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Structural connectivity predicts sequential processing differences in music perception ability.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Language Literacy and Music Laboratory, National Brain Research Centre (Deemed University), Manesar, India.

To relate individual differences in music perception ability with whole brain white matter connectivity, we scanned a group of twenty-seven individuals with varying degrees of musical training and assessed musical ability in sensory and sequential music perception domains using the Profile of Music Perception Skills-Short version (PROMS-S). Sequential processing ability was estimated by combining performance on tasks for Melody, Standard Rhythm, Embedded Rhythm, and Accent sub-scores while sensory processing ability was ascertained via tasks of Tempo, Pitch, Timbre and Tuning. Controlling for musical training, gender and years of training, Network Based Statistics revealed positive linear associations between total PROMS-S scores and increased inter-hemispheric fronto-temporal and parieto-frontal white matter connectivity, suggesting a distinct segregated structural network for music perception. Read More

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Phase II study of azacitidine with pembrolizumab in patients with intermediate-1 or higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is upregulated in cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) bone marrow cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Hypomethylating agent (HMA) treatment results in further increased expression of these immune checkpoints. We hypothesised that combining an anti-PD-1 antibody with HMAs may have efficacy in patients with MDS. Read More

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Behavioral Nudges Increase COVID-19 Vaccinations.

Nature 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Enhancing vaccine uptake is a critical public health challenge. Overcoming vaccine hesitancy and failure to follow-through on vaccination intentions requires effective communication strategies. We present two sequential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to test the impact of behavioral interventions on COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Read More

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Determination of Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Cognitive Impairment Induced by Methylmalonic Acidemia.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Aug 2:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Medical Laboratory, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Objective: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is the most common organic acidemia in children. Many patients with MMA suffered from cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to identify the significance of cytokines and oxidative stress biomarkers in MMA-induced cognitive impairment. Read More

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p53 Inhibition Provides a Pivotal Protective Effect against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via the Wnt Signaling Pathway.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 2:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China.

Introduction: Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury enhances brain injury and increases its morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to further explore the specific pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia disease by studying the role of p53 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and its mechanism to provide a new target for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.

Methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was established in rats. Read More

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The Association between TREM2 Gene and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease in Chinese Han Population.

Gerontology 2021 Aug 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Literature in Chinese Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in triggering receptor expressed on the myeloid cells 2 protein (TREM2) gene and their interaction with environmental factors and haplotypes on late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD).

Methods: DNA was extracted from the whole blood of the participants and genotyped using PCR and followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was used in the control group. Read More

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The Role of Apolipoprotein E ε4 in Early and Late Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Eur Neurol 2021 Aug 2:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

General Medical Wards, The Affiliated Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 is highly associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the specific influence of APOE ε4 status on tau pathology and cognitive decline in early MCI (EMCI) and late MCI (LMCI) is poorly understood. Our goal was to evaluate the association of APOE ε4 with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau levels and cognition in EMCI and LMCI patients in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database, and whether this association was mediated by amyloid-β (Aβ). Read More

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Quantitative evaluation of trunk function and the StartReact effect during reaching in patients with cervical and thoracic spinal cord injury.

J Neural Eng 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institut Guttmann, Camí de Can Ruti, s/n, Badalona, Catalunya, 08916, SPAIN.

Objective: Impaired trunk stability is frequent in spinal cord injury (SCI), but there is a lack of quantitative measures for assessing trunk function. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate trunk muscle activity and movement patterns during a reaching task in SCI patients, 2) compare the impact of cervical (cSCI) and thoracic (tSCI) injuries in trunk function, and 3) investigate the effects of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) in these patients.

Approach: Electromyographic (EMG) and smartphone accelerometer data were recorded from 15 cSCI patients, 9 tSCI patients, and 24 healthy controls, during a reaching task requiring trunk tilting. Read More

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Does Caffeine Consumption Influence Postcompetition Sleep in Professional Rugby League Athletes? A Case Study.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Aug 2:1-4. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Purpose: To examine the sleep of rugby league athletes the night before and following an evening match and to investigate the association between caffeine intake and sleep on the night of competition.

