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Cortical fractal dimension predicts disability worsening in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 29;30:102653. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer - Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain; Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fractal geometry measures the morphology of the brain and detects CNS damage. We aimed to assess the longitudinal changes on brain's fractal geometry and its predictive value for disease worsening in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We prospectively analyzed 146 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS with up to 5 years of clinical and brain MRI (3 T) assessments. Read More

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Non-contrast pulmonary perfusion MRI in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Mar 31;139:109653. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Würzburg, Oberdürrbacher Straße 6, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of Self-gated Non-Contrast-Enhanced Functional Lung (SENCEFUL) MRI for detection of pulmonary perfusion deficits in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Methods: Twenty patients with cystic fibrosis and 20 matched healthy controls underwent SENCEFUL-MRI at 1.5 T with reconstruction of perfusion and perfusion phase maps (i. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory activity of the Tongmai Yangxin Pill in the treatment of Coronary Heart Disease is associated with Estrogen Receptor and NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 7:114106. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Tongmai Yangxin Pill (TMYX) is a patented traditional Chinese medicine originating from two classic prescriptions, Zhigancao Decoction and Shenmai Yin, which composed of 11 Chinese medicinal herbs: Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaertn.) DC., Spatholobus suberectus Dunn, Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. Read More

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Adjunctive False Lumen Intervention for Chronic Aortic Dissections is Safe but Offers Unclear Benefit.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Objective: Adjunctive false lumen embolization (FLE) with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in patients with chronic aortic dissection is thought to induce FL thrombosis and favorable aortic remodeling. However, these data are derived from small single-institution experiences and the potential benefit of FLE remains unproven. In this study, we examined perioperative and midterm outcomes of patients with aortic dissection undergoing concomitant TEVAR and FLE. Read More

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Increased toxicity and retention of Perflourooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in humanized CYP2B6-Transgenic mice compared to Cyp2b-null mice is relieved by a High-Fat Diet (HFD).

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 7:112175. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, 29634. Electronic address:

PFOS is a persistent, fluorosurfactant used in multiple products. Murine Cyp2b's are induced by PFOS and high-fat diets (HFD) and therefore we hypothesized that human CYP2B6 may alleviate PFOS-induced steatosis. Cyp2b-null and hCYP2B6-Tg mice were treated with 0, 1, or 10mg/kg/day PFOS by oral gavage for 21-days while provided a chow diet (ND) or HFD. Read More

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Visual Impairment and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Vision loss is associated with increased falls risk and restricted physical activity, yet the relationship between multiple vision measures and objectively measured physical activity, especially activity patterns, in mid-to-late life is not well understood.

Methods: This study included 603 participants aged ≥ 50 years (mean age=73.5) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who had the following assessments: presenting and best-corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, stereo acuity, and free-living physical activity using a wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days. Read More

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Longitudinal imaging of T-cells and inflammatory demyelination in a preclinical model of multiple sclerosis using F-FAraG PET and MRI.

J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of California San Francisco, United States.

Lymphocytes and innate immune cells are key drivers of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are the main target of MS disease modifying therapies (DMT). Ex vivo analyses of MS lesions have revealed cellular heterogeneity and variable T-cell levels, which may have important implication for patient stratification and choice of DMT. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven valuable to monitor DMT efficacy, its lack of specificity for cellular subtypes highlights the need for complementary methods to improve lesion characterization. Read More

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Multimodal molecular imaging detects early responses to immune checkpoint blockade.

