Mol Neurobiol 2020 Feb 31;57(2):778-797. Epub 2019 Aug 31.
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Several lines of evidence indicate that aberrations in immune-inflammatory pathways may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Here, we propose a novel theoretical framework that was previously developed for major depression and bipolar disorder, namely, the compensatory immune-regulatory reflex system (CIRS), as applied to the neuro-immune pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its phenotypes, including first-episode psychosis (FEP), acute relapses, chronic and treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), comorbid depression, and deficit schizophrenia. These schizophrenia phenotypes and manifestations are accompanied by increased production of positive acute-phase proteins, including haptoglobin and α2-macroglobulin, complement factors, and macrophagic M1 (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), T helper (Th)-1 (interferon-γ and IL-2R), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5), Th-17 (IL-17), and T regulatory (Treg; IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1) cytokines, cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway, and chemokines, including CCL-11 (eotaxin), CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-8. Read More