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Outcomes for various dural graft materials after posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 9:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

Methods: A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Pharmacologic and hormonal treatments for menopausal sleep disturbances: A network meta-analysis of 43 randomized controlled trials and 32,271 menopausal women.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Mar 11;57:101469. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This network meta-analysis aimed at investigating efficacy/tolerability of pharmacologic/hormonal interventions for menopausal sleep disturbances. Major databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining pharmacologic or hormonal interventions with either placebo or active controlled designs. Primary outcomes were improvements in sleep disturbance severity/tolerability (i. Read More

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Do baseline cognitive status, participant specific characteristics and EDSS impact changes of cognitive performance following aerobic exercise intervention in multiple sclerosis?

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 18;51:102905. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Sport and Sport Science, Department of "Performance and Health (Sports Medicine)", Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Cognitive impairment is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical exercise represents a promising non-pharmacological therapy option, however, potential predictors for successful cognitive improvements mediated by exercise remain to be elucidated in order to optimize targeted exercise training regimens. One of the most promising exercise training regime in this context is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Read More

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Effects of concurrent action and object naming treatment on naming skills and functional brain activation patterns in primary progressive aphasia: An fMRI study with a case-series design.

Brain Lang 2021 Apr 6;218:104950. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, United States; Department of Psychology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, United States. Electronic address:

Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) exhibit differential impairment patterns in noun and verb naming, but it remains unclear whether anomia treatment results in similar improvements in noun and verb naming. Therefore, we examined the immediate and long-term (3-months post-treatment) behavioral and neural effects of an anomia treatment on object and action naming skills in PPA. A case-series design was utilized involving two individuals with PPA. Read More

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Postoperative Opioid Prescription and Use After Outpatient Vascular Access Surgery.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 6;264:173-178. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Michigan Opioid Prescribing and Engagement Network, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Department of Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: Larger opioid prescriptions are associated with increased consumption without improvements in pain, and the majority of opioids prescribed go unused. We examined postoperative opioid prescription and use in patients undergoing vascular access surgery, where preoperative opioid exposure is common.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in adult CKD patients who underwent outpatient vascular access surgery. Read More

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Gray matter volume in left intraparietal sulcus predicts longitudinal gains in subtraction skill in elementary school: Running title (5 words): Gray matter volume predicts subtraction.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 6:118021. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Although behavioral studies show large improvements in arithmetic skills in elementary school, we do not know how brain structure supports math gains in typically developing children. While some correlational studies have investigated the concurrent association between math performance and brain structure, such as gray matter volume (GMV), longitudinal studies are needed to infer if there is a causal relation. Although discrepancies in the literature on the relation between GMV and math performance have been attributed to the different demands on quantity vs. Read More

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Management of BRAF-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer: a review of treatment options and evidence-based guidelines.

Ann Oncol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Vall d'Hebron Hospital Campus, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, UVIC-UCC, IOB-Quiron, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide, despite recent improvements in cancer management. CRC, like many malignancies, is a heterogeneous disease, with subtypes characterized by genetic alterations. One common mutation in CRC is in the BRAF gene (most commonly V600E substitution). Read More

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Temporal improvements noted in life expectancy of patients with colorectal cancer; a Dutch population-based study.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Research and Development, Comprehensive Netherlands Cancer Organization, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Specific survival estimates are needed for the increasing number of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. The aim of this population-based study was to determine conditional loss in expectation of life (LEL) due to CRC.

Study Design And Setting: All surgically treated patients with CRC registered in the Netherlands Cancer Registry with stage I-III between 1990-2016, were included (N=203,216). Read More

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Analyzing Anatomic Pathology On-Call Summaries to Improve Resident Education.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento.

Context.—: Pathology on-call experiences help prepare trainees for successful transition from residency to independent practice, and as such are an integral component of training. However, few data exist on anatomic pathology resident on-call workload and experience. Read More

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Exercise Medicine in the Management of Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Pancreas 2021 Mar;50(3):280-292

Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the health-related effects of exercise in patients with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) through a systematic review of current evidence. Studies were obtained through searching PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL Plus, and Cochrane Library databases with additional hand searches. All intervention-based studies were included if it involved (1) adult patients with PanCa, (2) exercise training, and (3) findings in quality of life, cancer-related fatigue, psychological distress, and physical function. Read More

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Equine-Assisted Services for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

This systematic review evaluated equine-assisted activities and therapies (EAATs), formerly referred to as equine-assisted services (EAS), in children and youth (ages 6-18 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Electronic database searches were conducted of studies from inception through December 2020. A total of 12 articles were included: 8 noncontrolled prospective studies and 4 randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). Read More

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A novel universal algorithm for filament network tracing and cytoskeleton analysis.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21582

Department of Physics, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.

