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Effects of stereotactic radiosurgery versus conventional radiotherapy on body mass index in patients with craniopharyngioma.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 14:1-7. Epub 2021 May 14.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute.

Objective: Hypothalamic obesity is common among patients with craniopharyngioma. This study examined whether precise stereotactic radiosurgery reduces the risk of hypothalamic obesity in cases of craniopharyngioma with expected long-term survival.

Methods: This cohort study included 40 patients who had undergone Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; n = 22) or fractionated radiotherapy (FRT; n = 18) for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma. Read More

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Avelumab and cetuximab as a therapeutic combination: An overview of scientific rationale and current clinical trials in cancer.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Mar 2;97:102172. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Medical Oncology, Department of Precision Medicine, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Treatment outcomes have improved with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and small molecule inhibitors. However, many patients do not respond with single agents. Consequently, ongoing research is focused on the use of combination therapies to increase clinical efficacy by potential synergistic effects. Read More

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Lysionotin Induces Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Caspase-3 Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 11:109500. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Translational Medicine Research, First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130061, China. Electronic address:

As the sixth most prevalent cancer, liver cancer has been reported as the second cause of cancer-induced deaths globally. Lysionotin, a flavonoid compound widely distributed in Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim, has attracted considerable attention due to its multiple biological activities. The present study analyzes the anti-liver cancer effects of lysionotin in cell and mouse models. Read More

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Molecular Docking and Dynamic Studies of a Potential Therapeutic Target Inhibiting Glyoxalase System: metabolic action of the 3, 3 '- [3- (5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl) -3-oxopropane-1, 1-diyl] - bis-4-hydroxycoumarin leads overexpression of the intracellular level of methylglyoxal and induction of a pro-apoptotic phenomenon in a hepatocellular carcinoma model.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 11:109511. Epub 2021 May 11.

QOPNA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Methylglyoxal is a dicarbonyl compound recruited as a potential cytotoxic marker, initially presents in cells and considered as a metabolite of the glycolytic pathway. Our aim is to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of 3, 3'-[3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxopropane-1, 1-diyl] Bis (4-hydroxycoumarin) on the glyoxalase system, and indirectly its anticancer activity. The docking of OT-55 was conducted by using Flexible docking protocol, ChiFlex and libdock tools inside the active site of Glo-I indicated that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions contributed significantly in establishing potent binding with the active site which is selected as a strong inhibitor with high scoring values and maximum Gibbs free energy. Read More

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Discerning perturbed assembly of lipids in a model membrane in presence of violacein.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 May 11:183647. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, NH 91, Tehsil Dadri, G. B. Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201314, India. Electronic address:

Violacein is a naturally found pigment that is used by some gram negative bacteria to defend themselves from various gram positive bacteria. As a result, this molecule has caught attention for its potential biomedical applications and has already shown promising outcomes as an antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-tumor agent. Understanding the interaction of this molecule with a cellular membrane is an essential step to extend its use in the pharmaceutical paradigm. Read More

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Hyperglycemia minimally alters primary self-renewing human colonic epithelial cells while TNFα-promotes severe intestinal epithelial dysfunction.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Hyperglycemia is thought to increase production of inflammatory cytokines and permeability of the large intestine. Resulting intestinal inflammation is then often characterized by excess secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Thus, hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients suffering from severe trauma or disease is frequently accompanied by TNFα secretion, and the combined impact of these insults on the intestinal epithelium is poorly understood. Read More

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Quantitative SERS sensor based on self-assembled Au@Ag heterogeneous nanocuboids monolayer with high enhancement factor for practical quantitative detection.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230001, Anhui, China.

Accurate and rapid quantitative detection of pesticide and pollutant levels in the actual sample can aid in protecting food security, environmental security, and human health. A high Raman enhancement factor and good repeatability of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates are favorable to quantitative analysis. Herein, a quantitative SERS sensor based on constructed self-assembled plasmonic Au@Ag heterogeneous nanocuboids (Au@Ag NCs) monolayer was developed. Read More

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The effects of infection on pregnancy-related diseases and fetal development in diabetes in pregnancy.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):686

Endocrinology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: This study aimed to determine the association of () infection with pregnancy-related diseases and fetal development in women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP).

