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Altered Fibrinolysis during and after Surgery.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care Department, Bellvitge University Hospital, L'Hospitalet de LLobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Major surgery induces hemostatic changes related to surgical stress, tissue destruction, and inflammatory reactions. These changes involve a shift of volume from extravascular space to intravascular and interstitial spaces, a "physiologic" hemodilution of coagulation proteins, and an increase of plasmatic fibrinogen concentration and platelets. Increases in fibrinogen and platelets together with a simultaneous dilution of pro- and anticoagulant factors and development of a hypofibrinolytic status result in a postoperative hypercoagulable state. Read More

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Alterations in the lipid profile associate with a dysregulated inflammatory, prothrombotic, anti-fibrinolytic state and development of severe acute kidney injury in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A study from Cincinnati, USA.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 14;15(3):863-868. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background And Aims: Reduction of atherogenic lipoproteins is often the ultimate goal of nutritional interventions, however this is complicated given that hypolipidemia is frequently observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to explore the association of hypolipidemia with patient outcomes in terms of immunothrombosis and multiorgan injury, focusing on specialized apolipoproteins apo A1 and apo B.

Methods: Lipid profiles of 50 COVID-19 patients and 30 sick controls presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) were measured in this prospective observational study. Read More

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A Pilot Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial on the Efficacy and Safety of a Transdermal Gel that Delivers CO2 in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Atrophy.

Surg Technol Int 2021 Apr 20;38. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This prospective study aimed to assess the efficacy of a transdermal CO2 gel in promoting regeneration in the vulvovaginal area in postmenopausal women experiencing symptoms as part of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Transdermal carboxytherapy refers to the application of CO2 through the skin's superficial layer, which is intended to increase oxygenation (through the Bohr effect) and angiogenesis, thus helping to reduce symptoms of GSM. In this study, 20 women with moderate or severe signs or symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy were randomized to receive either transdermal CO2 therapy (n=10) or a placebo gel (ultrasound gel, n=10). Read More

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Pulmonary insults exacerbate susceptibility to oral Listeria monocytogenes infection through the production of IL-10 by NK cells.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 20;17(4):e1009531. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States of America.

Most individuals who consume foods contaminated with the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) develop mild symptoms, while others are susceptible to life-threatening systemic infections (listeriosis). Although it is known that the risk of severe disease is increased in certain human populations, including the elderly, it remains unclear why others who consume contaminated food develop listeriosis. Here, we used a murine model to discover that pulmonary coinfections can impair the host's ability to adequately control and eradicate systemic Lm that cross from the intestines to the bloodstream. Read More

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Menopausal symptoms inversely associated with quality of life: findings from a 5-year longitudinal cohort in Chinese breast cancer survivors.

Menopause 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China Division of Epidemiology, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China Department of Clinical Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China Hong Kong Cancer Institute, State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Objective: This study assessed menopausal symptoms (MPS) after breast cancer in relation to quality of life (QoL) during the first 5 years of survival.

Methods: An ongoing prospective study enrolled 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer. They were longitudinally followed up at four time-points, namely baseline, 18-, 36-, and 60-month after diagnosis. Read More

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Uterine fibroids treatment: do we have new valid alternative? Experiencing the combination of vitamin D plus epigallocatechin gallate in childbearing age affected women.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Apr;25(7):2843-2851

Reproductive Physiopathology and Andrology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Uterine myomas are the most common benign tumors in females, and at least 25% of affected patients experience symptoms severe enough to need treatment, like heavy hemorrhage, pelvic pain, and infertility. Currently, a non-invasive approach is preferred in women of childbearing age who desire pregnancy. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of oral supplementation with a combination of vitamin D plus epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and vitamin B6 in women with myomas. Read More

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Impact of Parthenium hysterophorus L. invasion on soil nitrogen dynamics of grassland vegetation of Indo-Gangetic plains, India.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 20;193(5):286. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Environment & Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, UP, 221005, Varanasi, India.

