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[Characteristics of esophageal motility and clinical presentation in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients of different age groups].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;101(14):1015-1019

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China;Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100102, China.

To explore the characteristics of esophageal motility and clinical presentation in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients of different age groups. This was a case-control study. Confirmed GERD patients in the Department of Gastroenterology of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2015 to September 2018 were enrolled and divided into two groups: elderly group (≥60 years old) and young and middle-aged group (<60 years old). Read More

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Thermoinducible expression system for producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli: advances and insights.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Unidad de Bioprocesos, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510, Ciudad de México, México.

Recombinant protein (RP) production from Escherichia coli has been extensively studied to find strategies for increasing product yields. The thermoinducible expression system is commonly employed at the industrial level to produce various RPs which avoids the addition of chemical inducers, thus minimizing contamination risks. Multiple aspects of the molecular origin and biotechnological uses of its regulatory elements (pL/pR promoters and cI857 thermolabile repressor) derived from bacteriophage λ provide knowledge to improve the bioprocesses using this system. Read More

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Individualized versus Fixed Positive End-expiratory Pressure for Intraoperative Mechanical Ventilation in Obese Patients: A Secondary Analysis.

Anesthesiology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Background: General anesthesia may cause atelectasis and deterioration in oxygenation in obese patients. The authors hypothesized that individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves intraoperative oxygenation and ventilation distribution compared to fixed PEEP.

Methods: This secondary analysis included all obese patients recruited at University Hospital of Leipzig from the multicenter Protective Intraoperative Ventilation with Higher versus Lower Levels of Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Obese Patients (PROBESE) trial (n = 42) and likewise all obese patients from a local single-center trial (n = 54). Read More

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Disparities between US Hispanic and non-Hispanic women in obesity-related perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 11:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Mortality figures and national health surveillance data have demonstrated that Hispanics have a 24% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to their non-Hispanic counterparts despite increased rates of obesity and related illnesses.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate if this paradox exists for obesity-related perinatal outcomes in otherwise low-risk Hispanic women.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study of low-risk women across all BMI classes with a singleton, non-anomalous term pregnancy admitted in active labor or undergoing induction of labor between May 2014 and April 2017. Read More

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Generalized Rhythmic Delta Activity Frontally Predominant Differentiates Dementia With Lewy Bodies From Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Dementia: A Conventional Electroencephalography Visual Analysis.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2021 Apr 12:1550059421997147. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Neurology Unit, 18630Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria of Parma, Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

An easily accessible and inexpensive neurophysiological technique such as conventional electroencephalography may provide an accurate and generally applicable biomarker capable of differentiating dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease-associated dementia (PDD). We carried out a retrospective visual analysis of resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recording of 22 patients with a clinical diagnosis of 19 probable and 3 possible DLB, 22 patients with probable AD and 21 with PDD, matched for age, duration, and severity of cognitive impairment. By using the grand total EEG scoring method, the total score and generalized rhythmic delta activity frontally predominant (GRDAfp) alone or, even better, coupled with a slowing of frequency of background activity (FBA) and its reduced reactivity differentiated DLB from AD at an individual level with an high accuracy similar to that obtained with quantitative EEG (qEEG). Read More

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Body mass index trajectories among people with obesity and association with mortality: Evidence from a large Israeli database.

Obes Sci Pract 2021 Apr 23;7(2):148-158. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Clalit Research Institute Clalit Health Services Ramat Gan Israel.

Objective: Previous studies using longitudinal weight data to characterize obesity are based on populations of limited size and mostly include individuals of all body mass index (BMI) levels, without focusing on weight changes among people with obesity. This study aimed to identify BMI trajectories over 5 years in a large population with obesity, and to determine the trajectories' association with mortality.

Methods: For inclusion, individuals aged 30-74 years at index date (1 January 2013) with continuous membership in Clalit Health Services from 2008 to 2012 were required to have ≥1 BMI measurement per year in ≥3 calendar years during this period, of which at least one was ≥30 kg/m. Read More

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Efficacy of Various Hypoglycemic Agents in the Treatment of Patients With Nonalcoholic Liver Disease With or Without Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:649018. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Xijing Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: To comprehensively evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of various hypoglycemic agents in NAFLD patients with or without diabetes.

