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The therapeutic potential of inhibiting PPARγ phosphorylation to treat type 2 diabetes.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 30:101030. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing, and School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia. Electronic address:

A promising approach for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is to target the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) transcription factor which regulates the expression of proteins critical for T2DM. Mechanisms involved in PPARγ signalling are poorly understood, yet globally increasing T2DM prevalence demands improvements in drug design. Synthetic, non-activating PPARγ ligands can abolish the phosphorylation of PPARγ at Ser273, a post-translational modification correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. Read More

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Pre-retirement Employees Experience Lasting Improvements in Resilience and Well-Being After Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:699088. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Danish Center for Mindfulness, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brabrand, Denmark.

The socio-economic benefits of interventions to prevent stress and related mental health problems are enormous. In the labor market, it is becoming desirable to keep employees for as long as possible. Since aging implies additional stressors such as increased risk of illness, and added pressure by professional tasks such as transferring knowledge, or learning new technologies, it is of particular relevance to offer stress-reduction to pre-retirement employees. Read More

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The landscape of preventive cardiology in Turkey: Challenges and successes.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2021 Jun 14;6:100184. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chronic Disease and Elderly Health, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey.

Turkey, like many countries, is facing a growing burden of non-communicable disease (NCD)s and is among the countries with high cardiovascular mortality in Europe. Moreover, Turkey currently has the highest rate of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Europe. During the last decades, Turkey made fundamental reforms in the health system to improve the treatment of risk factors to prevent CVD. Read More

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A prospective longitudinal study to evaluate bone health, implication of FRAX tool and impact on quality of life (FACT-P) in advanced prostate cancer patients.

Am J Clin Exp Urol 2021 15;9(3):211-220. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

King George's Medical University Lucknow, India.

Background: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) as a treatment modality in advanced prostate cancer has deleterious effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL). Using FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment) model, candidates at high risk of fractures can be predicted and appropriate treatment can be initiated at early step to prevent skeletal-related events. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate bone health, implication of FRAX tool in advanced prostate cancer and to see the impact of ADT and Bone-directed therapy (BDT) on FRAX and FACT-P QOL scores. Read More

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Resilience Training for Nurses: A Meta-analysis.

J Hosp Palliat Nurs 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Xin Zhai, BSc, is assistant, Department of Health Services, The Sixth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Li-na Ren, BSc, is the head nurse, Department of Nursing, The Sixth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Yan Liu, BSc, is nurse practitioner, Department of Orthopedics, Hebei Province Quzhou County Hospital, Quzhou, Heibei, China. Chao-jun Liu, MD, is attending physician, Mudanyuan Clinic, Beijing Urban Construction Group, and CheerLand Clinical Laboratory Co, Ltd, Beijing, China. Xiao-guang Su, BSc, is director of nursing, Department of Nursing, The 984th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of the People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China. Bai-e Feng, BSc, is nurse-in-charge Department of Radiology, The 984th Hospital of the Joint Logistics Support Force of the People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China.

Nurses frequently face stressful situations during work, which makes resilience an essential quality of their personality to cope with professional stress and to prevent burnout. Resilience can be improved by training and practice. To analyze the effect of resilience training in nurses, studies reporting the changes in resilience before and after resilience training were identified by conducting the literature search in electronic databases. Read More

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Assessing the Impact of a Pilot Nutrition Curriculum on Students' Confidence and Ability to Perform Nutritional Assessments on Overweight Dogs and Cats for Use in a Veterinary Outreach Program.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 Jul 16:e20200162. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Obesity is a growing concern for dogs and cats. Although veterinary input is critical to prevent and manage obesity, conversations addressing overweight pets are challenging and require training to perform effectively. This study assessed the impact of a nutrition curriculum developed for use in a veterinary outreach program on student confidence and ability to perform nutritional assessments, particularly on overweight pets. Read More

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The Potential Association between the Risk of Post-Surgical Adhesion and the Activated Local Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptors: Need for Novel Treatment Strategies.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Jun 31;8(3):107-114. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Cancer Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Background: Post-surgical adhesion bands (PSABs) are a common complication after abdominal or pelvic surgeries for different reasons like cancer treatment. Despite improvements in surgical techniques and the administration of drugs or the use of physical barriers, there has only been limited improvement in the frequency of postoperative adhesions. Complications of PSAB are pain, infertility, intestinal obstruction, and increased mortality. Read More