The noxious plant species Parthenium hysterophorus L. has become a major concern for the conservation of many natural and managed areas. The species is known for its various adverse effects on the invaded ecosystems, particularly in terms of biodiversity loss. Read More

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[Attitude towards vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 : Survey among employees in hospitals before and after the start of vaccinations in German hospitals].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

ARDS und ECMO Zentrum Köln-Merheim, Kliniken der Stadt Köln und Universität Witten/Herdecke, Köln, Deutschland.

Background: The vaccinations against the "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2" (SARS-CoV‑2) play a decisive role in the global fight against the coronavirus pandemic. In the population, but also among health care workers (HCWs), there were concerns and skepticism about vaccinations even before the corona pandemic.

Methods: An online survey on the attitude of HCWs to vaccination against SARS-CoV‑2 was carried out in December (December 3rd-December 12th, 2020) before and in February (February 1st-February 10th, 2021) after the start of the vaccinations. Read More

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Are there adverse outcomes for child health and development following caesarean section delivery? Can we justify using elective caesarean section to prevent obstetric pelvic floor damage?

Authors:
Jennifer King

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Pelvic Floor Unit, Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Elective pre-labour Caesarean section (CS) delivery is widely regarded as the panacea for all pelvic floor dysfunction despite substantial epidemiological evidence that it is only partially protective. To demand a CS is also considered a right for the well-counselled patient, even without an elevated risk of incontinence or prolapse. In recent years there has been increasing data on possible adverse health outcomes for children delivered by CS over those delivered vaginally. Read More

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Impaired perfusion in the myocardial microcirculation in asymptomatic patients with Stages 1-4 chronic kidney disease with intrarenal arterial lesions.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Nephrology, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Even mild renal disease is a powerful cardiovascular risk factor. However, the association between these pathophysiologic processes (especially in the early asymptomatic stage) is not known.

Methods: We recruited 243 asymptomatic patients with Stages 1-4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Read More

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December 2020

Effects of environmental factors on sensitivity of Cryptococcus neoformans to fluconazole and amphotericin B.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, Furman University, Greenville SC, USA.

Cryptococcus neoformans is a leading cause of fungal meningitis in immunocompromised populations. Amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) are common anticryptococcal agents. AMB treatment leads to severe side-effects. Read More

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Insight into Bile Duct Reaction to Obstruction from a Three-dimensional Perspective Using ex Vivo Phase-Contrast CT.

Radiology 2021 Apr 20:203967. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

From the School of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Medical University, No. 22 Qixiangtai Rd, Tianjin 300070, China (W.J.L., X.H.X., L.L.Q., C.H.H.); Liver Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (X.Y.Z.); Beijing Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine in Liver Cirrhosis and National Clinical Research Center of Digestive Disease, Beijing, China (X.Y.Z.); and the Second Department of Gastroenterology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China (D.D.H.).

Background Biliary obstruction leads to an increase in biliary pressure within the biliary system, which induces the morphologic adaptation of the biliary tree. Purpose To observe and to quantify the morphologic characteristics of the adaptation in a bile duct ligation rat model and verify it in patients with biliary atresia in a three-dimensional (3D) manner using x-ray phase-contrast CT. Materials and Methods A bile duct ligation model was induced in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into five groups: the control group (no ligation) and groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after bile duct ligation (eight animals in each group). Read More

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Optimizing Integration and Expression of Transgenic Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase for CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing of X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia.

CRISPR J 2021 Apr;4(2):191-206

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; Departments of University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a monogenic primary immune deficiency characterized by very low levels of immunoglobulins and greatly increased risks for recurrent and severe infections. Patients with XLA have a loss-of-function mutation in the Bruton's tyrosine kinase () gene and fail to produce mature B lymphocytes. Gene editing in the hematopoietic stem cells of XLA patients to correct or replace the defective gene should restore B cell development and the humoral immune response. Read More

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Potential ecological impacts of climate intervention by reflecting sunlight to cool Earth.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

As the effects of anthropogenic climate change become more severe, several approaches for deliberate climate intervention to reduce or stabilize Earth's surface temperature have been proposed. Solar radiation modification (SRM) is one potential approach to partially counteract anthropogenic warming by reflecting a small proportion of the incoming solar radiation to increase Earth's albedo. While climate science research has focused on the predicted climate effects of SRM, almost no studies have investigated the impacts that SRM would have on ecological systems. Read More

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Renal effect of severe hypoxia evaluated By NGAL measurements: An in vivo and in vitro study.

