25,025 results match your criteria improved viral

Clinical efficacy evaluation and prevention of adverse reactions in a randomized trial of a combination of three drugs in the treatment of cancerous pudendal neuralgia.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Medical College, Yanbian University, Yanji, China; Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Science, Changchun, China.

Background: To explore the clinical efficacy, safety, and prevention of major adverse reactions of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib combined with OxyContin and Pregabalin in the treatment of cancerous pudendal neuralgia.

Methods: A total of 51 patients presenting with pelvic malignancies with cancerous pudendal neuralgia were selected, and random number table method was used to allocate them to either the experimental group (n=27) or control group (n=24). The control group was treated with OxyContin combined with Pregabalin, and the experimental group was treated with Celecoxib on the basis of the control group. Read More

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Molecular diagnosis for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: lessons learnt from the Ghana experience.

Ghana Med J 2020 Dec;54(4 Suppl):77-85

Department of Virology, University of Ghana, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana.

Background: A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 is currently causing a worldwide pandemic. The first cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded in Ghana on March 12, 2020. Since then, the country has been combatting countrywide community spread. Read More

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December 2020

Intra-host evolutionary dynamics of the hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9986. Epub 2021 May 11.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Most individuals chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are asymptomatic during the initial stages of infection and therefore the precise timing of infection is often unknown. Retrospective estimation of infection duration would improve existing surveillance data and help guide treatment. While intra-host viral diversity quantifications such as Shannon entropy have previously been utilized for estimating duration of infection, these studies characterize the viral population from only a relatively short segment of the HCV genome. Read More

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Initiating antiretroviral treatment for newly diagnosed HIV patients in sexual health clinics greatly improves timeliness of viral suppression.

AIDS 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Bureau of Sexually Transmitted Infections, New York, NY Retired (formerly with New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, Atlanta, GA.).

Objective: The 'JumpstART' program in New York City (NYC) public Sexual Health Clinics (SHC) provides patients newly diagnosed with HIV with ART (one-month supply) on day of diagnosis and active linkage to HIV care (LTC). We examined viral suppression (VS) among patients who did and did not receive JumpstART services.

Design: Retrospective cohort. Read More

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Evaluation of CVC1302 for Improved Efficacy of FMD-Inactivated Vaccine in Oxidative Stressed Mice Generated with PCV2 Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

National Research Center of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

This study aimed to explore the effect of the immunopotentiator CVC1302 on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in animals placed under oxidative stress. We established oxidative stress models using porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-infected PK-15 cells and mice model both and , respectively. The efficacy of CVC1302 on PK-15 cells or in addition to the FMD vaccine was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histopathological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Read More

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Hypertrophic Preconditioning Attenuates Myocardial Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury by Modulating SIRT3-SOD2-mROS-Dependent Autophagy.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 11:e13051. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Ischaemic preconditioning elicited by brief periods of coronary occlusion and reperfusion protects the heart from a subsequent prolonged ischaemic insult. Here, we test the hypothesis that short-term non-ischaemic stimulation of hypertrophy renders the heart resistant to subsequent ischaemic injury.

Methods And Results: Transient transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed for 3 days in mice and then withdrawn for 4 days by aortic debanding, followed by subsequent exposure to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Read More

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A novel highly potent inhibitor of TMPRSS2-like proteases blocks SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and is broadly protective against infection and mortality in mice.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus remains a global public health crisis. Although widespread vaccination campaigns are underway, their efficacy is reduced against emerging variants of concern (VOCs) . Development of host-directed therapeutics and prophylactics could limit such resistance and offer urgently needed protection against VOCs . Read More

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Dual-axis Volta phase plate cryo-electron tomography of Ebola virus-like particles reveals actin-VP40 interactions.

J Struct Biol 2021 May 7:107742. Epub 2021 May 7.

Schaller Research Groups, Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Research Group "Membrane Biology of Viral Infection", Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a pivotal imaging technique for studying the structure of pleomorphic enveloped viruses and their interactions with the host at native conditions. Owing to the limited tilting range of samples with a slab geometry, electron tomograms suffer from so-called missing wedge information in Fourier space. In dual-axis cryo-ET, two tomograms reconstructed from orthogonally oriented tilt series are combined into a tomogram with improved resolution as the missing wedge information is reduced to a pyramid. Read More

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Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. Read More

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Barriers to initiation of hepatitis C virus therapy in Germany: A retrospective, case-controlled study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250833. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Despite the availability of highly effective and well-tolerated direct-acting antivirals, not all patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receive treatment. This retrospective, multi-centre, noninterventional, case-control study identified patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection initiating (control) or not initiating (case) treatment at 43 sites in Germany from September 2017 to June 2018. It aimed to compare characteristics of the two patient populations and to identify factors involved in patient/physician decision to initiate/not initiate chronic hepatitis C virus treatment, with a particular focus on historical barriers. Read More

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Improving the continuum of care monitoring in Brazilian HIV healthcare services: An implementation science approach.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250060. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of an intervention improving the continuum of care monitoring (CCM) within HIV public healthcare services in São Paulo, Brazil, and implementing a clinical monitoring system. This system identified three patient groups prioritized for additional care engagement: (1) individuals diagnosed with HIV, but not receiving treatment (the treatment gap group); (2) individuals receiving treatment for >6 months with a detectable viral load (the virologic failure group); and (3) patients lost to follow-up (LTFU).