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Targeting Glioblastoma Stem Cells: A Review on Biomarkers, Signal Pathways and Targeted Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:701291. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most lethal and common primary brain tumor, even after treatment with multiple therapies, such as surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiation. Although great advances in medical development and improvements in therapeutic methods of GBM have led to a certain extension of the median survival time of patients, prognosis remains poor. The primary cause of its dismal outcomes is the high rate of tumor recurrence, which is closely related to its resistance to standard therapies. Read More

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Exercise and Adrenergic Regulation of Immunity.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

University of Gießen, Department of Exercise Physiology and Sports Therapy, Gießen, Germany. Electronic address:

Exercise training has a profound impact on immunity, exerting a multitude of positive effects in indications such as immunosenescence, cancer, viral infections and inflammatory diseases. The immune, endocrine and central nervous systems work in a highly synergistic manner and it has become apparent that catecholamine signaling through leukocyte β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) is a key mechanism by which exercise mediates improvements in immune function to help mitigate numerous disease conditions. Central to this is the preferential mobilization and redistribution of effector lymphocytes with potent anti-viral and anti-tumor activity, their interaction with muscle-derived cytokines, and the effects of catecholamine signaling on mitochondrial biogenesis, immunometabolism and the resulting inflammatory response. Read More

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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Perioperative Oral Management after Cancer Surgery and an Examination of the Reduction in Medical Costs Thereafter: A Multicenter Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Oral Surgery, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo 143-8541, Japan.

In April 2012, perioperative oral management (POM) was approved for inclusion in the national health insurance system of Japan to prevent the occurrence of pneumonia, a major complication in cancer patients. The subsequent decrease in the incidence of postoperative pneumonia indicated the prophylactic effect of POM. The constant increase in health expenditure necessitates a cost-effectiveness analysis. Read More

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Renal Delivery of Pharmacologic Agents During Machine Perfusion to Prevent Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury: From Murine Model to Clinical Trials.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:673562. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Donor organ shortage still remains a serious obstacle for the access of wait-list patients to kidney transplantation, the best treatment for End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD). To expand the number of transplants, the use of lower quality organs from older ECD or DCD donors has become an established routine but at the price of increased incidence of Primary Non-Function, Delay Graft Function and lower-long term graft survival. In the last years, several improvements have been made in the field of renal transplantation from surgical procedure to preservation strategies. Read More

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A Retrospective Analysis of the Impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Turkey.

J Emerg Nurs 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Introduction: Several vaccines have been developed and approved for use against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2; however, the use of personal protective equipment remains important owing to the lack of effective specific treatment and whole community immunity. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate was a treatment option in the early days of the pandemic; however, it was subsequently removed owing to a lack of evidence as an effective treatment. We aimed to evaluate the testing and infection characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 among health care personnel and determine the effectiveness of prophylactic hydroxychloroquine sulfate use to prevent transmission. Read More

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Multicomponent exercise to improve motor functions, cognition and well-being for nursing home residents who are unable to walk - A randomized controlled trial.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 20;153:111484. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Institute of Human Movement Science, University of Hamburg, Mollerstr, 10, 20148 Hamburg, Germany; Biological Psychology and Neuroergonomics, TU Berlin, Fasanenstr. 1, 10623 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Older nursing home residents are often characterized by multimorbidity and dependency in activities of daily living. Most exercise studies in this setting aim at residents who are still able to walk despite the huge group of residents that is unable to walk. Thus, little is known about the effectiveness to improve cognitive and motor functions as well as well-being within this target group, e. Read More

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Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in First-time and Recurrent Kidney Stone Formers.

Urology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective: To describe the patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among patients with kidney stones and analyze the alkali content of commonly used CAM therapies.

Methods: We prospectively conducted structured interviews with patients who presented to a specialty stone clinic for the management of kidney stones. Open-ended questions were used to elicit information regarding CAM knowledge, formulation/dosing, and patterns of use. Read More

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12 weeks of strength training improves fluid cognition in older adults: A nonrandomized pilot trial.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255018. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Ostrow School of Dentistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Objectives: Resistance training (RT) is a promising strategy to slow or prevent fluid cognitive decline during aging. However, the effects of strength-specific RT programs have received little attention. The purpose of this single-group proof of concept clinical trial was to determine whether a 12-week strength training (ST) program could improve fluid cognition in healthy older adults 60 to 80 years of age, and to explore concomitant physiological and psychological changes. Read More

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Cognitive Tele-Enhancement in Healthy Older Adults and Subjects With Subjective Memory Complaints: A Review.