Methods: All the participants were recruited before 16 weeks of gestation. According to their medical history and the results of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the 24 week of pregnancy, the participants were divided into a normal control group (NC group), a gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group), and a pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus group (PGDM group). Read More

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Comprehensive analysis of tumor microenvironment and identification of an immune signature to predict the prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):569

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Tumor mutation burden (TMB) and immune microenvironment are important determinants of prognosis and immunotherapeutic efficacy for cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to develop an immune signature to effectively predict prognosis and immunotherapeutic response in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC).

Methods: TMB and immune microenvironment characteristics were comprehensively analyzed by multi-omics data in LUSC. Read More

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hsa-miR-33-5p as a Therapeutic Target Promotes Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells Selenoprotein T.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 27;8:651473. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Breast, Linyi Cancer Hospital, Linyi, China.

Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA) participates in regulating tumor cell apoptosis. We aimed to observe the effect of hsa-miR-33-5p on the apoptosis of breast cancer cells and to explore its regulatory relationship with selenoprotein T (SelT). RT-qPCR was used to examine the expression of hsa-miR-33-5p and SelT both in breast cancer tissues and cells. Read More

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Zebrafish Cancer Predisposition Models.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 27;9:660069. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Cancer predisposition syndromes are rare, typically monogenic disorders that result from germline mutations that increase the likelihood of developing cancer. Although these disorders are individually rare, resulting cancers collectively represent 5-10% of all malignancies. In addition to a greater incidence of cancer, affected individuals have an earlier tumor onset and are frequently subjected to long-term multi-modal cancer screening protocols for earlier detection and initiation of treatment. Read More

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Regional Distribution of Causes of Death for Small Areas in Brazil, 1998-2017.

Front Public Health 2021 27;9:601980. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Demography, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

What is the spatial pattern of mortality by cause and sex in Brazil? Even considering the main causes of death, such as neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, respiratory diseases, and infectious diseases, there are still important debate regarding the spatial pattern of mortality by causes in Brazil. Evidence shows that there is an overlap in transitional health states, due to the persistence of infectious diseases (e.g. Read More

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MicroRNA-891a-5p is a novel biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer and targets HOXA5 to regulate tumor cell biological function.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 2;22(1):507. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Yueqing People's Hospital, Yueqing, Zhejiang 325600, P.R. China.

Numerous studies have shown that the dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA/miR) is an important factor in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. However, the role of miR-891a-5p in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the clinical value and biological function of miR-891a-5p in NSCLC. Read More

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Anti-VEGF treatment suppresses remodeling factors and restores epithelial barrier function through the E-cadherin/β-catenin signaling axis in experimental asthma models.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 29;22(1):689. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Celal Bayar University Medical Faculty, Manisa 45030, Turkey.

Besides maintaining a physical barrier with adherens junctional (AJ) and tight junctional proteins, airway epithelial cells have important roles in modulating the inflammatory processes of allergic asthma. E-cadherin and β-catenin are the key AJ proteins that are involved in airway remodeling. Various mediators such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are released by the airway epithelium in allergic asthma. Read More

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Therapeutic potential of interleukin-15 in cancer (Review).

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 24;22(1):675. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry of the Romanian Academy (IBAR), 060031 Bucharest, Romania.

The immune system is dysfunctional in cancer, and therapeutic approaches designated to restore immunity and increase long-term overall survival are desirable. The role of immunotherapy is to trigger the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a member of the common gamma-chain (γc) cytokines that promote the differentiation and expansion of T cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells, leading to enhanced antitumor responses. Read More

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Recent Understanding and Future Directions of Recurrent Corticotroph Tumors.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:657382. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Neuroendocrinology Clinic, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Corticotroph tumors (CTs) are pituitary neoplasms arising from the Tpit lineage, which may or not express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Functioning CTs cause Cushing's disease (CD), which has high morbidity and mortality due to hypercortisolemia. "Non-functioning" or silent CTs (SCT) and the Crooke's cell subtypes do not cause CD and may be asymptomatic until manifested by compressive symptoms and are more frequently found as macroadenoma. Read More

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Bedaquiline, an FDA-approved drug, inhibits mitochondrial ATP production and metastasis in vivo, by targeting the gamma subunit (ATP5F1C) of the ATP synthase.