Cancer Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has become a standard therapy for several cancers; however, the response to ICB is inconsistent and a method for non-invasive assessment has not been established to date. To investigate the capability of multi-modal imaging to evaluate treatment response to ICB therapy, hyperpolarized 13C MRI using [1-13C] pyruvate and [1,4-13C2] fumarate and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI were evaluated to detect early changes in tumor glycolysis, necrosis, and intratumor perfusion/permeability, respectively. Mouse tumor models served as platforms for high (MC38 colon adenocarcinoma) and low (B16-F10 melanoma) sensitivity to dual ICB of PD-L1 and CTLA-4. Read More

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Metagenomic characterization of soil microbial communities in the Luquillo experimental forest (Puerto Rico) and implications for nitrogen cycling.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The phylogenetic and functional diversity of microbial communities in tropical rainforests, and how these differ from temperate communities remain poorly described but are directly related to the increased fluxes of greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide (NO) from the tropics. Towards closing these knowledge gaps, we analyzed replicated shotgun metagenomes representing distinct life zones and an elevation gradient from four locations in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF), Puerto Rico. These soils had a distinct microbial community composition and lower species diversity when compared to temperate grasslands or agricultural soils. Read More

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All of the accuracy in half of the time: assessing abbreviated versions of the Test of Memory Malingering in the context of verbal and visual memory impairment.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) Trial 1 (T1) and errors on the first 10 items of T1 (T1-e10) were developed as briefer versions of the TOMM to minimize evaluation time and burden, although the effect of genuine memory impairment on these indices is not well established. This study examined whether increasing material-specific verbal and visual memory impairment affected T1 and T1-e10 performance and accuracy for detecting invalidity. Data from 155 neuropsychiatric patients administered the TOMM, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) during outpatient evaluation were examined. Read More

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Decidual cell FKBP51-progesterone receptor binding mediates maternal stress-induced preterm birth.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612;

Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder increase the risk of idiopathic preterm birth (iPTB); however, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Depression and stress-related disorders are linked to increased FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) expression levels in the brain and/or gene polymorphisms. -deficient () mice resist stress-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Read More

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Neuroimaging markers of adolescent depression in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:380-386. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of California, San Diego, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Adolescents are at increased risk of developing major depressive disorder (MDD) than many other age groups. Although the neural correlates of MDD in adults have been studied prospectively, such adolescent depression studies are mainly cross-sectional. We extracted data regarding the relationship between cortical thickness and later development of adolescent MDD from a national community study that uses an accelerated longitudinal design to examine the psychological, environmental, and neural differences related to drinking and brain development. Read More

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Local RANKL delivery improves socket healing in bisphosphonate treated rats.

Bone 2021 Apr 6:115945. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Medication related osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ) is a severe complication of antiresorptive and anti-angiogenic medications. Osteoclast inhibition is central in MRONJ pathogenesis. Here, we investigated if local application of RANKL (a key molecule in osteoclast activation) could enhance osteoclast generation and improve extraction socket healing in the presence of bisphosphonates. Read More

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The pleiotropic beneficial intervention of olive oil intake on the Alzheimer's disease onset via fibrinolytic system.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 6:111344. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Emeritus Professor of Hematology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Faculty of Health Sciences, Greece.

The daily consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) in Mediterranean nutrition is tightly associated with lower frequency of many diseases' appearance, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fibrinolytic system is already assumed to be involved in AD pathophysiology through various factors, especially plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a2-antiplasmin (α2ΑP) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). We, here, present a biochemical study, as a continuation of a clinical trial of a cohort of 84 participants, focusing on the pleiotropic effect of the annual EVOO consumption on the fibrinolytic factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients. Read More

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Increased MMP-9 levels with strain-dependent stress resilience and tunnel handling in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 6:113288. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Neuroscience, Washington D.C., United States. Electronic address:

Increased perineuronal net (PNN) deposition has been observed in association with corticosteroid administration and stress in rodent models of depression. PNNs are a specialized form of extracellular matrix (ECM) that may enhance GABA-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission to potentially restrict the excitation and plasticity of pyramidal glutamatergic neurons. In contrast, antidepressant administration increases levels of the PNN-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which enhances glutamatergic plasticity and neurotransmission. Read More

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Ambient PM Organic and Elemental Carbon in New York City: Changing Source Contributions During a Decade of Large Emission Reductions.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State University of New York, Albany.

