dalian Street, Zunyi, 563003, Guizhou, China.

The effects of hepatocyte steatosis on hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication and HBV-related antigen secretion are incompletely understood. The aims of this study are to explore the effects and mechanism of hepatocyte steatosis on HBV replication and secretion. Stearic acid (SA) and oleic acid (OA) were used to induce HepG2. Read More

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Effect of Melatonin on the Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis and Intestinal Leptin Expression in Zebrafish Exposed to Fructose.

Zebrafish 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Pediatria, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Melatonin is a hormone related to circadian rhythms and has potential clinical applications. Our objectives were to verify the effect of melatonin on the liver of zebrafish exposed to fructose and evaluate the expression of appetite-related genes (leptin, ghrelin, and melanocortin receptor 4 [MC4R]). Animals were divided into three groups: control (CG,  = 25), fructose (FG,  = 25), and fructose+melatonin (FMG,  = 25). Read More

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Diabetes diminishes a typical metabolite of litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidins (LPOPC) in urine mediated by imbalanced gut microbiota.

Food Funct 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, China.

Animal studies and clinical trials have shown that dietary polyphenols and polyphenol-rich foods can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications, but how diabetes regulates the metabolism of polyphenol has not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the effects of diabetes on litchi pericarp oligomeric procyanidin (LPOPC) dynamic metabolism and its major static metabolites in urine. First, a high-fat and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model was established. Read More

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The role of skeletal muscle in the pathogenesis of altered concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and other diseases.

M Holeček

Physiol Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Milan Holeček, Charles University, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

The article shows that skeletal muscle plays a dominant role in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and the pathogenesis of their decreased concentrations in liver cirrhosis, increased concentrations in diabetes, and nonspecific alterations in disorders with signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), such as burn injury and sepsis. The main role of skeletal muscle in BCAA catabolism is due to its mass and high activity of BCAA aminotransferase, which is absent in the liver. Decreased BCAA levels in liver cirrhosis are due to increased use of the BCAA as a donor of amino group to alpha-ketoglutarate for synthesis of glutamate, which in muscles acts as a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine. Read More

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Dietary SFAs and ω-6 Fatty Acids Alter Incorporation of ω-3 Fatty Acids into Milk Fat of Lactating CD-1 Mice and Tissues of Offspring.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Background: Methods to increase the amount of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs in milk are desirable for neonatal health. The n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), can be elongated to EPA (20:5n-3) and DHA (22:6n-3). n-6 PUFAs suppress tissue n-3 PUFA incorporation, but the effect of SFAs is not clear. Read More

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Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses reveal significant differences in trophic niches of smooth hammerhead (Carcharhiniformes) among three nursery areas in northern Humboldt Current System.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11283. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción, Chile.

Fishery pressure on nursery areas of smooth hammerhead in northern Peruvian coast have become a serious threat to sustainability of this resource. Even though, some management actions focused on conservation of the smooth hammerhead populations were proposed in recent years, their scientific foundations are often limited, and biomass of smooth hammerhead in Peruvian waters continues to decrease. To inform management and conservation, this study aims to evaluate the trophic niche of smooth hammerhead juveniles from three nursery areas in the northern Peruvian coast using stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of the liver of under hypoxia.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11166. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Hypoxia can induce cell damage, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and inhibit liver regeneration in non-adapted species. Because of their excellent hypoxia adaptation features, subterranean rodents have been widely studied to clarify the mechanism of hypoxia adaptation. , which is a subterranean rodent found in China, can survive for more than 10 h under 4% O without observable injury, while rats can survive for less than 6 h under the same conditions. Read More

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Sterol O-acyltransferase 2 chaperoned by apolipoprotein J facilitates hepatic lipid accumulation following viral and nutrient stresses.

Commun Biol 2021 May 12;4(1):564. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

The risks of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include obese and non-obese stresses such as chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the regulatory determinants remain obscure. Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ) served as an ER-Golgi contact-site chaperone near lipid droplet (LD), facilitating HCV virion production. We hypothesized an interplay between hepatic ApoJ, cholesterol esterification and lipid deposit in response to NAFLD inducers. Read More

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[Exploring effects of natural hyperoxic environment on liver lipid metabolism based on the bile acid-farnesoid X receptor pathway in sub-healthy rats].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(4):362-368

Department of Infectious Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, China.

To investigate the effect of natural hyperoxic environment on liver lipid metabolism and liver function based on the bile acid-farnesoid X receptor pathway in sub-healthy rats. Forty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group ( = 10) and sub-healthy model group ( = 30). The control group was fed a normal diet, and the model group was fed a high-fat-sugar diet with limited daily activities for 5 weeks. Read More

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Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Paediatric-onset Type 2 Diabetes in Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Childhood Diabetes Registry 2008 to 2017.

Pediatr Diabetes 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

With increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide, the incidence of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is also increasing in many countries. We aim to analyze the time trend and incidence of T2D in children in Hong Kong from 2008 to 2017, and to characterize clinical characteristics at diagnosis. Data were retrieved from the Hong Kong Childhood Diabetes Registry. Read More

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CUN-BAE Index as a Screening Tool to Identify Increased Metabolic Risk in Apparently Healthy Normal-Weight Adults and Those with Obesity.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutrigenomics and Obesity Group, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.

Background: Imbalanced dietary intake is related to increased adiposity, which is linked to increased metabolic risk even in the absence of obesity. BMI is traditionally used to classify body fatness and weight range, but it only considers body weight and height. The Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE) equation has appeared as an additional tool to estimate adiposity considering also other relevant parameters, i. Read More

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DHA-enriched phosphatidylserine ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and intestinal dysbacteriosis in mice induced by a high-fat diet.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4021-4033

Department of Aquaculture, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000, China.

Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylserine (DHA-PS) has attracted increasing attention because of its unique health benefits. In this study, DHA-PS was biosynthesized from DHA-enriched phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC), which was extracted from herring roe, Clupea harengus. The ameliorating effect of DHA-PS on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was investigated using a mouse model. Read More

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Free fatty acids induce the demethylation of the fructose 1,6-biphosphatase 2 gene promoter and potentiate its expression in hepatocytes.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4165-4175

Chongqing Key Lab of Medicinal Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054, China. and College of Pharmacy& Bioengineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054, China.

Obesity is a serious health issue as it is a social burden and the main risk factor for other metabolic diseases. Increasing evidence indicates that a high-fat diet (HFD) is the key factor for the development of obesity, but the key genes and their associated molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. In this study, we performed integrated bioinformatic analysis and identified that fructose-1,6 biphosphatase 2 (FBP2) was involved in free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced lipid droplet accumulation in hepatocytes and HFD-induced obesity in mice. Read More

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NAFLD and Infection, a Nuanced Relationship.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 15;2021:5556354. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased significantly over the last few decades mirroring the increase in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. NAFLD has become one of the most common indications for liver transplantation. The deleterious effects of NAFLD are not isolated to the liver only, for it has been recognized as a systemic disease affecting multiple organs through protracted low-grade inflammation mediated by the metabolic activity of excessive fat tissue. Read More

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