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Patient Safety Incidents in Primary Care Dentistry in England and Wales: A Mixed-Methods Study.

J Patient Saf 2021 Dec;17(8):e1383-e1393

King's College London Dental Institute at Guy's, King's College and St Thomas's Hospitals, Division of Population and Patient Health, King's College London, United Kingdom.

Background: In recent decades, there has been considerable international attention aimed at improving the safety of hospital care, and more recently, this attention has broadened to include primary medical care. In contrast, the safety profile of primary care dentistry remains poorly characterized.

Objectives: We aimed to describe the types of primary care dental patient safety incidents reported within a national incident reporting database and understand their contributory factors and consequences. Read More

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December 2021

Afamin predicts the prevalence and incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Genetics and Pharmacology, Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Objectives: In the general population, increased afamin concentrations are associated with the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome as well as type 2 diabetes. Although metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), there exist no information on afamin and NAFLD.

Methods: Afamin concentrations were cross-sectionally measured in 146 Austrian patients with NAFLD, in 45 patients without NAFLD, and in 292 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Read More

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December 2021

Risk factors for and effects of persistent and severe hypophosphatemia following ferric carboxymaltose.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Nov 25. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Context: Hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia and fractures are complications of certain intravenous iron formulations.

Objective: To investigate risk factors for incident, severe and persistent hypophosphatemia, and associated alterations in bone and mineral biomarkers following intravenous iron treatment.

Design: Secondary analysis of the PHOPHARE-IDA randomized clinical trials. Read More

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November 2021

[Van Gogh's Pathography and the Influence of Illness on Painting].

Brain Nerve 2021 Dec;73(12):1333-1339

Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

There are many theories about Van Gogh's illness, including temporal lobe epilepsy, schizophrenia, Meniere's disease, manic depression, digitalis/absinthe poisoning, and acute intermittent porphyria, which, along with the truth of the ear-cutting incident, remain a great mystery. Van Gogh is often described as an "artist of madness and passion," but except for seven episodes of severe mental disturbance, his extraordinary creativity was maintained to the end. Reading "Van Gogh's Letters" reveals a very thoughtful and intelligent Van Gogh, far from being insane. Read More

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December 2021

Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK).

Thorax 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Centre for Public Health Research (NI), Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Background: Risk factors for severe COVID-19 include older age, male sex, obesity, black or Asian ethnicity and underlying medical conditions. Whether these factors also influence susceptibility to developing COVID-19 is uncertain.

Methods: We undertook a prospective, population-based cohort study (COVIDENCE UK) from 1 May 2020 to 5 February 2021. Read More

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November 2021

Inner ear decompression sickness in Finland: a retrospective 20-year multicenter study.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2021 Fourth Quarter;48(4):399-408

Centre for Military Medicine, Finnish Defence Forces, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is a condition from which only a minority of patients recover completely, the majority ending up with mild to moderate residual symptoms. IEDCS has been reported after deep technical dives using mixed breathing gases, and moderate recreational dives with compressed air as the breathing gas. Considering this and the high proportion of technical diving in Finland, a comparison between IEDCS cases resulting from technical and recreational dives is warranted. Read More

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November 2021

Removal of a Giant Cyst of the Left Ovary from a Pregnant Woman in the First Trimester by Laparoscopic Surgery under Spinal Anesthesia during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Med Sci (Basel) 2021 11 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

This paper reports a case of a 21 year old primigravida at 6 weeks gestation, suffering from important abdominal pain, who was admitted into the medical center with a giant cyst of 28 × 20 cm on her left ovary. A torsion of the ovarian cyst was suspected. Her COVID-19 status was unknown. Read More

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November 2021

Complement component 3 mutations alter the longitudinal risk of pediatric malaria and severe malarial anemia.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Nov 29:15353702211056272. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

1104University of New Mexico-Kenya Global Health Programs, Kisumu and Siaya 40100, Kenya.

