97,796 results match your criteria including approaches

Embryonic exposure to low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 triggers global transcriptomic changes, defective yolk lipid mobilization, abnormal gastrointestinal tract development and inflammation in zebrafish.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 2;416:125788. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address:

Aflatoxin B1-contaminated feeds and foods induce various health problems in domesticated animals and humans, including tumor development and hepatotoxicity. Aflatoxin B1 also has embryotoxic effects in different livestock species and humans. However, it is difficult to distinguish between the indirect, maternally-mediated toxic effects and the direct embryotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in mammals. Read More

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Effects of dim artificial light at night on locomotor activity, cardiovascular physiology, and circadian clock genes in a diurnal songbird.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 31;282:117036. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, USA.

Artificial light is transforming the nighttime environment and quickly becoming one of the most pervasive pollutants on earth. Across taxa, light entrains endogenous circadian clocks that function to synchronize behavioral and physiological rhythms with natural photoperiod. Artificial light at night (ALAN) disrupts these photoperiodic cues and has consequences for humans and wildlife including sleep disruption, physiological stress and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Implementing building-level SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance on a university campus.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146749. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223, United States of America.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a source of ongoing challenges and presents an increased risk of illness in group environments, including jails, long-term care facilities, schools, and residential college campuses. Early reports that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was detectable in wastewater in advance of confirmed cases sparked widespread interest in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a tool for mitigation of COVID-19 outbreaks. One hypothesis was that wastewater surveillance might provide a cost-effective alternative to other more expensive approaches such as pooled and random testing of groups. Read More

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Understanding the cellular origin and progression of esophageal cancer using esophageal organoids.

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) organoids are a novel tool to model epithelial cell biology and human diseases of the esophagus. 3D organoid culture systems have been utilized to investigate the pathobiology of esophageal cancer, including both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Additional organoid-based approaches for study of esophageal development and benign esophageal diseases have provided key insights into esophageal keratinocyte differentiation and mucosal regeneration. Read More

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Smaller Superficial Femoral Artery is associated with Worse Outcomes after Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for De Novo Atherosclerotic Disease.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, 10016. Electronic address:

Background: With the exponential increase in the use of endovascular techniques in the treatment of peripheral artery disease, our understanding of factors that affect intervention failures continues to grow. We sought to assess the outcomes of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for isolated de novo superficial femoral artery (SFA) disease based on balloon diameter.

Methods: The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for patients undergoing percutaneous balloon angioplasty for isolated de novo atherosclerotic SFA disease. Read More

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Complementary and alternative medicine therapies and COVID-19: a systematic review.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Clinical Immunology Research Center, Ali-Ebne Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of coronavirus and various treatment approaches, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is still no definitive treatment for coronavirus. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CAM interventions on COVID-19 patients.

Content: Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE) were searched from the inception of databases until July 16, 2020. Read More

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Development of new therapeutic options for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

The University of Sydney, Sydney Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Important cytogenetic and genetic risk factors for the development of UM include chromosome 3 monosomy, mutations in the guanine nucleotide-binding proteins GNAQ/GNA11, and loss of the BRACA1-associated protein 1 (BAP 1). Most primary UMs are treated conservatively with radiotherapy, but enucleation is necessary for large tumours. Read More

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"I just keep quiet about it and act as if everything is alright" - The cascade from trauma to disengagement among adolescents living with HIV in western Kenya.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Apr;24(4):e25695

Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.

Introduction: There are approximately 1.7 million adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV, ages 10 to 19) globally, including 110,000 in Kenya. While ALHIV experience poor retention in care, limited data exist on factors underlying disengagement. Read More

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Single-port robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy is associated with decreased post-operative narcotic use in a propensity score matched analysis.

J Robot Surg 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, 2001 Inwood Dr., WCB3, Suite 4.878, Dallas, TX, 75390 MC 9110, USA.

Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) has proven to be an effective minimally invasive option for benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in recent years. Single-site surgery is theorized to reduce post-operative pain beyond traditional minimally invasive approaches. We sought to assess whether use of a single-port robotic platform decreases post-operative opioid use in patients undergoing robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP). Read More

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The Use of Subgroup Disproportionality Analyses to Explore the Sensitivity of a Global Database of Individual Case Safety Reports to Known Pharmacogenomic Risk Variants Common in Japan.

Drug Saf 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Box 1051, 75140, Uppsala, Sweden.

Introduction: Genetic variations of enzymes that affect the pharmacokinetics and hence effects of medications differ between ethnicities, resulting in variation in the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) between different populations. Previous work has demonstrated that risk-group considerations can be incorporated into approaches of statistical signal detection. It is unknown whether databases of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) are sensitive to pharmacogenomic differences between populations. Read More

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Automated bleeding detection in wireless capsule endoscopy images based on color feature extraction from Gaussian mixture model superpixels.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of CSE, Sethu Institute of Technology, Virudhunagar District, Kariapatti, Tamil Nadu, 626115, India.

