386,114 results match your criteria including increased

Impact of Body Mass Index and Comorbidities on Outcomes in Upper Extremity Nerve Transfers.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background:  There is a paucity of research investigating the impact of patient comorbidities, such as obesity and smoking, on nerve transfer outcomes. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities on the clinical outcomes of upper extremity nerve transfers.

Methods:  A retrospective cohort study was executed. Read More

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Optimal tests to minimise bleeding and ischaemic complications in patients on short-term mechanical circulatory support.

Thromb Haemost 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Cardiology, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Patients receiving left-sided mechanical circulatory support (MCS) require systemic anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) to prevent clotting of the circuit and reduce the risk of arterial thrombosis. With MCS, there is a very high frequency of bleeding and ischaemic complications, including stroke and systemic embolism. Monitoring of UFH can be very challenging. Read More

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Radiation-Induced Lens Opacity and Cataractogenesis: A Lifetime Study Using Mice of Varying Genetic Backgrounds.

Radiat Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, United Kingdom.

Recent epidemiological findings and reanalysis of historical data suggest lens opacities resulting from ionizing radiation exposures are likely induced at lower doses than previously thought. These observations have led to ICRP recommendations for a reduction in the occupational dose limits for the eye lens, as well as subsequent implementation in EU member states. The EU CONCERT LDLensRad project was initiated to further understand the effects of ionizing radiation on the lens and identify the mechanism(s) involved in radiation-induced cataract, as well as the impact of dose and dose-rate. Read More

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A framework for modeling bioimpedance measurements of nonhomogeneous tissues: a theoretical and simulation study.

Physiol Meas 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Utah, 36 S Wasatch Drive, Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112-9057, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Bioimpedance technology is experiencing an increased use to assess health in a wide range of new consumer, research and clinical applications. However, the interaction between tissues producing bioimpedance data is often unclear.

Methods: This work provides a novel theoretical framework to model bioimpedance measurements of nonhomogeneous tissues. Read More

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Nuchal thickness and increased risk of surgical site infection in posterior cervical operations.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 25;205:106653. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Objective: Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common post-operative complication, which increase cost, length of stay, and morbidity. Many risk factors have been, identified including body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate, whether nuchal thickness rather than BMI increases risk for post-operative SSI in, posterior approach cervical spine operations. Read More

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High BRAF variant allele frequencies are associated with distinct pathological features and responsiveness to target therapy in melanoma patients.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pathology Unit, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCs, Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: BRAF mutant melanoma patients are commonly treated with anti-BRAF therapeutic strategies. However, many factors, including the percentage of BRAF-mutated cells, may contribute to the great variability in patient outcomes.

Patients And Methods: The BRAF variant allele frequency (VAF; defined as the percentage of mutated alleles) of primary and secondary melanoma lesions, obtained from 327 patients with different disease stages, was assessed by pyrosequencing. Read More

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Automatic colonic polyp detection using integration of modified deep residual convolutional neural network and ensemble learning approaches.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 14;206:106114. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The increased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mortality rate have attracted interest in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools to detect polyps at an early stage. Although these CAD tools have thus far achieved a good accuracy level to detect polyps, they still have room to improve further (e.g. Read More

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Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles decorated polydopamine coated hexagonal boron nitride and its effect on wound healing.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 7;67:126774. Epub 2021 May 7.

Genetics and Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yeditepe University, Ataşehir, Istanbul, 34755, Turkey; Oregon Health and Science University, The Knight Cancer Research Institute, Cancer Early Detection Advanced Research (CEDAR) Center, Portland, OR, 97239, USA; Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Wound healing is an essential physiological process involving many cell types and their products acting in a marvellous harmony to repair damaged tissues. During the healing process, cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix remodelling stages could be interrupted by undesired factors including microorganisms and altered metabolic activities. In such a case, the process requires some external stimulants to accelerate or remediate the healing stages. Read More

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Functional independence measure predicts the outcome of clean intermittent catheterization training in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2021 May 10:101539. Epub 2021 May 10.

Sorbonne Université, GRC 001, GREEN Groupe de Recherche Clinique en Neuro-Urologie, AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, F-75020 Paris, France.

Background: Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) is the reference treatment of urinary retention in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Predicting which patients could use this treatment, based on their motor and cognitive abilities, is crucial.