The rapid development of advanced microscopy techniques over recent decades has significantly increased the quality of imaging and our understanding of subcellular structures, such as the organization of the filaments of the cytoskeleton using fluorescence and electron microscopy. However, these recent improvements in imaging techniques have not been matched by similar development of techniques for computational analysis of the images of filament networks that can now be obtained. Hence, for a wide range of applications, reliable computational analysis of such two-dimensional methods remains challenging. Read More

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Avidity optimization of a MAGE-A1 specific TCR with somatic hypermutation.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.

A T cell receptor (TCR) with optimal avidity to a tumor antigen can be used to redirect T cells to eradicate cancer cells via adoptive cell transfer (ACT). Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are attractive targets because they are expressed in the testis, which is immune-privileged, and in the tumor. However, CTAs are self-antigens and natural TCRs to CTAs have low affinity/avidity due to central tolerance. Read More

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Effects of Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Focal Hand Dystonia: A Case Report.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2021 Apr 20;46(1):44-50. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, 1838 Ishikawa-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0032, Japan.

A 40-year-old female patient with no medical history or family history of dystonia showed no abnormalities on cranial MRI. However, flexions and extensions were poor during the right arm and elbow movements, and tremors were observed during the finger separation movement. The tremors reduced when the left hand was placed on the right shoulder. Read More

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A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Daily Living Skills Intervention for Adolescents with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, MLC 3015, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) without an intellectual disability have daily living skills (DLS) impairments. An initial feasibility pilot of Surviving and Thriving in the Real World (STRW), a group intervention that targets DLS, demonstrated significant improvements. A pilot RCT of STRW was conducted to extend these findings. Read More

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Effectiveness of Quality Improvement Processes, Interventions, and Structure in Trauma Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

World J Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Surgery, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Background: Trauma mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains high compared to high-income countries. Quality improvement processes, interventions, and structure are essential in the effort to decrease trauma mortality.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies assessing quality improvement processes, interventions, and structure in developing country trauma systems was conducted from November 1989 to August 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Read More

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Applying A/B Testing to Clinical Decision Support: Rapid Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 9;23(4):e16651. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Clinical decision support (CDS) is a valuable feature of electronic health records (EHRs) designed to improve quality and safety. However, due to the complexities of system design and inconsistent results, CDS tools may inadvertently increase alert fatigue and contribute to physician burnout. A/B testing, or rapid-cycle randomized tests, is a useful method that can be applied to the EHR in order to rapidly understand and iteratively improve design choices embedded within CDS tools. Read More

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Novel High-Efficiency Polymer Acceptors via Random Ternary Copolymerization Engineering Enables All-Polymer Solar Cells with Excellent Performance and Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Chemistry/Institute of Polymers and Energy Chemistry (IPEC), Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, P. R. China.

Continuous breakthroughs have been achieved in improving the efficiency of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) using diimide-based polymer acceptors, and their easy-to-synthesize, low-cost, and high stability attributes make them potential candidates for use in commercial all-PSCs. However, their low light absorption coefficient, strong aggregation, and poor adaptability with high-efficient polymer donors still limit further improvements in the device performance. Here, we combine the advantages of fluorinated bithiophene and rhodanine dye molecules to create low-cost diimide-based polymer acceptors, PNDI-2FT-TR10 and PNDI-2FT-TR20, by random copolymerization for achieving highly efficient and stable all-PSCs. Read More

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Successful salvage via re-osseointegration of a loosened implant in a patient with transtibial amputation.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Feb;45(1):76-80

1Clinical Laboratory for Bionic Extremity Reconstruction, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 2Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria 3Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK 4AUVA Trauma Hospital Lorenz Böhler-European Hand Trauma Center, Vienna, Austria 5Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, AUVA Research Center, Vienna, Austria 6Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden 7Biomechatronics Group, Center for Extreme Bionics, MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Case Description: Osseointegration is a relatively new technique for prosthetic limb attachment that offers various improvements for patients with amputation and facilitates joint preservation. We present a case of implant loosening during rehabilitation in a patient with transtibial amputation that was successfully managed through a combination of measures, aiming to promote re-osseointegration of the implant.

Objectives: Not much is known about structured management of adverse events after osseointegration. Read More

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February 2021

Finger orthoses for management of joint hypermobility disorders: Relative effects on hand function and cognitive load.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Feb;45(1):36-45

1Ortos A/S, Odense, Denmark 2Ortos A/S, Kolding, Denmark 3CHILD Research Group, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.

Background: Joint hypermobility refers to joints that move beyond their normal limits. Individuals with hypermobility of the fingers experience difficulties in activities of daily living. Finger orthoses are available for managing hypermobility of the fingers, but their effectiveness has received little attention in scholarly literature. Read More

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February 2021

Content analysis of child user and carer perspectives of ankle-foot orthoses.

Prosthet Orthot Int 2021 Feb;45(1):12-19

1School of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia 2EPIC Lab, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia 3University of Sydney School of Health Sciences & Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, Sydney, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Background: The evaluation of ankle-foot orthoses is primarily focused on biomechanical performance, with comparatively less studies pertaining to users' quality of life and experiential factors.