Front Neurol 2021 5;12:650553. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Neuropsychology Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.

In recent years, emphasis has been placed on cognitive enhancement to stimulate cognitive abilities and prevent functional decline. Considering that traditional face-to-face interventions can be very expensive and are not accessible to all individuals, the need to transfer care from the clinic to the patient's home is evident. In this regard, cognitive tele-enhancement interventions have received increased attention. Read More

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Whey allergens: Influence of nonthermal processing treatments and their detection methods.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 5# Yushan Road, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Whey and its components are recognized as value-added ingredients in infant formulas, beverages, sports nutritious foods, and other food products. Whey offers opportunities for the food industrial sector to develop functional foods with potential health benefits due to its unique physiological and functional attributes. Despite all the above importance, the consumption of whey protein (WP) can trigger hypersensitive reactions and is a constant threat for sensitive individuals. Read More

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Improving flood disaster preparedness of hospitals in Central Thailand: Hospital personnel perspectives.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Faculty of Nursing, Division of Public Health Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Aim: To improve hospitals disaster preparedness during floods.

Background: The Thai flood disaster in 2011 struck several sectors, including hospitals. It is necessary to build a disaster preparedness system that ensures that hospitals have the capacity to respond effectively to any kind of disaster. Read More

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Supplementation of a lacto-fermented rapeseed-seaweed blend promotes gut microbial- and gut immune-modulation in weaner piglets.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jul 20;12(1):85. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 26, DK-1958, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Background: The direct use of medical zinc oxide in feed will be abandoned after 2022 in Europe, leaving an urgent need for substitutes to prevent post-weaning disorders.

Results: This study investigated the effect of using rapeseed-seaweed blend (rapeseed meal added two brown macroalgae species Ascophylum nodosum and Saccharina latissima) fermented by lactobacilli (FRS) as feed ingredients in piglet weaning. From d 28 of life to d 85, the piglets were fed one of three different feeding regimens (n = 230 each) with inclusion of 0%, 2. Read More

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Impact of lifestyle Intervention on branched-chain amino acid catabolism and insulin sensitivity in adolescents with obesity.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 2021 Jul 1;4(3):e00250. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and the Duke Molecular Physiology Institute Duke University Medical Center Durham NC USA.

Insulin resistance in adolescents with obesity associates with a sex-dependent metabolic 'signature' comprising branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamate and C3/C5 acylcarnitines (C3/C5), implicating altered flux through BCAA catabolic pathways. Here, we investigated the effects of lifestyle intervention on BCAA catabolism and insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized (1) weight reduction and improved insulin sensitivity associate with enhanced BCAA catabolism; (2) baseline BCAAs and their metabolic by-products predict changes in weight and insulin sensitivity during lifestyle intervention. Read More

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The post-traumatic stiff elbow: A review.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2021 Aug 19;19:125-131. Epub 2021 May 19.

Upper Limb Unit, Wrightington Hospital, Hall Lane, Appley Bridge, Wigan, WN6 9EP, UK.

Upper extremity function is highly dependent on elbow motion in order to adequately position the hand in space. Loss of this motion due to stiffness following trauma can cause patients substantial disability, leading to difficulties with performing activities of daily living. Post-traumatic elbow stiffness is challenging to treat, and therefore prevention is of paramount importance. Read More

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Treatment and Therapeutic Change of Individuals Imprisoned for Child Abuse in the Barcelona Study on Sex Offenders.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Jul 18:8862605211028310. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

University of Barcelona, Spain.

The sexual abuse of children is a serious social problem that must be prevented through distinct measures. Among them is the application of treatments to those who have already committed sex crimes in order to prevent them from committing a new one. To assess the efficacy of sexual offense treatment, the most common method has been to compare the recidivism rates of treated and untreated groups. Read More

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The content and effectiveness of self-management support interventions for people at risk of pressure ulcers: A systematic review.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Jun 27;122:104014. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, IQ healthcare, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; HAN University of Applied Sciences, School of Health Studies, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Pressure ulcers are a common complication with a high impact on well-being and quality of life in people with impaired mobility and/or dysfunctional pain sensations. Prevention is therefore crucial. However, persons at risk seem to experience difficulties in adhering to self-management regimens that can help to prevent or diminish the development of pressure ulcers. Read More

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Peptidomics: A Review of Clinical Applications and Methodologies.