Objectives: To determine whether the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), used to assess degree of disability, can predict the outcome of CIC training in pwMS. Read More

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Prediction of CMV reactivation by recipient CMV-IgG titer before allo-HCT.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center. Electronic address:

Background: Recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity is known to be a risk factor for CMV reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).

Objective: We explored the association of CMV-IgG titer of recipients with CMV reactivation after allo-HCT and aimed to establish a model for predicting CMV reactivation for the purpose of identifying a high-risk group. In addition, we evaluated the impact of CMV-IgG titer on survival outcomes and acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Read More

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Cellular carbon stress is a mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis development.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA; Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI), Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: 'Carbon stress' is a newly found mechanism that links obesity and dysregulated metabolism. It is defined as the cellular accumulation of metabolites during obesity post-translationally modifying metabolic proteins and decreasing their enzymatic activity. The objective of this study was to investigate if 'carbon stress' also occurs in cartilage and contributes to obesity associated OA development. Read More

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Sevoflurane excites nociceptive sensory neurons by inhibiting K conductances in rats.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 10:135951. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41940, Republic of Korea; Brain Science & Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41940, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Sevoflurane, which is preferentially used as a day-case anesthetic based on its low blood solubility, acts on the central nervous system and exerts analgesic effects. However, it still remains unknown whether sevoflurane affects the excitability of nociceptive sensory neurons. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine the effects of sevoflurane on the excitability of small-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons of rats using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Read More

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The polyamine regulator AMD1 up-regulates spermine levels to drive epidermal differentiation.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Maintaining tissue homeostasis depends on a balance of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Within the epidermis the levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are altered in many different skin conditions yet their role in epidermal tissue homeostasis is poorly understood. We identify the polyamine regulator, AMD1, as a crucial regulator of keratinocyte differentiation. Read More

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The relationship between intermittent hypoxemia events and neural outcomes in neonates.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 10:113753. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Neonatology, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, United States of America; Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States of America.

This brief review examines 1) patterns of intermittent hypoxemia in extremely preterm infants during early postnatal life, 2) the relationship between neonatal intermittent hypoxemia exposure and outcomes in both human and animal models, 3) potential mechanistic pathways, and 4) future alterations in clinical care that may reduce morbidity. Intermittent hypoxemia events are pervasive in extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks gestation at birth) during early postnatal life. An increased frequency of intermittent hypoxemia events has been associated with a range of poor neural outcomes including language and cognitive delays, motor impairment, retinopathy of prematurity, impaired control of breathing, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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Computational optimization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding-motif affinity for human ACE2.

Biophys J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, PO Box 20537, CY1678, Nicosia, Cyprus. Electronic address:

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and the closely related SARS-CoV coronavirus enter cells by binding at the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). The stronger hACE2 affinity of SARS-CoV-2 has been connected with its higher infectivity. In this work, we study hACE2 complexes with the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the human SARS-CoV-2 and human SARS-CoV viruses, using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and Computational Protein Design (CPD) with a physics-based energy function. Read More

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Current progress on the mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular injury and use of natural polyphenol compounds.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 10:174168. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common diseases in the elderly population, and its incidence has rapidly increased with the prolongation of life expectancy. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, and damage to vascular function plays an initial role in its pathogenesis. This review presents the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of vascular injury caused by hyperhomocysteinemia, including oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein N-homocysteinization, and epigenetic modification, and discusses the therapeutic targets of natural polyphenols. Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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MEF2C silencing downregulates NF2 and E-cadherin and enhances Erastin-induced ferroptosis in meningioma.

Neuro Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Ferroptosis, a programmed cell death characterized by lipid peroxidation, is implicated in various diseases including cancer. Although cell density-dependent E-cadherin and Merlin/Neurofibromin (NF2) loss can modulate ferroptosis, the role of ferroptosis and its potential link to NF2 status and E-cadherin expression in meningioma remain unknown.

Methods: Relationship between ferroptosis modulators expression and NF2 mutational status was examined in 35 meningiomas (10 NF2 loss and 25 NF2 wildtype). Read More

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Latent leprosy infection identified by dual RLEP and anti-PGL-I positivity: Implications for new control strategies.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251631. Epub 2021 May 13.

Colorado State University, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Mycobacteria Research Laboratories, Fort Collins, CO, Unites States of America.