Methods: On the night prior to, night of, and night after a professional rugby league match, 15 athletes had their sleep monitored using wrist activity monitors. Additionally, saliva samples were collected 60 minutes before and 30 minutes after the competition to assess salivary caffeine concentration. Read More

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Patients characteristics related to screening mammography cancellation and rescheduling rates during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 29;80:205-210. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Center for Evidence-Based Imaging, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont Street, Boston, MA 02120, United States of America. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify patient characteristics associated with screening mammography cancellations and rescheduling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Scheduled screening mammograms during three time periods were retrospectively reviewed: state-mandated shutdown (3/17/2020-6/16/2020) during which screening mammography was cancelled, a period of 2 months immediately after screening mammography resumed (6/17/2020-8/16/2020), and a representative period prior to COVID-19 (6/17/2019-8/16/2019). Relative risk of cancellation before COVID-19 and after reopening was compared for age, race/ethnicity, insurance, history of chronic disease, and exam location, controlling for other collected variables. Read More

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Mammographic and sonographic findings in the breast and axillary tail following a COVID-19 vaccine.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 26;80:202-204. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Breast Imaging and Intervention, Rochester, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Axillary lymphadenopathy on breast imaging after recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported in the literature as immunization has become more widespread. While muscle edema at the injection site has been observed on MRI secondary to an immune response, ipsilateral breast imaging observations of edema have not been reported to be seen with the COVID-19 vaccinations to date. Mammographic findings such as trabecular and skin thickening, along with increased echogenicity on ultrasound, can be seen with edema secondary to capillary leak or poor lymphatic drainage, and should be considered as a possible etiology for the observed breast edema following a recent COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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Deep transcriptomic profiling of Dahl salt-sensitive rat kidneys with mutant form of Resp18.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 29;572:35-40. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, 43614, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH, 45701, USA; Diabetes Institute, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, 45701, USA. Electronic address:

Expression of Regulated endocrine specific protein 18 (Resp18) is localized in numerous tissues and cell types; however, its exact cellular function is unknown. We previously showed that targeted disruption of the Resp18 locus in the Dahl SS (SS) rat (Resp18) results in higher blood pressure (BP), increased renal fibrosis, increased urinary protein excretion, and decreased mean survival time following a chronic (6 weeks) 2% high salt (HS) diet compared with the SS rat. Based on this prominent renal injury phenotype, we hypothesized that targeted disruption of Resp18 in the SS rat promotes an early onset hypertensive-signaling event through altered signatures of the renal transcriptome in response to HS. Read More

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Antiseizure medication nonadherence and its associated factors among Epileptic patients in Ethiopia, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Seizure 2021 Jul 26;91:462-475. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of patients with epilepsy in resource-poor countries never receive proper treatment, and those who are started on anti-seizure medications quickly discontinue them. Medication noncompliance is extremely common, with estimates ranging from 26 to 79 percent. Non-adherence to antiseizure medications is associated with poor seizure control, increased morbidity, increased hospitalization time, poor quality of life, increased health care costs, and increased mortality in adults. Read More

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Prediction of hydrophobic organic compound partition to algal organic matter through the growth cycle of Microcystis aeruginosa.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 22;289:117827. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Algal organic matter (AOM) is an important source for the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool in aquatic systems, particularly in eutrophic waters. In this study, we reported the dynamic pattern of AOM hydrophobicity during the growth cycle of Microcystis aeruginosa using the partition coefficients of AOM in the aqueous two-phase system (K) as a simple quantitative measure. AOM hydrophobicity had significant and non-monotonic changes during the growth cycle. Read More

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Evaluation and management of pleural sepsis.