Methods: All literature from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and Clinical Trials was searched, and the language was limited to English. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, continuous data extraction, and independent assessment of bias risk. Read More

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Quantifying value-based determinants of drug and non-drug decision dynamics.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Rationale: A growing body of research suggests that substance use disorder (SUD) may be characterized as disorders of decision making. However, drug choice studies assessing drug-associated decision making often lack more complex and dynamic conditions that better approximate contexts outside the laboratory and may lead to incomplete conclusions regarding the nature of drug-associated value.

Objectives: The current study assessed isomorphic (choice between identical food options) and allomorphic (choice between remifentanil [REMI] and food) choice across dynamically changing reward probabilities, magnitudes, and differentially reward-predictive stimuli in male rats to better understand determinants of drug value. Read More

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The association of rocuronium dosing and first-attempt intubation success in adult emergency department patients.

CJEM 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The recommended rocuronium dose for rapid sequence intubation is 1.0 mg/kg; however, the optimal dose for emergency airway management is not clear. We assessed the relationship between rocuronium dose and first-attempt success among emergency department (ED) patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation. Read More

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Non-radiologist-performed abdominal point-of-care ultrasonography in paediatrics - a scoping review.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Amsterdam UMC, Radiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Historically, US in the paediatric setting has mostly been the domain of radiologists. However, in the last decade, there has been an uptake of non-radiologist point-of-care US.

Objective: To gain an overview of abdominal non-radiologist point-of-care US in paediatrics. Read More

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Parameter inference for a stochastic kinetic model of expanded polyglutamine proteins.

Biometrics 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Mathematics, Statistics & Physics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

The presence of protein aggregates in cells is a known feature of many human age-related diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Simulations using fixed parameter values in a model of the dynamic evolution of expanded polyglutaime (PolyQ) proteins in cells have been used to gain a better understanding of the biological system. However, there is considerable uncertainty about the values of some of the parameters governing the system. Read More

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PolyQ-expanded proteins impair cellular proteostasis of ataxin-3 through sequestering the co-chaperone HSJ1 into aggregates.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7815. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, People's Republic of China.

Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion of proteins can trigger protein misfolding and amyloid-like aggregation, which thus lead to severe cytotoxicities and even the respective neurodegenerative diseases. However, why polyQ aggregation is toxic to cells is not fully elucidated. Here, we took the fragments of polyQ-expanded (PQE) ataxin-7 (Atx7) and huntingtin (Htt) as models to investigate the effect of polyQ aggregates on the cellular proteostasis of endogenous ataxin-3 (Atx3), a protein that frequently appears in diverse inclusion bodies. Read More

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Invasive placebos in research on peripheral nerve blocks: a follow-up study.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Children's Anaesthesia, Women's and Children's Hospital Adelaide, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Introduction: The Serious Harm and Morbidity "SHAM" grading system has previously been proposed to categorize the risks associated with the use of invasive placebos in peripheral nerve block research. SHAM grades range from 0 (no potential complications, eg, using standard analgesia techniques as a comparator) through to 4 (risk of major complications, eg, performing a sub-Tenon's block and injecting normal saline). A study in 2011 found that 52% of studies of peripheral nerve blocks had SHAM grades of 3 or more. Read More

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DNA methylation and gene expression integration in cardiovascular disease.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Apr 9;13(1):75. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Dr Aiguader 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The integration of different layers of omics information is an opportunity to tackle the complexity of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and to identify new predictive biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. Our aim was to integrate DNA methylation and gene expression data in an effort to identify biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease risk in a community-based population. We accessed data from the Framingham Offspring Study, a cohort study with data on DNA methylation (Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip; Illumina) and gene expression (Human Exon 1. Read More

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"I didn't want to say something and them to go outside and tell everyone": The acceptability of a dissonance-based body image intervention among adolescent girls in the UK.

Body Image 2021 Apr 6;38:80-84. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for Appearance Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, BS16 1QY, United Kingdom.