The number of new cases of leprosy reported worldwide has remained essentially unchanged for the last decade despite continued global use of free multidrug therapy (MDT) provided to any diagnosed leprosy patient. In order to more effectively interrupt the chain of transmission, new strategies will be required to detect those with latent disease who contribute to furthering transmission. To improve the ability to diagnose leprosy earlier in asymptomatic infected individuals, we examined the combined use of two well-known biomarkers of M. Read More

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Men's and women's knowledge of danger signs relevant to postnatal and neonatal care-seeking: A cross sectional study from Bungoma County, Kenya.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251543. Epub 2021 May 13.

Directorate of Research and Innovation, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya.

Background: Neonatal and maternal mortality rates remain high in Kenya. Knowledge of neonatal danger signs may reduce delay in deciding to seek care. Evidence is emerging on the influential role of male partners in improving maternal and newborn health. Read More

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Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in the critically ill liver cirrhotic patient-prevalence and clinical outcomes. A multicentric retrospective cohort study in intensive care.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251498. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Tartu, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.

Background: Liver cirrhosis and ascites are risk factors for intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS); however, data is scarce. We aimed to determine the prevalence of IAH/ACS in a population of critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute medical illness in intensive care and to assess for risk factors and clinical outcomes.

Methods: This was a multicentric retrospective cohort study including two general ICUs and pooled data from a multicentric study between January 2009 and October 2019. Read More

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Biogeography and ecology of Ostracoda in the U.S. northern Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251164. Epub 2021 May 13.

Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Sciences, Solomons, MD, United States of America.

Ostracoda (bivalved Crustacea) comprise a significant part of the benthic meiofauna in the Pacific-Arctic region, including more than 50 species, many with identifiable ecological tolerances. These species hold potential as useful indicators of past and future ecosystem changes. In this study, we examined benthic ostracodes from nearly 300 surface sediment samples, >34,000 specimens, from three regions-the northern Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas-to establish species' ecology and distribution. Read More

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Land conversion and pesticide use degrade forage areas for honey bees in America's beekeeping epicenter.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251043. Epub 2021 May 13.

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Jamestown, ND, United States of America.

A diverse range of threats have been associated with managed-bee declines globally. Recent increases of two known threats, land-use change and pesticide use, have resulted from agricultural expansion and intensification notably in the top honey-producing state in the United States: North Dakota. This study investigated the dual threat from land conversion and pesticide use surrounding ~14,000 registered apiaries in North Dakota from 2001 to 2014. Read More

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Rapid Emergence and Epidemiologic Characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 Variant - New York City, New York, January 1-April 5, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):712-716. Epub 2021 May 14.

Recent studies have documented the emergence and rapid growth of B.1.526, a novel variant of interest (VOI) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the New York City (NYC) area after its identification in NYC in November 2020 (1-3). Read More

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Prevalence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Medicare Fee-For-Service Beneficiaries - United States, 2001-2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):698-701. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The number of affected persons worldwide has increased from 3.7 million in 1990 to 6. Read More

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Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations -United States, 2018.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 May 14;70(3):1-26. Epub 2021 May 14.

Problem/condition: Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U. Read More

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Activity of Fosfomycin and Nitrofurantoin Against Contemporary Pathogens Isolated from Indian Tertiary Care Hospitals.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 May 13;27(5):678-684. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Wockhardt Research Centre, D4 MIDC, Aurangabad, India.

In India, multidrug resistance in community and hospital associated Gram-negative pathogens has increased sharply over the past few years. In the absence of novel oral multidrug resistant-pathogen active therapies, the therapeutic situation with regard to community infections is even more challenging. Hence, the focus is now shifting toward potentially expanding the utility of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin beyond their approved pathogen coverage. Read More

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An "oasis within a desert," but the desert remains: Clubhouse members' experiences of social belonging and societal oppression.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):294-301

Department of Psychiatry, Program for Recovery and Community Health, Yale School of Medicine.

Persons living with mental health challenges are at increased risk of stigma, social isolation, and social exclusion. Due to its emphasis on member participation and community, the clubhouse model of mental health may help address these issues. In this study, we examined experiences of social belonging and of various social determinants of mental health among members attending a psychosocial clubhouse. Read More

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January 2021