Respir Med 2021 Jul 28;187:106553. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; South Shore Hospital, South Weymouth, MA, USA.

Pleural sepsis stems from an infection within the pleural space typically from an underlying bacterial pneumonia leading to development of a parapneumonic effusion. This effusion is traditionally divided into uncomplicated, complicated, and empyema. Poor clinical outcomes and increased mortality can be associated with the development of parapneumonic effusions, reinforcing the importance of early recognition and diagnosis. Read More

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The uptake of foil from needle and syringe provision services and its role in smoking or snorting heroin among people who inject drugs in Scotland.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Jul 30;98:103369. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland; Public Health Scotland, NHS National Services Scotland, Glasgow, Scotland.

Background: In the UK, legislation was implemented in 2014 allowing needle and syringe provision (NSP) services to offer foil to people who inject drugs (PWID) to encourage smoking rather than injecting. This paper aims to examine the association between foil uptake and smoking or snorting heroin among PWID. This is the first large scale national study to examine foil uptake and smoking or snorting heroin among PWID post legislative change. Read More

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Sustained-release modeling of clove essential oil in brine to improve the shelf life of Iranian white cheese by bioactive electrospun zein.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jul 24;355:109337. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Food Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), km 12 Mashhad-Quchan Highway, P.O. Box: 91895-157-356, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, the sustained-release of clove essential oil (CEO) loaded into the structure of electrospun zein was used as a biopreservative to extend the shelf life of Iranian white cheese. CEO was loaded at levels of 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w in the structure of electrospun nanofibers. Read More

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Selenium restores mitochondrial dysfunction to reduce Cr-induced cell apoptosis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) root tips.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 30;223:112564. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New-Type Fertilizer/Research Center of Trace Elements/Hubei Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Chromium (Cr) disrupts the growth and physiology of plants. Selenium (Se) is considered as a promising option to help plants ameliorate Cr toxicity. To investigate the effects of exogenous Se on reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and programmed cell death (PCD) in root tip cells under Cr stress, hydroponic experiments were carried out with Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in Hoagland solution containing 1 mg L Cr and 0. Read More

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Effects of oxygen concentration during incubation and broiler breeder age on embryonic heat production, chicken development, and 7-day performance.

Animal 2021 Jul 30;15(9):100323. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Adaptation Physiology Group, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Older breeder flocks produce eggs with a relatively larger yolk and thereby a higher nutrient availability than young breeder flocks. To optimise nutrient utilisation and embryonic development throughout incubation and posthatch period, embryos originating from older breeder flocks may require a higher oxygen availability. The current study investigated effects of broiler breeder flock age and incubational oxygen concentration on embryonic metabolism and chicken development until 7-day posthatch. Read More

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Increased T-cell responses that control bovine leukemia virus proviral load in beef cattle under dietary vitamin A restriction for marbling.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Jul 21;239:110301. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8550, Japan; Food Animal Medicine and Food Safety Research Center (FAMS), Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate, 501-1193, Japan; Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load is controlled by T-cell responses, which require vitamin A (VA) derived from food. However, whether dietary VA restriction for marbling impairs the T-cell responses that control BLV proviral load in beef cattle is unknown. We assessed T-cell subsets, interferon (IFN)-γ gene expression, and BLV proviral load in naturally BLV-infected Japanese Black cattle that were fed a diet with decreased VA levels. Read More

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Perception of stress and cognitive efficiency in older adults with mild and moderate dementia during the COVID-19-related lockdown.

J Psychosom Res 2021 Jul 27;149:110584. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Geriatrics Division, Department of Medicine - DIMED, University of Padua, Italy. Electronic address:

Aim: Many studies have been carried out with the aim of understanding the manifold effects of the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) on individuals' clinical and psychological states. This paper deals with perceived stress (PS) and cognitive efficiency (CE) in older adults with dementia during the first wave of the pandemic. The study also investigated the potential effects of PS and CE on participants' cognitive functioning. Read More

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Association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level with adverse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.