Urologia 2021 Apr 20:3915603211009117. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate possible renal damage in healthy men exposed to extreme hypobaric hypoxia, using urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) concentration as biomarker. The value of NGAL as a biomarker of proximal tubular cell damage under hypoxic conditions was also tested in vitro experiments.

Methods: NGAL was assayed in a cohort of air cadets ( = 16) exposed to hypobaric hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber during their training program. Read More

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Association of Back Pain with Mortality: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Family Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Back pain is the most common cause of disability worldwide. While disability generally is associated with greater mortality, the association between back pain and mortality is unclear. Our objective was to examine whether back pain is associated with increased mortality risk and whether this association varies by age, sex, and back pain severity. Read More

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Association of loss of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits with food insecurity and dietary intake of adults and children.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) disenrollment among income-eligible households could limit their ability to access food.

Objectives: To assess the association of loss of SNAP benefits on food security status and dietary intake of household members, using 2011-2016 NHANES data.

Methods: SNAP participation status among those with a household income ≤130% of the federal poverty level was categorized as 1) current participants, 2) former participants with benefits cut off in the past year, and 3) former participants with benefits cut off for more than a year. Read More

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Concentration-induced wettability alteration of nanoscale NaCl solution droplets on the CSH surface.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 24;23(12):7449-7461. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033, China.

Due to the hydrophilic nature of concrete, moisture and corrosive ions adsorbed on its surface pose a severe challenge to the durability of concrete structures; therefore, investigating the wettability of a concrete surface is an indispensable prerequisite for designing durable and sustainable concrete. This paper utilizes molecular dynamics to simulate the concentration-induced wettability alteration of nanoscale NaCl droplets on a CSH surface, and verifies the feasibility and rationality of predicting the contact angle of a droplet on the CSH surface based on the surface tension. Results suggest that the wetting ability of droplets on the CSH surface is weakened with the increase of the NaCl mass fraction. Read More

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Children with Kawasaki disease or Kawasaki-like syndrome (MIS-C/PIMS) at the time of COVID-19: are they all the same? Case series and literature review.

Reumatismo 2021 Apr 19;73(1):48-53. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

ASST G. Pini-CTO, Milan, Italy; Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, and Research Center for Adult and Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases, University of Milan.

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started, children have been considered marginally involved compared to adults, with a quite significant percentage of asymptomatic carriers. Very recently, an overwhelming inflammatory activation, which shares clinical similarities with Kawasaki disease (KD), has been described in children exposed to COVID-19. We report three KD-like cases that occurred during the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a highly affected area of Northern Italy. Read More

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The control of cell expansion in roots.

Authors:
Jeremy Pritchard

New Phytol 1994 May;127(1):3-26

Ysgol Gwyddorau Bioleg, Coleg Prifysgol Gogledd Cymru, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2SY, Wales.

The expansion of roots is considered at the level of the single cell. The water relations of cell expansion are discussed. Water entry, solute import and cell wall properties are considered as possible regulatory points. Read More

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Root mechanical properties related to disturbed and stressed habitats in the Arctic.

New Phytol 1992 Sep;122(1):179-186

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood Research Station, Grange-over-Sands, Cumbria LAI 1 6JU, UK.

Various mechanical and architectural properties of roots were measured on plants characteristic of different levels of soil disturbance associated with frost-heave cycles on sorted polygons in Swedish Lapland: one of these measures, resilience, has not, apparently, been recorded previously in literature. Some roots were sampled from species which occurred on both disturbed and stable soils. Root length, root angle, numbers of roots and root diameter varied greatly between species but the degree of branching of roots was generally low. Read More

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September 1992

Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses: effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

Authors:
Allison R Aldous

New Phytol 2002 Nov;156(2):241-253

Current address: Cornell University, Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; The Nature Conservancy, 821 SE 14th Ave, Portland, Oregon 97214, USA.