Cognitive dissonance-based interventions (CDIs) have been well established as effective programs for the prevention of eating disorders. However, limited research has qualitatively explored adolescent girls experience of such interventions. The present study examined the acceptability of a cognitive dissonance-based body image intervention among adolescent girls in UK secondary schools. Read More

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Obesity paradigm and web-based weight loss programs: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Health Popul Nutr 2021 Apr 8;40(1):16. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Research Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Backgrounds: Web-based therapeutic approaches are new and attractive tools for primary health care systems due to their time and cost-saving nature and their accessibility for different populations. The aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the results of studies evaluating the effect of web-based interventional programs on weight loss among overweight and obese individuals.

Methods: A literature review from 2000 to 2016 was conducted. Read More

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Adolescent alcohol consumption: protocol for a scoping review of screening and assessment tools used in Africa.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 8;10(1):100. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of International Public Health, The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Alcohol consumption is a key public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, which has the highest burden of alcohol attributable injury and disease of any region. Excess alcohol use is particularly harmful for adolescents and has been associated with neurocognitive defects and social and emotional problems. Effective screening and assessment tools are necessary to implement, evaluate and monitor interventions to prevent and decrease adolescent alcohol use. Read More

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Enhanced Solubility and One-Step Purification of Functional Dimeric Carboxypeptidase G2.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Feb;86(2):190-196

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 14115, Iran.

Carboxypeptidase G2 is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes methotrexate conversion to its inactive forms which are then eliminated via a non-renal pathway in patients with renal disorders during a high-dose methotrexate administration. Due to the increasing demand of this enzyme, it was of interest to simplify its production process. For this reason, we developed a method for production and one-step purification of this enzyme using an intein-mediated system with a chitin-binding affinity tag. Read More

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February 2021

Sarcopenia Definitions as Predictors of Fracture Risk Independent of FRAX , Falls, and BMD in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study: A Meta-Analysis.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived appendicular lean mass/height (ALM/ht ) is the most commonly used estimate of muscle mass in the assessment of sarcopenia, but its predictive value for fracture is substantially attenuated by femoral neck (fn) bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated predictive value of 11 sarcopenia definitions for incident fracture, independent of fnBMD, fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX ) probability, and prior falls, using an extension of Poisson regression in US, Sweden, and Hong Kong Osteoporois Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) cohorts. Definitions tested were those of Baumgartner and Delmonico (ALM/ht only), Morley, the International Working Group on Sarcopenia, European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP1 and 2), Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) 1 and 2 (using ALM/body mass index [BMI], incorporating muscle strength and/or physical performance measures plus ALM/ht ), and Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium (gait speed and grip strength). Read More

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The association of child maltreatment and systemic inflammation in adulthood: A systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0243685. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with mental and physical health disorders in adulthood. Some studies have identified elevated markers of systemic inflammation in adult survivors of CM, and inflammation may mediate the association between CM and later health problems. However, there are methodological inconsistencies in studies of the association between CM and systemic inflammation and findings are conflicting. Read More

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Morbidity and Mortality in the Obese Trauma Intensive Care Unit Patient.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 8:3134820954824. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Greenville Memorial Hospital, Prisma Health Upstate, USA.

Introduction: Obesity is an epidemic in the United States, known to be associated with comorbidities. However, some data show that obesity may be a protective factor in some instances. The purpose of this study is to determine if there are differences in morbidity and mortality when comparing the obese and non-obese critically ill trauma patient populations. Read More

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Results of food challenge in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Tokyo Animal Allergy Center, 4-23-15 Kurihara, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo, 123-0842, Japan.

Background: Elimination diet trials and food challenge tests remain the gold standard for diagnosing cutaneous adverse food reaction (CAFR) in dogs. However, food challenge tests are difficult to perform owing to a lack of definite information on expected clinical signs and the time frame within which they develop after challenge.

Objectives: To report the results of the food challenge test carried out in client-owned dogs under observation. Read More

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Diversity, equity, and inclusion interventions to support admissions have had little benefit to Black students over past 20 years.