Severe malarial anemia (SMA) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in holoendemic transmission regions. To gain enhanced understanding of predisposing factors for SMA, we explored the relationship between complement component 3 (C3) missense mutations [rs2230199 (2307C>G, Arg>Gly) and rs11569534 (34420G>A, Gly>Asp)], malaria, and SMA in a cohort of children (n = 1617 children) over 36 months of follow-up. Variants were selected based on their ability to impart amino acid substitutions that can alter the structure and function of C3. Read More

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November 2021

Effect of temperature and humidity on coronavirus infection in Pakistan.

Gene Rep 2022 Mar 20;26:101441. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Swat, Pakistan.

Ongoing Coronavirus epidemic (COVID-19) identified first in Wuhan, China posed huge impact on public health and economy around the globe. Both cough and sneeze based droplets or aerosols encapsulated COVID-19 particles are responsible for airborne transmission of this virus and caused an unexpected escalation and high mortality worldwide. Current study intends to investigate the correlation of COVID-19 epidemic with meteorological parameters, particularly temperature and humidity. Read More

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Mediterranean diet and depression: a population-based cohort study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 11 27;18(1):153. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Depression imposes immense public health burden, demonstrating an urgent need of the identification of modifiable risk factors. Only a few cohort studies have analyzed the association between Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and depression but with mixed results. We examined the impact of MDP on clinically ascertained depression in a large population-based dataset. Read More

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November 2021

Liver pathology in pregnancy.

Pathol Int 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Pathology, Division of Gastrointestinal/Liver Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Liver dysfunction occurs in up to 3% of pregnancies and can be due to pregnancy-associated liver injury, exacerbation of pre-existing liver disease, or co-incident with pregnancy. The most common form of pregnancy-associated liver injury is intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). This condition is typically benign and self-limited, but is associated with fetal morbidity and mortality with high levels of serum bile acids. Read More

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November 2021

Managing acute abdominal pain in the emergency centre: Lessons from a patient's experience.

Afr J Emerg Med 2021 Dec 11;11(4):483-486. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Division of Gastroenterology, Dept of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

Pain is one of the most common reasons people present to the emergency centre with 7-10% of presentations being due to acute abdominal pain. However, pain is also often neglected by clinicians in emergency centres. The well validated South African Triage Score (SATS) incorporates pain assessment in the prioritising of patients with the aim of guiding clinicians. Read More

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December 2021

Single-Examination Risk Prediction of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Pediatrics 2021 Dec;148(6)

Departments of Ophthalmology.

Background And Objectives: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness. Screening and treatment reduces this risk, but requires multiple examinations of infants, most of whom will not develop severe disease. Previous work has suggested that artificial intelligence may be able to detect incident severe disease (treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity [TR-ROP]) before clinical diagnosis. Read More

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December 2021

Medical Care at California Wildfire Incident Base Camps.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Nov 23:1-8. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE), Emergency Medical Services, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Objective: The California Emergency Medical Services Authority manages and deploys California Medical Assistance Teams (CAL-MAT) to disaster medical incidents in the state. This analysis reviews diagnoses for ambulatory medical visits at multiple wildland fire incident base camp field sites in California during the 2020 fire season.

Methods: Clinical data without personal health information were extracted retrospectively from patient care records from all patients seen by a provider. Read More

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November 2021

Long-term Natural History of Severe Asthma Exacerbations and Their Impact on the Disease Course.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

University of British Columbia, Institute for Heart and Lung Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;

The long-term natural history of asthma in terms of successive severe exacerbations and the influence of each exacerbation on the course of the disease is not well studied. To investigate the long-term natural history of asthma among patients who are hospitalized for asthma for the first time in terms of the risk of future severe exacerbations, and heterogeneity in this risk across patients. Using the administrative health databases of British Columbia, Canada (1997/01/01-2016/03/31), we created an incident cohort of patients with at least one asthma exacerbation that required inpatient care. Read More

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November 2021

The cumulative incidence of and risk factors for morphometric severe vertebral fractures in Japanese men and women: the ROAD study third and fourth surveys.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Nov 19. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Preventive Medicine for Locomotive Organ Disorders, 22nd Century Medical & Research Center, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

This population-based cohort study with a 3-year follow-up revealed that the annual incidence rates of vertebral fracture (VF) and severe VF (sVF) were 5.9%/year and 1.7%/year, respectively. Read More

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November 2021

Occupational vs. non-occupational equestrians: Differences in demographics and injury patterns.