Wireless capsule endoscopy is the commonly employed modality in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract pathologies. However, the time taken for interpretation of these images is very high due to the large volume of images generated. Automated detection of disorders with these images can facilitate faster clinical interventions. Read More

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Investigation of angucycline compounds as potential drug candidates against SARS Cov-2 main protease using docking and molecular dynamic approaches.

Mol Divers 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Chemistry, Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

The emerged Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes severe or even fatal respiratory tract infection, and to date there is no FDA-approved therapeutics or effective treatment available to effectively combat this viral infection. This urgent situation is an attractive research area in the field of drug design and development. One of the most important targets of SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS Cov-2) is the main protease (3CLpro). Read More

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Early atrial fibrillation detection and the transition to comprehensive management.

Europace 2021 Apr;23(Supplement_2):ii46-ii51

Department of Cardiology, Martini Hospital, Van Swietenplein 1, 9728 NT Groningen, The Netherlands.

Current atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines recommend screening for AF in individuals above 65 years or with other characteristics suggestive of increased stroke risk. Several mobile health (mHealth) approaches are available to identify AF. Although most wearables or ECG machines include algorithms to detect AF, an ECG confirmation of AF is necessary to establish a suspected diagnosis of AF. Read More

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Paradigm shifts in electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 Apr;23(Supplement_2):ii9-ii13

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University/University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Determining the sequence of activation is a major source of information for understanding the electrophysiological mechanism(s) of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the complex morphology of the electrograms hampers their analysis, and has stimulated generations of electrophysiologists to develop a large variety of technologies for recording, pre-processing, and analysis of fibrillation electrograms. This variability of approaches is mirrored by a large variability in the interpretation of fibrillation electrograms and, thereby, opinions regarding the basic electrophysiological mechanism(s) of AF vary widely. Read More

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Minimally Invasive Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Pure Laparoscopic Explant Hepatectomy and Graft Implantation Using Upper Midline Incision.

Liver Transpl 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Minimally invasive approaches, including laparoscopic procedures, have increasingly been applied in surgery due to their advantages such as reduced surgical trauma, a better quality of life, shorter hospital stay, and less postoperative morbidity compared with open surgeries. Minimally invasive approaches in liver transplantation (LT) may have similar advantages for the recipients, including less pain and a shorter hospital stay, which could facilitate rehabilitation. Read More

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Cancer Stem Cell-Targeted Therapeutic Approaches for Overcoming Trastuzumab Resistance in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

Stem Cells 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Application of the anti-HER2 drug trastuzumab has significantly improved the prognosis of patients with the HER2-positive subtype of breast cancer. However, 50% of patients with HER2 amplification relapse due to trastuzumab resistance. Accumulating evidence indicates that breast cancer is driven by a small subset of cancer-initiating cells or breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which have the capacity to self-renew and differentiate to regenerate the tumor cell hierarchy. Read More

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Enhancers as potential targets for engineering salinity stress tolerance in crop plants.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Enhancers represent non-coding regulatory regions of the genome located distantly from their target genes. They regulate gene expression programs in a context-specific manner via interacting with promoters of one or more target genes and are generally associated with transcription factor binding sites and epi(genomic)/chromatin features, such as regions of chromatin accessibility and histone modifications. The enhancers are difficult to identify due to the modularity of their associated features. Read More

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A framework policy analysis of national health insurance policymaking in sub-Saharan Africa.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Hans Rosling Center, Global Health, UW Box #351620, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

National health insurance (NHI) is a financing mechanism established by a national government with the goal of covering all or almost all of its citizens. A number of low- and middle-income countries have established NHIs as part of a strategy to progress towards universal health coverage. The establishment of an NHI presents a potentially significant shift in national health sector governance, but little is available in the literature regarding how policymaking authority and health governance is shared between NHIs and ministries of health (MOHs). Read More

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Evaluation of a fully closed real time PCR platform for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs: a pilot study.

J Clin Pathol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Aims: To date, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasopharyngeal swabs is the 'gold standard' approach for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The need to develop easy to use, rapid, robust and with minimal hands-on time approaches are warranted. In this setting, the Idylla SARS-CoV-2 Test may be a valuable option. Read More

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Characterizing Immune-Mediated Cytopenias After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Pediatric Nonmalignant Disorders.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 20;27(4):316.e1-316.e8. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

University of Minnesota, Department of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant; Minneapolis, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Immune-mediated cytopenias (IMC)-isolated or combined hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, or neutropenia-are increasingly recognized as serious complications after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for nonmalignant disorders (NMD). However, IMC incidence, duration, response to therapy, and risk factors are not well defined. This retrospective chart review identified cases of IMC with serologic confirmation among patients who underwent HCT for NMD at a single institution between 2010 and 2017. Read More

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Age at menarche, age at natural menopause, and risk of rheumatoid arthritis - a Mendelian randomization study.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Apr 9;23(1):108. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Tomtebodavägen 5, 17 177, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Hormonal reproductive factors have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting primarily women. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study examining three relevant exposures, age at menarche (AAM), age at natural menopause (ANM), and age at first birth (AFB) with the risk of RA.