Fine particle (PM) exposure is a public health issue affecting millions of people worldwide. In New York State, significant emission reductions occurred during the past decades due to fuel switching, increased renewable energy, and transformations in buildings and transportation. Between 2002 and 2018, anthropogenic emissions of CO, NO, SO, VOCs, and primary PM declined by 58%, 61%, 89%, 47%, and 29%, respectively, in New York and three adjoining states. Read More

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Molecular epidemiological insights into Trypanosoma vivax in Argentina: from the endemic Gran Chaco to outbreaks in the Pampas.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Argentina is home to millions of beef and dairy cattle, and is one of the world's major exporters of meat. In the present study, Trypanosoma vivax was prevalent (2016-2018) in two major livestock farming regions, the Gran Chaco and the Pampas. In the Gran Chaco, 29% and 51% of animals (n = 72, taurine x zebuine crossbreed) were, respectively, positive by TviCATL-PCR and the more sensitive fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) method. Read More

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Pericardiocentesis induced right ventricular changes in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension.

Echocardiography 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MedStar Heart and Vascular Institute, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Pericardial effusion drainage in patients with significant pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been questioned because of hemodynamic collapse concern, mainly because of right ventricular (RV) function challenging assessment. We aimed to assess RV function changes related to pericardiocentesis in patients with and without PH.

Methods: Consecutive patients with symptomatic moderate-to-large pericardial effusion who had either echocardiographic or clinical signs of cardiac tamponade and who underwent pericardiocentesis from 2013 to 2018 were included. Read More

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Morphologic Severity of Acute Pancreatitis on Imaging Is Independently Associated with Opioid Dose Requirements in Hospitalized Patients.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Prior studies have evaluated clinical characteristics associated with opioid dose requirements in hospitalized patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) but did not incorporate morphologic findings on CT imaging.

Aims: We sought to determine whether morphologic severity on imaging is independently associated with opioid dose requirements in AP.

Methods: Adult inpatients with a diagnosis of AP from 2006 to 2017 were reviewed. Read More

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Cyclically stretched ACL fibroblasts emigrating from spheroids adapt their cytoskeleton and ligament-related expression profile.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Paracelsus Medical University, Prof.-Ernst-Nathan Str. 1, 90419, Nuremberg and Salzburg, Nuremberg, Germany.

Mechanical stress of ligaments varies; hence, ligament fibroblasts must adapt their expression profile to novel mechanomilieus to ensure tissue resilience. Activation of the mechanoreceptors leads to a specific signal transduction, the so-called mechanotransduction. However, with regard to their natural three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment cell reaction to mechanical stimuli during emigrating from a 3D spheroid culture is still unclear. Read More

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Accelerated 3D whole-brain T1, T2, and proton density mapping: feasibility for clinical glioma MR imaging.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Purpose: Advanced MRI-based biomarkers offer comprehensive and quantitative information for the evaluation and characterization of brain tumors. In this study, we report initial clinical experience in routine glioma imaging with a novel, fully 3D multiparametric quantitative transient-state imaging (QTI) method for tissue characterization based on T1 and T2 values.

Methods: To demonstrate the viability of the proposed 3D QTI technique, nine glioma patients (grade II-IV), with a variety of disease states and treatment histories, were included in this study. Read More

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Early biomechanical outcome in patients with acetabular fractures treated using the pararectus approach: a gait and stair climb analysis study.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Patients with surgically treated acetabular fractures using extensive dissection of hip muscles demonstrate an incomplete biomechanical recovery and limited joint mobility during movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early biomechanical outcome in a series of patients with acetabular fractures treated using the less invasive anatomical pararectus approach.

Methods: Eight patients (48 ± 14 years, BMI 25. Read More

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Estrogen receptor 2 mediates intraspecific aggressive behaviors of the female in the estrous cycle.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):77-85

College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, 273165 Shandong, P. R. China.

The social behavior mechanisms have not been thoroughly reported in the solitary female striped dwarf hamster (). In this study, the handling bag test and neutral arena measurements were used to detect the changes of aggression in the face of rivals of different genders of wild striped dwarf hamsters. We found that female hamsters had the highest aggressive performance in proestrus, followed by estrus, and the lowest in metestrus and the dioestrus, and the increased aggression during the proestrus or estrus period was low-intensity aggression such as intimidation, shock, boxing and counterattack, or even ritualized non-harmful behaviors to drive away opponents. Read More

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Association of interleukin-12B rs6887695 with susceptibility to allergic rhinitis.