Injury 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma, and Surgical Critical Care, University of Kentucky College of Medicine and UK Healthcare, 800 Rose Street, C207, Lexington, KY 40536-0298, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Nineteen million people participate in horseback riding activities in the US, and the horse industry employs more than 460,000 full-time workers. Emergency department data suggest young female amateurs and male professionals are most at risk of death from horse-related injuries. However, there has been no investigation into factors that may increase severe injury and mortality risk in these populations. Read More

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November 2021

Long-Term Mortality and State Financial Support in Invasive Meningococcal Disease-Real-World Data Analysis Using the French National Claims Database (SNIIRAM).

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Nov 17. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

GSK, Value Evidence, Avenue Fleming 20, 1300, Wavre, Belgium.

Objectives: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is an uncommon disease known for its acute phase mortality and long-term sequelae. The objective was to assess the impact of IMD on post-discharge mortality risk and dependence on the French state for financial aid.

Methods: A 6-year retrospective analysis in the national insurance database (SNIIRAM) assessed mortality in IMD cases (both during acute phase and post-discharge) and matched controls as well as benefit claims (i. Read More

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November 2021

Refining the mandibular osteoradionecrosis rat model by in vivo longitudinal µCT analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 15;11(1):22241. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Human Health Department, IRSN, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, PSE-SANTE, SERAMED, LRMed, 92 262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most feared side effects of radiotherapy following cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract and leading to severe functional defects in patients. Today, our lack of knowledge about the physiopathology restricts the development of new treatments. In this study, we refined the ORN rat model and quantitatively studied the progression of the disease. Read More

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November 2021

Novel technique for scapulothoracic arthroscopy: A case report of the application of intraoperative 3D imaging.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Nov 3;89:106562. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

VinUniversity, College of Health Sciences, Viet Nam; Vinmec Healthcare System, Center of Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Surgery, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Introduction: Snapping shoulder syndrome could be effectively treated with scapulothoracic arthroscopy. The excision of the scapular superomedial corner is assumed to help lower the recurrence rate. However, the amount of resection is still controversial. Read More

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November 2021

Female reproductive factors and risk of joint replacement arthroplasty of the knee and hip due to osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women: a nationwide cohort study of 1.13 million women.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 Nov 10. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Family Medicine and Supportive Care Centre, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation/ Department of Digital Health, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Science and Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: Previous studies of the relationships between female reproductive factors and osteoarthritis (OA) have shown conflicting results. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationships between reproductive factors and joint replacement arthroplasty of the knee (TKRA) and hip (THRA) in a large nationwide population-based cohort of postmenopausal Korean women.

Methods: We included 1,134,680 subjects who participated in national health examinations in 2009 in the study. Read More

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November 2021

Assessment of practical applicability and clinical relevance of a commonly used LDL-C polygenic score in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels vary in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and can be explained by a single deleterious genetic variant or by the aggregate effect of multiple, common small-effect variants that can be captured in a polygenic score (PS). We set out to investigate the contribution of a previously published PS to the inter-individual LDL-C variation and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk in patients with a clinical FH phenotype.

Methods: First, in a cohort of 628 patients referred for genetic FH testing, we evaluated the distribution of a PS for LDL-C comprising 12 genetic variants. Read More

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November 2021

Epidemiology and Costs of Postsepsis Morbidity, Nursing Care Dependency, and Mortality in Germany, 2013 to 2017.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 11 1;4(11):e2134290. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Importance: Sepsis survivorship is associated with postsepsis morbidity, but epidemiological data from population-based cohorts are lacking.

