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Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in China.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 7;153:106548. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China.

Method: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Read More

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Competition between RSV and influenza: Limits of modelling inference from surveillance data.

Epidemics 2021 Mar 26;35:100460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza cause a large burden of disease. Evidence of their interaction via temporary cross-protection implies that prevention of one could inadvertently lead to an increase in the burden of the other. However, evidence for the public health impact of such interaction is sparse and largely derives from ecological analyses of peak shifts in surveillance data. Read More

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Acute effect of particulate matter pollution on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 7;217:112201. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

Background: The health effect of particulate matter pollution on stroke has been widely examined; however, the effect among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D) in developing countries has remained largely unknown.

Methods: A time-series study was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM) and inhalable particulate matter (PM) on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with T2D in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was employed to adjust for important covariates, such as weather conditions and long-term and seasonal trends. Read More

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Transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic versus conventional vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension for apical compartment prolapse.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 3;260:203-207. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel; Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare surgical and short-term postoperative outcomes of transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES) versus conventional vaginal (CV) uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS) surgery.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 135 patients who underwent hysterectomy with USLS via CV (n = 70) or via vNOTES (n = 65). Patients' baseline characteristics, surgical characteristics, and surgical outcomes were retrieved. Read More

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Prevalence of at-risk hyperandrogenism by age and race/ethnicity among females in the United States using NHANES III.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 26;260:189-197. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Office of Research Resources, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Lab, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted. Read More

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Narrative review of the influence of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia on colorectal cancer risk and oncological outcomes.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 7;14(7):101089. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 807, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Center for Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center for Liquid Biopsy and Cohort Research, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia have been shown to have significant effects on the incidence, chemoresistance, and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as the outcomes of localized and metastatic CRC. Inflammation and endocrine effects may act as central mechanisms of DM and cancer and stimulate the insulin-like growth factor 1-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (IGF-1-PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway. Dysregulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway leads to metabolic imbalance and indicates cancer risk. Read More

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Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction induces atelectasis in patients undergoing abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Apr 7;72:110285. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine in Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Study Objective: We evaluated the feasibility of use and effects on postoperative atelectasis and complications of lower inspired oxygen fraction (FIO) compared to conventional oxygen therapy.

Design: Single center, randomized clinical trial.

Setting: University hospital, operating room and postoperative recovery area. Read More

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Recurrence of disease activity after fingolimod discontinuation in older patients previously stable on treatment.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 21;51:102918. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Discontinuing fingolimod (FTY) in older patients is a growing concern with little evidence supporting the decision to pursue treatment and reasonable doubt for disease reactivation after withdrawal.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of recurrence of disease activity (RDA) and rebound after FTY withdrawal in patients older than 50 years.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all MS patients in our clinic who discontinued FTY after at least 6 months of treatment, according to disease activity on FTY and age at discontinuation. Read More

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Vergence, accommodation, and visual tracking in children and adolescents evaluated in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic.

Vision Res 2021 Apr 7;184:30-36. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Many patients with concussion experience visual symptoms following injury that lead to a diagnosis of convergence insufficiency, accommodative insufficiency, or saccadic dysfunction. However, these diagnostic categories are based on aggregates of clinical tests developed from a non-concussed population and therefore may not accurately describe visual deficits in the concussed population. Thus, we sought to understand individual metrics of visual dysfunction in chronically symptomatic post-concussion patients. Read More

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The ecotoxicological contaminant tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) impacts embryonic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Mar 26;235:105815. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

San Diego State University School of Public Health, 5500 Campanile Dr., Hardy Tower 119, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:

Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) is a water contaminant with unknown etiology, but is believed to be a byproduct of DDT manufacturing. It is highly persistent in the environment, and bioaccumulates in marine species. TCPMOH has also been measured in human breast milk, which poses a risk for developing infants. Read More

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Prevalence, characterization and antibiotic resistance of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli serogroups isolated from fresh beef and locally processed ready-to-eat meat products in Lagos, Nigeria.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Mar 31;347:109191. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Genomic Epidemiology, Technical University of Demark, Denmark.

Fresh beef and meat products have been implicated in outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7 and non-O157 STEC serogroups in fresh beef in the open market and street vended meat products (n = 180) in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Read More

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The impact of prenatal stressful life events on adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:406-416. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Background: Stressful life events as important stressors have gradually been recognized as the potential etiology that may lead to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, researches on this topic have shown relatively inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to synthesize available data on the association between prenatal stressful life events and increased risks of PTB, LBW, and SGA. Read More

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Two different patients with pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma response to PD-1 inhibitor plus anlotinib.

Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 26;155:170-174. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China; Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Clinical Translational Cancer Research, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is a rare and highly malignant subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and chemotherapy and radiotherapy are insensitive. Some clinical trials have shown that targetable driver gene mutations, such as EGFR, ALK or BRAF, have rarely been detected in PPC patients, but the incidence of MET exon 14 mutations is more frequent. For these patients with driver gene mutations, corresponding molecular targeted therapy may be valid. Read More

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Sustainability and monitoring of the European Code Against Cancer: Recommendations.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7;72:101933. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Environment and Lifestyle Epidemiology Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon CEDEX 08, France.

Introduction: As part of the third European Commission's Joint Action on Cancer (Innovative Partnership for Action Against Cancer, iPAAC), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) was commissioned to produce a report on recommendations to sustain and monitor future updates of the European Code Against Cancer (ECAC).

Materials And Methods: A co-creational consultation process, including a virtual workshop, was carried out. More than 100 experts in cancer prevention, public health, communication and representatives of European authorities provided input on the scope of future editions of the ECAC, including updating the scientific evidence and its maintenance, and on strategies for its implementation and dissemination across Europe. Read More

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Projections of the future burden of cancer in Australia using Bayesian age-period-cohort models.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7;72:101935. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Viertel Cancer Research Centre, Cancer Council Queensland, PO Box 201, Spring Hill, Brisbane, Queensland, 4004, Australia; School of Mathematical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland, 4001, Australia; Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, G40 Griffith Health Centre, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Gold Coast, 4222, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate forecasts of cancer incidence, with appropriate estimates of uncertainty, are crucial for planners and policy makers to ensure resource availability and prioritize interventions. We used Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) models to project the future incidence of cancer in Australia.

Methods: Bayesian APC models were fitted to counts of cancer diagnoses in Australia from 1982 to 2016 and projected to 2031 for seven key cancer types: breast, colorectal, liver, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, melanoma and stomach. Read More

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Lobular neoplasia detected at MRI-guided biopsy: imaging findings and outcomes.

Clin Imaging 2021 Mar 31;78:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America; Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America.

Objective: To review MRI findings of pure lobular neoplasia (LN) on MRI guided biopsy, evaluate surgical and clinical outcomes, and assess imaging findings predictive of upgrade to malignancy.

Methods: HIPAA compliant, IRB-approved retrospective review of our MRI-guided breast biopsy database from October 2008-January 2015. Biopsies yielding atypical lobular hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ were included in the analysis; all biopsy slides were reviewed by a dedicated breast pathologist. Read More

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Comparative study on anticancer drug access times between FDA, EMA and the French temporary authorisation for use program over 13 years.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 7;149:82-90. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

ANSM Agence Nationale de Sécurité des Médicaments Direction Onco-hématologie et Thérapie Cellulaire, 147 Boulevard Anatole France, Saint-Denis, France; Avec Groupe Hospitalier Mutualiste de Grenoble - Institut Daniel Hollard, 8, Rue Docteur Calmette, 38028 Grenoble cedex 1, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The cancer incidence continues to rise worldwide. Medical innovation has a major impact on patient survival, but within drug development, it can take more than 10 years to obtain marketing authorisation (MA). The time required for access to therapeutic innovation remains critical, so France has developed a specific expanded access program named ATU, which allows the administration of drugs before the European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval. Read More

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Pre and postnatal exposure to mercury and respiratory health in preschool children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 20;782:146654. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Effects of mercury on maturing immune system have been reported, however the association with respiratory and allergy problems during infancy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pre and postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy problems among preschool children and to examine the role of potential modifying factors. Study subjects were children participant in Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2008). Read More

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Implementing building-level SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance on a university campus.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146749. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Blvd, Charlotte, NC 28223, United States of America.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a source of ongoing challenges and presents an increased risk of illness in group environments, including jails, long-term care facilities, schools, and residential college campuses. Early reports that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was detectable in wastewater in advance of confirmed cases sparked widespread interest in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a tool for mitigation of COVID-19 outbreaks. One hypothesis was that wastewater surveillance might provide a cost-effective alternative to other more expensive approaches such as pooled and random testing of groups. Read More

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Environmental heat-related health symptoms among community in a tropical city.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 30;782:146611. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Due to the changing climate, more frequent and prolonged heatwaves are expected to have a catastrophic consequence on urban human settlement. In tropical cities such as Kuala Lumpur (KL), the quality of the urban environment is made worse by urban heat island (UHI) phenomena due to poor urban planning practices. The prolonged exposure to urban heat is hypothesized to influence human health and well-being, especially in tropical urban areas with high population density. Read More

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Evaluating the impact of the travel ban within mainland China on the epidemic of the COVID-19.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Lamps and Canadian Centre for Disease Modelling (CCDM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic expanded its geographic distribution through the movement of humans and caused subsequent local outbreaks. Hence, it is essential to investigate how human mobility and travel ban affect the transmission and spatial spread while minimizing the impact on social activities and national economics.