Methods: The implementation strategies included three training sessions, covering system logistics, case discussions, and development of maintenance goals. Read More

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A study of innate immune kinetics reveals a role for a chloride transporter in a virulent Francisella tularensis type B strain.

Microbiologyopen 2021 Feb;10(2):e1170

The Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Tularemia is a zoonotic disease of global proportions. Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis (type A) and holarctica (type B) cause disease in healthy humans, with type A infections resulting in higher mortality. Repeated passage of a type B strain in the mid-20th century generated the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS). Read More

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February 2021

Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2020 Aug 7;3(8):8037-8051. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, UC San Diego Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California 92093, United States.

The solid tumor microenvironment (TME) poses a significant structural and biochemical barrier to immunotherapeutic agents. To address the limitations of tumor penetration and distribution, and to enhance antitumor efficacy of immunotherapeutics, we present here an autonomous active microneedle (MN) system for the direct intratumoral (IT) delivery of a potent immunoadjuvant, cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles (CPMV) . In this active delivery system, magnesium (Mg) microparticles embedded into active MNs react with the interstitial fluid in the TME, generating a propulsive force to drive the nanoparticle payload into the tumor. Read More

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The Packaging Regions of G1-Like PB2 Gene Contribute to Improving the Survival Advantage of Genotype S H9N2 Virus in China.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:655057. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Animal Infectious Disease Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The genotype S (G57) H9N2 virus, which first emerged in 2007 with the substitution of the G1-like PB2 gene for F98-like ones, has become the predominant genotype in the past 10 years. However, whether this substitution plays a role in the fitness of genotype S H9N2 viruses remains unknown. Comparison of the PB2 genes of F98-like and G1-like viruses revealed a close homology in amino acid sequences but great variations at nucleotide levels. Read More

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Effects of iTBS-rTMS on the Behavioral Phenotype of a Rat Model of Maternal Immune Activation.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 21;15:670699. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurophysiology, Medical Faculty, Ruhr-University, Bochum, Germany.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered a promising therapeutic tool for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. Previously, we found intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) rTMS to be most effective in modulating cortical excitation-inhibition balance in rats, accompanied by improved cortical sensory processing and sensory learning performance. Using an animal schizophrenia model based on maternal immune activation (MIA) we tested if iTBS applied to either adult or juvenile rats can affect the behavioral phenotype in a therapeutic or preventive manner, respectively. Read More

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[Successful treatment with cidofovir for disseminated adenovirus infection accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome and meningitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(4):251-256

Department of Hematology, Oita University Hospital.

A 65-year-old woman received bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-DRB1 one locus mismatched donor for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. On day 237 after transplantation, she developed recurrent acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease and adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis. Hence, the methylprednisolone (mPSL) dose was increased to 2 mg/kg, and mesenchymal stem cells were administered. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 spike protein stabilized in the closed state induces potent neutralizing responses.

J Virol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The majority of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in use or advanced development are based on the viral spike protein (S) as their immunogen. S is present on virions as pre-fusion trimers in which the receptor binding domain (RBD) is stochastically open or closed. Neutralizing antibodies have been described against both open and closed conformations. Read More

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Prediction of Photolysis Kinetics of Viral Genomes under UV Irradiation to Estimate Virus Infectivity Loss.

Water Res 2021 Apr 21;198:117165. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

UV irradiation disinfection is a commonly used method to inactivate pathogenic viruses in water and wastewater treatment. Model prediction method can serve as a pre-screening tool to quickly estimate the effectiveness of UV irradiation on emerging or unculturable viruses. In this study, an improved prediction model was applied to estimate UV photolysis kinetics of viral genomes (k) based on the genome sequences and their photoreactivity and to correlate with the experimental virus infectivity loss kinetics (k). Read More

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Global burden of acute viral hepatitis and its association with socioeconomic development status, 1990-2019.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Hepatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; Hepatology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) represents an important global health problem; however, the progress in understanding AVH is limited because of the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus infections. Therefore, an improved understanding of the burden of AVH is required to help design strategies for global intervention.

Methods: Data of four major AVH types, including acute hepatitis A (AHA), AHB, AHC, and AHE, excluding AHD, were collected by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 database. Read More

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Maintenance of neutralizing antibodies over ten months in convalescent SARS-CoV-2 afflicted patients.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Dr. Gernot Walder GmbH, Medical Laboratory, Department of Virology, 9931, Ausservillgraten 30, Austria.