Cell Death Differ 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Translational Medicine, School of Science, Engineering and Environment (SEE), University of Salford, Greater Manchester, UK.

Here, we provide evidence that high ATP production by the mitochondrial ATP-synthase is a new therapeutic target for anticancer therapy, especially for preventing tumor progression. More specifically, we isolated a subpopulation of ATP-high cancer cells which are phenotypically aggressive and demonstrate increases in proliferation, stemness, anchorage-independence, cell migration, invasion and multi-drug resistance, as well as high antioxidant capacity. Clinically, these findings have important implications for understanding treatment failure and cancer cell dormancy. Read More

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Serum alanine aminotransferase as an early marker of outcomes in patients receiving anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 antibody.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10264. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Oncology, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, 2-8-29 Musashinodai, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8524, Japan.

Immune-oncology (IO) drug therapy is effective against various types of cancer. Although several, potential, clinical predictive markers have been identified, none so far have proven reliable. Herein we evaluated changes in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), which is upregulated by the accumulation of activated CD8+T cells in the liver, as a potentially reliable predictive marker. Read More

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Role of neutrophil extracellular traps in radiation resistance of invasive bladder cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 May 13;12(1):2776. Epub 2021 May 13.

Urologic Oncology Research Division, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Radiation therapy (RT) is used in the management of several cancers; however, tumor radioresistance remains a challenge. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are recruited to the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) post-RT and can facilitate tumor progression by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, we demonstrate a role for NETs as players in tumor radioresistance. Read More

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Pretreatment metastatic growth rate determines clinical outcome of advanced melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies: a multicenter cohort study.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Checkpoint inhibitors revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma patients. Although tumor burden and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are associated with overall survival (OS), the impact of tumor growth kinetics remains elusive and in part contradictory. The aims of this study were to develop a novel simple and rapid method that estimates pretreatment metastatic growth rate (MGR) and to investigate its prognostic impact in melanoma patients treated with antiprogrammed death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies. Read More

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[G protein-coupled estrogen receptor increases vascular endothelial inflammatory response after ovariectomized mice].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):279-283

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells and the possible role and mechanism of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor(GPER)under the physiological conditions of estrogen deficiency(ovary removal).

Methods: Forty healthy 8-week-old female C57 BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups by random number table according to body weight, which were respectively the control group, ovarian removal group, ovarian removal high calcium group, and G1 ovarian removal high calcium group, each group ten. One week after the basal diet, the control group underwent sham surgery, and the ovaries-removed group, ovarian-removed high-calcium group, and G1 ovarian-removed high-calcium group were treated for ovarian removal. Read More

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[Interaction of IL-6 gene with tumor necrosis factor-α and white blood cell in metabolic syndrome].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;50(2):261-273

School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.

Objective: To investigate the associations between the polymorphisms and interaction of the interleukin 6(IL-6) genes at-634 C/G, -174 G/C, -1363 G/T loci, as well as the interactions between the three loci and tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α), and peripheral blood leukocytes(white blood cell, WBC) with metabolic syndrome(MS).

Methods: Using the case-control research method, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, from March 2015 to March 2016 from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and Wuzhong City People's Hospital, 376 unrelated cases and 408 control groups were selected. We conducted questionnaire surveys(including general conditions, disease and medication history, family history, etc. Read More

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Dimeric Her2-specific affibody mediated cisplatin-loaded nanoparticles for tumor enhanced chemo-radiotherapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 May 13;19(1):138. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, 250117, China.