J Proteome Res 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Level 4, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, Box 289, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, U.K.

Improvements in both liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation have greatly enhanced proteomic and small molecule metabolomic analysis in recent years. Less focus has been on the improved capability to detect and quantify small bioactive peptides, even though the exact sequences of the peptide species produced can have important biological consequences. Endogenous bioactive peptide hormones, for example, are generated by the targeted and regulated cleavage of peptides from their prohormone sequence. Read More

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Integrated Approach in Addressing Undernutrition in Developing Countries: A Scoping Review of Integrated Water Access, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) + Nutrition Interventions.

Curr Dev Nutr 2021 Jul 25;5(7):nzab087. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA.

A scoping review of integrated water access, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) plus nutrition interventions was conducted mainly to describe different components of intervention and examine their effectiveness in improving nutritional outcomes among children. Of the 8 small- to large-scale interventions, 6 were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and the remaining 2 in South Asia. All the interventions were done in rural settings; the majority involved sanitation and hygiene deliverables along with the nutrition strategies, such as distribution of nutrition supplements. Read More

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Effectiveness of the ABCDEF bundle on delirium, functional outcomes and quality of life in intensive care patients: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial with embedded process evaluation.

BMJ Open 2021 07 15;11(7):e044814. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Hospital mortality for critically ill patients has decreased significantly throughout the developed world over the past two decades, attributable to improvements in the quality of intensive care, advances in critical care medicine and technologies that provide long-term multiorgan support. However, the long-term outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors is emerging as a real issue. Cognitive and physical impairments suffered by ICU survivors are common including profound weakness, pain and delirium which are inextricably linked. Read More

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Intranasal gene therapy to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 variants.

PLoS Pathog 2021 07 15;17(7):e1009544. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Gene Therapy Program, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged with enhanced pathogenicity and transmissibility, and escape from pre-existing immunity, suggesting first-generation vaccines and monoclonal antibodies may now be less effective. Here we present an approach for preventing clinical sequelae and the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants. First, we affinity matured an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoy protein, achieving 1000-fold binding improvements that extend across a wide range of SARS-CoV-2 variants and distantly related, ACE2-dependent coronaviruses. Read More

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Medial Closed Wedge Distal Femoral Osteotomy Using a Novel Plate With an Optimal Compression System.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Jun 7;10(6):e1497-e1504. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Sports Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan.

Medial closed wedge distal femoral osteotomy (MCWDFO) has been widely performed for lateral-compartment osteoarthritis since the development of a biplanar osteotomy technique using existing MCWDFO-specific plates. To further improve this system and the technique, we have developed a newly designed MCWDFO plate (TriS-MDFO; Olympus Terumo Biomaterials). The improved shape of the plate consists of a larger head-shaft angle to fit the distal femur after MCWDFO, more distally oriented distal screws to enable longer screw insertion, and a diamond-shaped plate head to avoid interference with the medial patellofemoral ligament. Read More

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Feedback assessment from the audience as part of health literacy training for health professionals: a case from Fukushima after the nuclear accident.

Ann ICRP 2021 Jul 13:1466453211010919. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Community Health and Research, Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, Japan.

Following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, a series of health literacy training workshops for local health workers was developed and implemented. This study aimed to analyse who among the intended audience gained the greatest benefit from the training. Nine health workers attended a workshop consisting of classroom training and a follow-up feedback assessment of materials they created in the workshop. Read More

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Workplace improvements to support safe and sustained return to work: Suggestions from a survey of workers with permanent impairments.

Am J Ind Med 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Roughly 10% of occupational injuries result in permanent impairment. After initial return to work (RTW), many workers with permanent impairments face RTW interruption due to reinjury, unstable health, disability, and layoff. This study used open-ended survey data to: (1) explore workplace factors identified by workers as important levers for change, some of which may previously have been unrecognized; and (2) summarize workers' suggestions for workplace improvements to promote sustained RTW and prevent reinjury. Read More

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