Heart Lung 2021 Jul 30;50(6):863-869. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cardiology, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310012, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies evaluating the association of blood level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with adverse prognosis have yielded conflicting results in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the prognostic value of blood level of NT-proBNP in patients with AMI.

Methods: Two authors independently searched articles in PubMed and Embase databases up to June 13, 2021. Read More

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The neurocognitive and functional profile of schizophrenia in a genetically homogenous European sample.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Jul 26;304:114140. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive Behavioral Intervention (CINEICC), University of Coimbra, Portugal.

Schizophrenia is a complex heritable brain disorder that entails significant social, neurocognitive, and functional deficits, and significant psychosocial challenges to affected and unaffected family members. In this cross-sectional study, we explore impairments in specific neurocognitive and social cognition processes in patients affected with schizophrenia, unaffected relatives, and in controls to provide a characterization of a genetically homogenous European sample from an endophenotypic and functional standpoint. A sample of 38 affected patients, 28 first-degree relatives, and 97 controls performed a series of computerized and skills-based assessments. Read More

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Studies on the weight of the gastrointestinal tract, digesta composition and occurrence of gastro- and enteroliths in adult domesticated ostriches fed different diets.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 26;100(9):101359. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Institute for Animal Nutrition, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, D-30173 Hannover, Germany.

Comminuting the ingested material in the stomach and fermentation in the large intestine of ostriches, allows an efficient utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs. The entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of 61 adult ostriches (both sexes; av. age of 15 mo), which had previously been fed a ration consisting of either haylage and pelleted compound feed (HP) or haylage, corn silage and pelleted compound feed (HCP), was the subject of the present investigations. Read More

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Effects of dietary protein, energy and β-mannanase on laying performance, egg quality, and ileal amino acid digestibility in laying hens.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 5;100(9):101312. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

β-mannan is a nonstarch polysaccharide found in hulled and dehulled soybeans that can survive drying-toasting phase of processing soybeans and have antinutritive effects in poultry. β-mannanase is an active enzyme (endohydrolase) that can hydrolyze β-mannan to reduce its antinutritional effects. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of β-mannanase supplementation in low energy/protein diets on egg production, egg quality, and apparent ileal digestibility of the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids in 21-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line W-36). Read More

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Temporal changes of microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling processes during the aerobic degradation of phenanthrene.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 28;286(Pt 2):131709. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400045, China; State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, People's Republic of China.

Phenanthrene (PHE) is frequently detected in worldwide soils. But it is still not clear that how the microbial community succession happens and the nitrogen-cycling processes alter during PHE degradation. In this study, the temporal changes of soil microbial community composition and nitrogen-cycling processes during the biodegradation of PHE (12 μg g) were explored. Read More

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Metabolic stringent response in intracellular stages of Leishmania.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Jul 30;63:126-132. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Leishmania are unusual in being able to survive long-term in the mature phagolysosome compartment of macrophages and other phagocytic cells in their mammalian hosts. Key to their survival in this niche, Leishmania amastigotes switch to a slow growth state and activate a stringent metabolic response. The stringent metabolic response may be triggered by multiple stresses and is associated with decreased metabolic fluxes, restricted use of sugars and fatty acids as carbon sources and increased dependence on metabolic homeostasis pathways. Read More

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Chronic plantar fasciitis reduces rearfoot to medial-forefoot anti-phase coordination.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Jul 26;88:105439. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst 01003, USA.

Background: It is commonly assumed that abnormal foot biomechanics cause plantar fasciitis; however, this assumption is not well supported. In this study, we investigated rearfoot to medial-forefoot coordination of healthy and plantar fasciitis individuals. We hypothesized that chronic plantar fasciitis individuals would exhibit greater intersegmental rearfoot to medial-forefoot anti-phase coordination and greater coordinative variability than a healthy cohort. Read More

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