Radiographics 2021 Jul 16:200202. Epub 2021 Jul 16.
From the Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 619 19th St S, JTN 452, Birmingham, AL 35249-6830 (A.M.A.E., A.J.G., A.D.S.); Department of Radiation Oncology (S.S.L.) and Department of Radiology (S.S.V.), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash; Department of Urology, UCLA Medical Center, Santa Monica, Calif (B.M.S.); Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (M.E.D.F., R.A.); Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Ill (J.I.C.); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (A.V.L.); Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia (S.S.); and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany (A.L.G.).
With the expansion in cross-sectional imaging over the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of incidentally detected renal masses and an increase in the incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The complete characterization of an indeterminate renal mass on CT or MR images is challenging, and the authors provide a critical review of the best imaging methods and essential, important, and optional reporting elements used to describe the indeterminate renal mass. While surgical staging remains the standard of care for RCC, the role of renal mass CT or MRI in staging RCC is reviewed, specifically with reference to areas that may be overlooked at imaging such as detection of invasion through the renal capsule or perirenal (Gerota) fascia. Read More