J Dent Educ 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

The United States has a history of systemic racism and violence toward minority communities. Unfortunately, the last year has demonstrated that systemic racism, and its consequences, persist. The dental profession has also failed to adequately resolve known issues of racial inequity and systemic racism, with persistent disparities in oral health outcomes for Black Americans compared to all other Americans, underrepresentation of minorities in the profession, and barriers to entry. Read More

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Identification of High-Risk Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Using Noninvasive Tests From Primary Care and Endocrinology Real-World Practices.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 6;12(4):e00340. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Outcomes Research in Liver Disease, Washington, DC, USA.

Introduction: We aimed to identify high-risk nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients seen at the primary care and endocrinology practices and link them to gastrohepatology care.

Methods: Using the electronic health record, patients who either had the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or had 2 of 3 other metabolic risk factors met criteria for inclusion in the study. Using noninvasive fibrosis tests (NITs) to identify high risk of fibrosis, patients who met the NIT prespecified criteria were referred to gastrohepatology for clinical assessment and transient elastography. Read More

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Mental fatigue measurement using eye metrics: A systematic literature review.

Psychophysiology 2021 Apr 6:e13828. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Technology, Management and Economics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Mental fatigue measurement techniques utilize one or a combination of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses of the body. Eye-tracking and electrooculography, which are used to compute eye-based features, have gained momentum with increases in accuracy and robustness of the lightweight equipment emerging in the markets and can be used for objective and continuous assessment of mental fatigue. The main goal of this systematic review was to summarize the various eye-based features that have been used to measure mental fatigue and explore the relation of eye-based features to mental fatigue. Read More

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Thrombus Extension After Great Saphenous Vein Mechanochemical Ablation.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine factors associated with thrombus extension after early experience with mechanochemical ablation, which combines mechanical damage to the venous endothelium with infusion of a sclerosant.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent mechanochemical ablation to treat saphenous vein insufficiency in the thigh including the saphenofemoral junction. Data abstracted included patient demographics, procedural details, and post-procedural outcomes. Read More

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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CORPOROGLANDULAR SHUNTING FOR PATIENTS WITH FIRST-TIME ISCHEMIC PRIAPISM.

Urology 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Urology, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan.

Objective: To establish predictive factors of patients who failed intracavernosal injection therapy and ultimately required corporoglandular shunting during first-time ischemic priapism episodes.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all patients over the age of 18 who presented to our institution with first-time episode of ischemic priapism from 2009 to 2019. Variables assessed included: body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, race, insurance type, hypertension, etiology, age, duration of erection prior to evaluation, total amount of phenylephrine injected, and use of corporal irrigation. Read More

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Cardiovascular health indicators in soccer exercise during adolescence: systematic review.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratory of Striated Muscle Study (LEME/INISA), Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

This review analyzed the studies that evaluated cardiovascular health indicators (blood pressure, waist circumference, heart rate, glucose index and lipid blood) in recreational soccer players during adolescence, and identify possible associated factors. The search was performed in the electronic databases (PubMED, SciELO, LILACS, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science). Inclusion criteria were: population composed of children and/or adolescents (10-19 years or average age up to 19 years); studies adolescents engaged in recreational soccer regularly and observational studies with cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Read More

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Long-term variation in skeletal muscle and adiposity in patients undergoing esophagectomy.

Dis Esophagus 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Thoracic Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

This study seeks to define long-term variation in body composition in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer and to associate those changes with survival. Assessment of skeletal muscle, visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was performed using computed tomography (CT) images routinely acquired: at diagnosis; after neoadjuvant therapy, and; >6 months after esophagectomy. In cases where multiple CT scans were performed >6 months after surgery, all available images were assessed. Read More

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The use of complementary and integrative therapies as adjunct interventions during radiotherapy: a systematic review.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: Literature supporting the efficacy of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) alongside radiotherapy is fragmented with varying outcomes and levels of evidence. This review summarizes the available evidence on CIM used with radiotherapy in order to inform clinicians.

Methods: A systematic literature review identified studies on the use of CIM during radiotherapy. Read More

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