Immunol Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine encoded by two separate genes, IL12A and IL12B, which may play a regulatory role in allergen-induced inflammation through CD4 T-cell subsets polarization. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL12B gene with susceptibility to allergic rhinitis (AR). We performed a case-control study including 130 AR patients and 130 healthy controls to evaluate the possible association between IL12B gene SNPs (rs3212227, rs6887695) and the risk of AR using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Read More

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Effects of intranasal guanosine administration on brain function in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

Purinergic Signal 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate Program in Biological Science: Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, ICBS, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and only few affected patients are able to receive treatment, especially in developing countries. Detailed pathophysiology of brain ischemia has been extensively studied in order to discover new treatments with a broad therapeutic window and that are accessible to patients worldwide. The nucleoside guanosine (Guo) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of brain diseases, including ischemic stroke. Read More

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Tolerance of tomato to cadmium-induced stress: analyzing cultivars with different fruit colors.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", University of São Paulo, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Agronomia, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil.

The objective of the present study was to assess the response of tomato cultivars with different fruit colors to exposure to increasing Cd levels in the substrate by measuring the impacts of Cd on the oxidative stress indicators and physicochemical features of fruits, as well as plant development and yield components. A completely randomized experiment in a 3 × 3 factorial design [tomato cultivar (which produces purple, red, or white fruits) vs Cd level in the substrate (0, 3.6, or 12 mg kg)] was performed. Read More

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Breast cancer: comparison of quantitative dual-layer spectral CT and axillary ultrasonography for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic axillary lymph nodes.

Eur Radiol Exp 2021 Apr 9;5(1):16. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Our aim was to compare the diagnostic performance of quantitative dual-layer spectral computed tomography (DLSCT) and axillary ultrasound (US) for diagnosing lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients.

Methods: DLSCT and axillary US were prospectively performed in 70 needle biopsy-verified breast cancer patients. Histopathology and imaging data were available for evaluation in 36 axillae from 34 patients. Read More

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The Effect of Schooling on Women's Overweight and Obesity: A Natural Experiment in Nigeria.

Authors:
Pepita Barlow

Demography 2021 Apr;58(2):685-710

Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

An extensive social scientific literature has documented the importance of schooling in preventing overweight and obesity among women. However, prior quasi-experimental studies investigating the causal effect of schooling on women's overweight and obesity have focused almost exclusively on high-income countries (HICs). Schooling effects may differ in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs), where information about the harms of being overweight is often sparse and where larger body sizes can be socially valued. Read More

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Remodeling of an microvessel exposed to cyclic mechanical stretch.

APL Bioeng 2021 Jun 2;5(2):026102. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC),13092 Berlin, Germany.

In the lungs, vascular endothelial cells experience cyclic mechanical strain resulting from rhythmic breathing motions and intraluminal blood pressure. Mechanical stress creates evident physiological, morphological, biochemical, and gene expression changes in vascular endothelial cells. However, the exact mechanisms of the mechanical signal transduction into biological responses remain to be clarified. Read More

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Spectral CT imaging of human osteoarthritic cartilage via quantitative assessment of glycosaminoglycan content using multiple contrast agents.

APL Bioeng 2021 Jun 1;5(2):026101. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Otago Christchurch, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand.

Detection of early osteoarthritis to stabilize or reverse the damage to articular cartilage would improve patient function, reduce disability, and limit the need for joint replacement. In this study, we investigated nondestructive photon-processing spectral computed tomography (CT) for the quantitative measurement of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content compared to destructive histological and biochemical assay techniques in normal and osteoarthritic tissues. Cartilage-bone cores from healthy bovine stifles were incubated in 50% ioxaglate (Hexabrix) or 100% gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance). Read More

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