•  Here, the hypothesis was tested that nitrogen (N) translocation from older to younger parts of Sphagnum decreases as N inputs from atmospheric deposition increase. •  Nitrogen translocation in Sphagnum mosses was compared in bogs with contrasting atmospheric N deposition (Adirondack - relatively high N deposition; Maine - relatively low) and by following the movement of a NH NO tracer applied to plots of Sphagnum capillifolium over 2 yr. •  Annual N translocation ranged from 11% to > 80% in the lower and higher influx sites, respectively. Read More

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November 2002

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation combined with sequential blood purification in the treatment of myocardial damage and cardiac arrest caused by mushroom poisoning.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Mushroom poisoning is a common clinical problem. Severe mushroom poisoning often causes liver and kidney failure. Although severe myocardial damage is rare, the fatality rate is extremely high. Read More

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Impact of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM transition on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity amongst delivery hospitalizations in the United States.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is important to identify temporal trends, evaluate the impact of clinical practice changes or interventions, and to monitor quality of care. A common source for SMM surveillance is hospital discharge data. On October 1, 2015 all hospitals in the United States transitioned from International Classification of Disease Version 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to International Classification of Disease Version 10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding for diagnoses and procedures. Read More

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Neglected human Rickettsia felis infection in Taiwan: A retrospective seroepidemiological survey of patients with suspected rickettsioses.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 19;15(4):e0009355. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Current knowledge on Rickettsia felis infection in humans is based on sporadic case reports. Here we conducted a retrospective seroepidemiological survey of R. felis infection among febrile patients visiting a medical center in Taipei. Read More

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The Biomechanics of Diabetic Foot Amputation.

Wounds 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

According to the International Diabetes Federation, approximately 463 million adults live with diabetes mellitus (DM), a number projected to increase to 700 million by 2045; a diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) will occur in about 15% of that population. Multiple factors contribute to the development of those wounds including diabetic peripheral neuropathy, biomechanical imbalances, trauma, and peripheral vascular disease. In addition, 85% of all lower limb amputations in patients with diabetes are preceded by a DFU resulting in significant biomechanical challenges for these patients, many of who never become ambulatory again. Read More

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Treatment Patterns and Clinical Outcomes After the Introduction of the Medicare Sepsis Performance Measure (SEP-1).

Ann Intern Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, and UPMC Health System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (D.C.A., J.M.K.).

Background: Medicare requires that hospitals report on their adherence to the Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Early Management Bundle (SEP-1).

Objective: To evaluate the effect of SEP-1 on treatment patterns and patient outcomes.

Design: Longitudinal study of hospitals using repeated cross-sectional cohorts of patients. Read More

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Veno-occlusive disease risk in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with gemtuzumab ozogamicin before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 19:e29067. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

CIBMTR® (Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research), Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) administered before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has been linked to an increased risk of hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS).

Procedure: This retrospective analysis examined VOD/SOS risk and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia who received myeloablative alloHCT in 2008-2011 with (n = 148) and without (n = 348; controls) prior GO exposure and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Results: Cumulative incidences (95% confidence interval [CI]) of VOD/SOS and severe VOD/SOS, respectively, at 100 days were 16% (11-23%) and 8% (4-13%) for GO-exposed patients and 10% (7-13%) and 3% (2-5%) for controls. Read More

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Givosiran: A Review in Acute Hepatic Porphyria.

Authors:
Yahiya Y Syed

Drugs 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Springer Nature, Mairangi Bay, Private Bag 65901, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Givosiran (Givlaari) is an δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1)-directed small interfering RNA (siRNA) approved for the treatment of acute hepatic porphyria (AHP). In the phase 3 ENVISION trial, givosiran significantly reduced the annualized rate of composite porphyria attacks (i.e. Read More

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End-tidal to arterial PCO ratio: a bedside meter of the overall gas exchanger performance.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 Apr 19;9(1):21. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert Koch Straße 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: The physiological dead space is a strong indicator of severity and outcome of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The "ideal" alveolar PCO, in equilibrium with pulmonary capillary PCO, is a central concept in the physiological dead space measurement. As it cannot be measured, it is surrogated by arterial PCO which, unfortunately, may be far higher than ideal alveolar PCO, when the right-to-left venous admixture is present. Read More

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