Objectives: To investigate how child users regard acquisition and use of ankle-foot orthoses through the perspectives of child users, parents/carers and practitioners.

Study Design: Inductive content analysis of secondary data. Read More

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February 2021

SNR-enhanced diffusion MRI with structure-preserving low-rank denoising in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: To introduce, develop, and evaluate a novel denoising technique for diffusion MRI that leverages nonlinear redundancy in the data to boost the SNR while preserving signal information.

Methods: We exploit nonlinear redundancy of the dMRI data by means of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), a nonlinear generalization of PCA to reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. By mapping the signal to a high-dimensional space, a higher level of redundant information is exploited, thereby enabling better denoising than linear PCA. Read More

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Impact of baricitinib in combination with topical steroids on atopic dermatitis symptoms, quality of life, and functioning in adult patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis from the BREEZE-AD7 Phase 3 randomised trial.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Toulouse University and CHU Larrey, Toulouse, France.

Background: Baricitinib is an oral, selective, reversible Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor approved in the European Union and Japan and under investigation in the United States for treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD).

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of baricitinib plus background topical corticosteroids (TCS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), how AD symptoms impact work productivity and life functioning, and treatment benefit using patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments in patients with moderate-to-severe AD previously experiencing inadequate response to TCS.

Methods: Adult patients with AD in BREEZE-AD7, a Phase 3, multicentre, double-blind trial, were randomised 1:1:1 to daily oral placebo (control) or baricitinib 4-mg or 2-mg plus TCS. Read More

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Effectiveness of a nurse-led, face-to-face health coaching intervention in enhancing activation and secondary outcomes of primary care users with chronic conditions.

Res Nurs Health 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity is rising, and it remains unclear what the best strategy is for activating people with chronic conditions in their self-care. We designed a two-group quasi-experimental time series trial to examine the effectiveness of a nurse-led, face-to-face, individually-tailored health coaching (HC) intervention in improving patient activation and secondary outcomes (self-efficacy, quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, medication adherence, hospitalization and emergency visits) among primary care users with chronic conditions. A total of 118 people with chronic conditions were recruited through a primary care center and allocated to either the intervention group (IG) (n = 58) or control group (CG) (n = 60). Read More

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Efficacy and safety of 755 nm Q-switched Alexandrite Laser for Hori's nevus: a retrospective analysis of 482 Chinese women.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Aesthetic Department, Dermatology Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510091, China.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 755 nm Q-Switched alexandrite laser for Hori's nevus in a large cohort of Chinese women. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and safety of 755 nm Q-Switched alexandrite laser for Hori's nevus. Reduction in pigment was evaluated using a 4-score method. Read More

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Semiconductors as Effective Electrodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Applications.

Top Curr Chem (Cham) 2021 Apr 9;379(3):20. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, PO Box 87, Cairo, Egypt.

As proficient photovoltaic devices, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received considerable consideration in recent years. In order to accomplish advanced solar-to-electricity efficiency and increase long-term functioning stability, improvements in the configuration structure of DSSCs are essential, as is an understanding of their elementary principles. This work discusses the application of different semiconductor constituents designed for effective DSSCs. Read More

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Evaluation of field calibration methods and performance of AQMesh, a low-cost air quality monitor.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 8;193(5):251. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, University of Gävle, Gavle, Sweden.

Field calibrations of NO, NO, and PM from AQMesh Air Quality Monitors (AQMs) were conducted during a summer and an autumn period in a busy street in a midsize Swedish city. All the three linear calibration procedures studied (postscaled, bisquare, and orthogonal data) significantly reduced the ranges and magnitudes of the performance indicators to yield more reliable results than the raw data. The improvements were sufficient to satisfy the European Union (EU) Data Quality Objective (DQO) for indicative measurements as compared to reference data only for NO (above 50 µg m) and NO (above 30 µg m) during the autumn calibration period. Read More

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Elective ventral hernia repair provides significant abdominal wall quality of life improvements in older patients.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: An increasing proportion of ventral hernia patients are over age 65. These patients are frequently offered watchful waiting rather than surgical intervention due to their frail state or perioperative risk. However, many in this age group suffer from significant quality of life impacts that are not well understood. Read More

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Leaders and Laggards in Life Expectancy Among European Scholars From the Sixteenth to the Early Twentieth Century.

Demography 2021 Feb;58(1):111-135

Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

When did mortality first start to decline, and among whom? We build a large, new data set with more than 30,000 scholars covering the sixteenth to the early twentieth century to analyze the timing of the mortality decline and the heterogeneity in life expectancy gains among scholars in the Holy Roman Empire. The large sample size, well-defined entry into the risk group, and heterogeneity in social status are among the key advantages of the new database. After recovering from a severe mortality crisis in the seventeenth century, life expectancy among scholars started to increase as early as in the eighteenth century, well before the Industrial Revolution. Read More

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February 2021