Knowledge of the level and duration of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after primary infection is of crucial importance for preventive approaches. Currently, there is a lack of evidence on the persistence of specific antibodies. We investigated the generation and maintenance of neutralizing antibodies of convalescent SARS-CoV-2-afflicted patients over a ten-month period post-primary infection using an immunofluorescence assay, a commercial chemiluminescent immunoassay, and an in-house enzyme-linked neutralization assay. Read More

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Spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B virus with a frameshift mutation in the precore region in an elderly hepatitis B virus carrier with lifestyle-related diseases.

Clin J Gastroenterol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Virology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.

A 76-year-old woman with spontaneous reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) without any immunosuppressants who had been successfully treated with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) was reported. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of acute exacerbation of the liver function and jaundice. She had been found to have chronic HBV infection with a normal liver function and had been treated for lifestyle-related diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension, for over 10 years at a local clinic. Read More

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Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and tissue resident memory cells in colorectal cancer based on microsatellite instability and BRAF status.

World J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr;12(4):238-248

Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2000, NSW, Australia.

Background: Recent studies in non-colorectal malignancy have associated T resident memory (T) cells with improved patient survival. It is unknown if T plays a role in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Aim: To examine the potential role of T cells in providing immunogenicity in CRC stratified by microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF status. Read More

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Third Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to COVID-19 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e14280. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Neurology, Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to be primarily a viral infection affecting the pulmonary system leading to severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. COVID-19 has also been found to affect the neurological system causing various nerve palsies. While some studies have suggested these neurological manifestations may indicate severe disease, cranial nerve palsies in the setting of COVID-19 infection have been linked to improved patient outcomes and mild viral symptoms. Read More

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Blood Purification Techniques, Inflammatory Mediators and Mortality in COVID-19 Patients.

Tanaffos 2020 Dec;19(4):291-299

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19.

Materials And Methods: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Read More

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December 2020

Assessment of trade-offs between feed efficiency, growth-related traits, and immune activity in experimental lines of layer chickens.

Genet Sel Evol 2021 May 6;53(1):44. Epub 2021 May 6.

INRAE, UMR 1282, ISP, Université de Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France.

Background: In all organisms, life-history traits are constrained by trade-offs, which may represent physiological limitations or be related to energy resource management. To detect trade-offs within a population, one promising approach is the use of artificial selection, because intensive selection on one trait can induce unplanned changes in others. In chickens, the breeding industry has achieved remarkable genetic progress in production and feed efficiency over the last 60 years. Read More

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Formulation Development and Improved Stability of a Combination Measles and Rubella Live-Viral Vaccine Dried for Use in the Nanopatch Microneedle Delivery System.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 6:1-16. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vaccine Analytics and Formulation Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Measles (Me) and rubella (Ru) viral diseases are targeted for elimination by ensuring a high level of vaccination coverage worldwide. Less costly, more convenient MeRu vaccine delivery systems should improve global vaccine coverage, especially in low - and middle - income countries (LMICs). In this work, we examine formulating a live, attenuated Me and Ru combination viral vaccine with Nanopatch™, a solid polymer micro-projection array for intradermal delivery. Read More

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Machine learning techniques applied to the drug design and discovery of new antivirals: a brief look over the past decade.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 May 7:1-15. Epub 2021 May 7.

Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil.

: Drug design and discovery of new antivirals will always be extremely important in medicinal chemistry, taking into account known and new viral diseases that are yet to come. Although machine learning (ML) have shown to improve predictions on the biological potential of chemicals and accelerate the discovery of drugs over the past decade, new methods and their combinations have improved their performance and established promising perspectives regarding ML in the search for new antivirals.: The authors consider some interesting areas that deal with different ML techniques applied to antivirals. Read More

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Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen: From Virology to Clinical Application.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a composite measure of the serum levels of hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B core antigen, and a 22-kDa precore protein. It has been shown to reflect the level and transcriptional activity of covalently closed circular DNA in the liver. Longitudinal cohort studies have improved our understanding of the role of this novel viral marker in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. Read More

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Viral hepatitis in haemophilia: historical perspective and current management.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Sheffield Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

The introduction of clotting factor concentrates has substantially improved the lives of people with clotting factor deficiencies. Unfortunately, the transmission of blood-borne viral infections through these plasma-derived products led to a huge epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in people with haemophilia (PWH). In a significant proportion of PWH exposed to these viruses, the ensuing decades-long chronic infection resulted in excess morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Persistent Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Myocarditis Detected Months After COVID-19 Infection.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14250. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology, McLaren Health Care, Flint/Michigan State University, Flint, USA.

Acute myocarditis is commonly caused by viral infections resulting from viruses such as adenovirus, enteroviruses, and, rarely, coronavirus. It presents with nonspecific symptoms like chest pain, dyspnea, palpitation, or arrhythmias and can progress to dilated cardiomyopathy or heart failure. Fulminant myocarditis is a potentially life-threatening form of the condition and presents as acute, severe heart failure with cardiogenic shock. Read More

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