Objective: To quantify the frequency and co-occurrence of new diagnoses consistent with postsepsis morbidity and mortality as well as new nursing care dependency and total health care costs after sepsis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study based on nationwide health claims data included a population-based cohort of 23. Read More

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November 2021

Hearing loss is associated with increased risk of incident stroke but not coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older Chinese adults: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Environment & Health, Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Environment Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Hearing loss has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence in cross-sectional studies. However, little is known about the prospective association between hearing loss and CVD incidence. We aimed to examine the associations of hearing loss with risk of incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke in a Chinese population. Read More

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November 2021

Metabolic and genetic determinants for progression to severe liver disease in subjects with obesity from the UK Biobank.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Clinical Medicine and Hepatology Unit, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy.

Background: Obesity is among the main determinants of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression towards severe liver disease (SLD). However, risk factors for SLD in individuals with obesity have not been examined.

Objectives: To identify the independent risk factors for SLD among participants with obesity from the UK Biobank. Read More

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November 2021

Hospitalised heat-related acute kidney injury in indoor and outdoor workers in the USA.

Occup Environ Med 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Office of Occupational Medicine and Nursing, Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, District of Columbia, USA

Objectives: To characterise heat-related acute kidney injury (HR-AKI) among US workers in a range of industries.

Methods: Two data sources were analysed: archived case files of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Office of Occupational Medicine and Nursing from 2010 through 2020; and a Severe Injury Reports (SIR) database of work-related hospitalisations that employers reported to federal OSHA from 2015 to 2020. Confirmed, probable and possible cases of HR-AKI were ascertained by serum creatinine measurements and narrative incident descriptions. Read More

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November 2021

Inadvertent life-threatening total spinal anesthesia following caudal block in a preschool child underwent urologic surgery: A rare case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Nov 3;88:106541. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Anesthesia, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; Department of Anesthesia, College of Health Science, Aksum University, Ethiopia.

Introduction And Importance: Caudal block is considered to be safe and provide optimal analgesia for pediatric patients undergoing sub-umbilical operations. It overcomes opioid-related side effects, particularly the dangers associated with respiratory depression in small children.

Case Presentation: A 5-year-old male underwent uneventful hypospadias surgery under general endotracheal anesthesia. Read More

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November 2021

Risk of herpesvirus, serious, and opportunistic infections in atopic dermatitis: a population-based cohort study.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Staphylococcal and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly recognized in atopic dermatitis (AD) but less is known about other types of infections.

Objectives: To determine the risk of herpesvirus infections, serious infections, and opportunistic infections in patients with AD.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study using UK-based electronic medical records data. Read More

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November 2021

Renal involvement in sarcoidosis: histological patterns and prognosis, an Italian survey.

Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2021 30;38(3):e2021017. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Nephrology Sacco Hospital, Milano, Italy.

Background: Granulomatous interstitial nephritis in sarcoidosis (sGIN) is generally clinically silent, but in <1% causes acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: This Italian multicentric retrospective study included 39 sarcoidosis-patients with renal involvement at renal biopsy: 31 sGIN-AKI, 5 with other patterns (No-sGIN-AKI), 3 with nephrotic proteinuria. We investigate the predictive value of clinical features, laboratory, radiological parameters and histological patterns regarding steroid response. Read More

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September 2021

The role of circulating galectin-1 in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease: evidence from cross-sectional, longitudinal and Mendelian randomisation analyses.

Diabetologia 2021 Nov 7. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Aims/hypothesis: Galectin-1 modulates inflammation and angiogenesis, and cross-sectional studies indicate that galectin-1 may be a uniting factor between obesity, type 2 diabetes and kidney function. We examined whether circulating galectin-1 can predict incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes in a middle-aged population, and if Mendelian randomisation (MR) can provide evidence for causal direction of effects.

Methods: Participants (n = 4022; 58. Read More

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November 2021