Background: Solid tumor hypoxic conditions prevent the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation, which ultimately contributes to radiotherapy (RT) resistance. Recently, there have been significant technical advances in nanomedicine to reduce hypoxia by facilitating in situ O production, which in turn serves as a "radiosensitizer" to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation. However, off-target damage to the tumor-surrounding healthy tissue by high-energy radiation is often unavoidable, and tumor cells that are further away from the focal point of ionizing radiation may avoid damage. Read More

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PARP inhibitor olaparib has a potential to increase the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in BRCA1 mutated breast cancer in mice.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 May 1;140:107832. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Health Sciences, Zdravstvena pot 5, SI - 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Electrochemotherapy (ECT), a local therapy, has different effectiveness among tumor types. In breast cancer, its effectiveness is low; therefore, combined therapies are needed. The aim of our study was to combine ECT with PARP inhibitor olaparib, which could inhibit the repair of bleomycin or cisplatin induced DNA damage and potentiate the effectiveness of ECT. Read More

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PTTG1 knockdown enhances radiation-induced antitumour immunity in lung adenocarcinoma.

Life Sci 2021 May 10:119594. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University/Yunnan Cancer Hospital, PR China. Electronic address:

Aim: Ionizing radiation (IR) can induce local and systemic antitumour immune responses to some degree and augment immunotherapeutic efficacy. IR may also increase residual tumour cell invasion and elicit immunosuppression in the tumour microenvironment (TME). It remains poorly understand, whether IR leads to immune negative response or invasive capacity increases in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Read More

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Clinical Databases for Breast Cancer Research.

Authors:
Ki-Tae Hwang

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:493-509

Department of Surgery, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Clinical database is a collection of clinical data related to patients, which can be used for analysis and research. Clinical data can be classified into several categories: patient-related, tumor-related, diagnostics-related, treatment-related, outcome-related, administration-related, and other clinical data. Clinical databases can be classified according to the data types of clinical databases, ranges of institutes, and accessibility to data. Read More

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January 2021

Transperineal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer on the residual rectum after multiple abdominal surgeries in a patient with Crohn's disease: a case report.

Surg Case Rep 2021 May 13;7(1):122. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery I, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: The improved prognosis of Crohn's disease may increase the opportunities of surgical treatment for patients with Crohn's disease and the risk of development of colorectal cancer. We herein describe a patient with Crohn's disease and a history of multiple surgeries who developed rectal stump carcinoma that was treated laparoscopically and transperineally.

Case Presentation: A 51-year-old man had been diagnosed with Crohn's disease 35 years earlier and had undergone several operations for treatment of Crohn's colitis. Read More

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Identification of the dominant angiogenic CXCL class chemokines associated with non-small cell lung cancer via bioinformatics tools.

Authors:
Nese Unver

Med Oncol 2021 May 13;38(6):68. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Stem Cell Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Center for Stem Cell Research and Development, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Chemokines play a critical role in lung cancer progression and metastasis. In non-small cell lung cancer, the determination of dominant angiogenic CXCL-type chemokines may increase the efficacy of targeted therapy and modulate the prognosis of lung cancer. Also, chemokine and chemokine receptors shape the immune response in the cross-talk between both cancer cells and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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Dye-Based Chromoendoscopy in Patients With Lynch Syndrome: An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):825-828

1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam Cancer Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 4National Center for Hereditary Tumor Syndromes, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 5Department of Hematology and Oncology, Klinikum Coburg, Coburg, Germany; 6Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 7Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 8Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 9Division of Cancer Genetics and Prevention, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 10Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 11Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 12Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Introduction: The additional diagnostic value of dye-based chromoendosocpy (CE) for surveillance of patients with Lynch syndrome is subject of debate.

Methods: To clarify this debate, we performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized studies that compared CE with WLE for the detection of adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.

Results: Three randomized studies comprising 533 patients were included. Read More

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Ultrasmall Gd@Cdots as a radiosensitizing agent for non-small cell lung cancer.

Nanoscale 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, 140 Cedar Street, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

High-Z nanoparticles (HZNPs) afford high cross-section for high energy radiation and have attracted wide attention as a novel type of radiosensitizer. However, conventional HZNPs are often associated with issues such as heavy metal toxicity, suboptimal pharmacokinetics, and low cellular uptake. Herein, we explore gadolinium-intercalated carbon dots (Gd@Cdots) as a dose-modifying agent for radiotherapy. Read More

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