Methods: We collected summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS conducted in AAM (N = 329,345), ANM (N = 69,360), AFB (N = 251,151), and RA (N = 14,361, N = 43,923), all of European ancestry. Read More

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Literature-based considerations regarding organizing and performing cardiac surgery against the backdrop of the coronavirus pandemic.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Apr 9;16(1):73. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiac Surgery and Transplantation, The Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński National Institute of Cardiology, Alpejska 42, 04-628, Warszawa, Poland.

Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic presents challenges for surgeons of all disciplines, including cardiologists. The volume of cardiac surgery cases has to comply with the mandatory constraints of healthcare capacities. The treatment of Covid-19-positive patients must also be considered. Read More

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Mandatory treatment for methamphetamine use in Australia.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Apr 9;16(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Next Step Drug and Alcohol Service, 32 Moore St, East Perth, Western Australia.

Background: In 2016, following a flurry of government inquiries and taskforces including calls for mandatory treatment regimes, the Australian community nominated methamphetamine as the drug most likely to be associated as a problem substance. Mandatory treatment for alcohol and other drug problems in Australia consists of broadly two mechanisms compelling a person into treatment: involuntary treatment or civil commitment regimes; and coercive treatment regimes, usually associated with the criminal justice system. This paper aims to provide a review of the evidence for mandatory treatment regimes for people who use methamphetamines. Read More

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A comparison of three interactive examination designs in active learning classrooms for nursing students.

BMC Nurs 2021 Apr 9;20(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Section of Learning and Leadership for Health Care Professionals, University of Gothenburg, Arvid Wallgrens Backe, Box 457, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Despite the advantages of using active learning strategies in nursing education, researchers have rarely investigated how such pedagogic approaches can be used to assess students or how interactive examinations can be modified depending on circumstances of practice (e.g., in online education). Read More

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Structural and functional dissection of reovirus capsid folding and assembly by the prefoldin-TRiC/CCT chaperone network.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224;

Intracellular protein homeostasis is maintained by a network of chaperones that function to fold proteins into their native conformation. The eukaryotic TRiC chaperonin (TCP1-ring complex, also called CCT for cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP1) facilitates folding of a subset of proteins with folding constraints such as complex topologies. To better understand the mechanism of TRiC folding, we investigated the biogenesis of an obligate TRiC substrate, the reovirus σ3 capsid protein. Read More

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Microsurgical anatomy of the lateral posterior choroidal artery: implications for intraventricular surgery involving the choroid plexus.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 9:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

2Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford Hospital, Stanford, California.

Objective: The lateral posterior choroidal artery (LPChA) should be a major surgical consideration in the microsurgical management of lateral ventricular tumors. Here the authors aim to delineate the microsurgical anatomy of the LPChA by using anatomical microdissections. They describe the trajectory, segments, and variations of the LPChA and discuss the surgical implications when approaching the choroid plexus using different routes. Read More

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Machine learning to predict clinical remission in depressed patients after acute phase selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:372-379. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Mental Health (Peking University), National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are suggested as the first-line treatment for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the remission rate is unsatisfactory. We aimed to establish machine learning models and explore variables available at baseline to predict the 8-week outcome among patients taking SSRIs.

Methods: Data from 400 patients were used to build machine learnings. Read More

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National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: IIb. The 2020 Preemptive Therapy Working Group Report.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Background: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) commonly occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite standard prophylactic immune suppression. Intensified universal prophylaxis approaches are effective but risk possible over-treatment and may interfere with the graft-vs-malignancy immune response.

Objectives: We summarize conceptual and practical considerations regarding preemptive therapy of chronic GVHD, namely interventions applied after HCT based on evidence that the risk of developing chronic GVHD is higher than previously appreciated. Read More

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Approaches to understanding COVID-19 and its neurological associations.

Ann Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Center for Global Health, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

There is an accumulating volume of research into neurological manifestations of COVID-19. However, inconsistent study designs, inadequate controls, poorly-validated tests, and differing settings, interventions, and cultural norms weaken study quality, comparability, and thus the understanding of the spectrum, burden and pathophysiology of these complications. Therefore, a global COVID-19 Neuro Research Coalition, together with the WHO, has reviewed reports of COVID-19 neurological complications and harmonised clinical measures for future research. Read More

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