Methods: We developed a mobility network model for spatial epidemics, explicitly taking into account time-varying inter-province and inner-province population flows, spatial heterogeneity in terms of disease transmission, as well as the impact of media reports. Read More

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Effectiveness and tolerability of netarsudil in combination with other ocular hypotensive agents.

Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of netarsudil in combination with other ocular hypotensive agents in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Subjects: All patients with OAG or OHT with netarsudil added to a regimen of at least one other ocular hypotensive agent between March 2018 to March 2019. Read More

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Sexual behavior and contraceptive use among cisgender and gender minority college students who were assigned female at birth.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital; Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Study Objective: Our objective was to describe sexual behavior and contraceptive use among assigned female cisgender and gender minority college students (i.e., those whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth). Read More

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Assessment and management of asymptomatic COVID-19 infection: A Systematic Review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 7:102058. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Universidad Científica Del Sur, Lima, Peru; Latin American Network of COVID-19 Research (LANCOVID), Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia; Grupo de Investigación Biomedicina, Faculty of Medicine, Fundación Universitaria Autónoma de Las Américas, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 can be asymptomatic in a substantial proportion of patients. The assessment and management of these patients constitute a key element to stop dissemination.

Aim: To describe the assessment and treatment of asymptomatic infection in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Read More

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Validation of an Algorithm for Continuous Monitoring of Atrial Fibrillation Using a Consumer Smartwatch.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Consumer devices with broad reach may be useful for screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in appropriate populations. However, currently there are no consumer devices capable of continuous monitoring for AF.

Objective: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of a smartwatch algorithm for continuous detection of AF from sinus rhythm in a free-living setting. Read More

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Serum hs-CRP measured prior transplantation predicts of new-onset diabetes after transplantation in renal transplant recipients.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Apr 7:101392. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Military Hospital 103, Ha Noi, Viet Nam; Vietnam Military Medical University, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Background: To assess the incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) for the first year post-transplantation and the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) before transplantation for NODAT prediction in kidney transplantation patients.

Material And Methods: A study of 251 consecutive adult end-stage kidney disease patients transplanted kidneys from living donors, follow-up during the first year to find NODAT. We diagnosed NODAT based on blood glucose or HbA1c following to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Read More

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The early impact of preformed angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies on graft function in a low immunological risk cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Apr 7:101389. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania; Center for Uronephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania.

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1R-Ab) are associated with graft rejection and poor graft outcomes in kidney transplantation (KT). We aimed to assess the frequency of preformed AT1R-Ab and their impact on graft function and survival at 1 year after KT. We performed a prospective, observational cohort study in 67 adult KT recipients, transplanted between 2018 and 2019. Read More

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Regulation of Nuclear Factor-KappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by non-coding RNAs in cancer: Inhibiting or promoting carcinogenesis?

Cancer Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

NUS Centre for Cancer Research (N2CR), Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117 600, Singapore. Electronic address:

The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is considered as a potential therapeutic target in cancer therapy. It has been well established that transcription factor NF-κB is involved in regulating physiological and pathological events including inflammation, immune response and differentiation. Increasing evidences suggest that deregulated NF-κB signaling can enhance cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and also mediate radio-as well as chemo-resistance. Read More

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More than two-dozen Prescription Drug-Based Risk SCORES are available for risk adjustment: A Systematic Review.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center for Drug Safety and Effectiveness, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: While several prescription drug-based risk indices have been developed, their design, performance, and application has not previously been synthesized.

Study Design And Setting: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and Embase from inception through March 3, 2020 and included studies that developed or updated a prescription drug-based risk index. Two reviewers independently performed screening and extracted information on data source, study population, cohort sizes, outcomes, study methodology and performance. Read More

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Data-driven methods distort optimal cutoffs and accuracy estimates of depression screening tools: a simulation study using individual participant data.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Members of the DEPRESSD EPDS Group: Ying Sun, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate, across multiple sample sizes, the degree that data-driven methods result in (1) optimal cutoffs different from population optimal cutoff and (2) bias in accuracy estimates.

Study Design And Setting: 1,000 samples of sample size 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 each were randomly drawn to simulate studies of different sample sizes from a database (N=13,255) synthesized to assess Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) screening accuracy. Optimal cutoffs were selected by maximizing Youden's J (sensitivity+specificity-1). Read More

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