7,954 results match your criteria implicit explicit


Effects of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity on implicit and explicit facial emotion recognition in healthy young men.

Stress 2021 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany.

The ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions is crucial for social interaction. Only few studies have examined the effect of stress hormones on facial emotion recognition, although stressful events affect social interactions on a daily basis. Those studies that examined facial emotion recognition mostly used explicit prompts to trigger consciously controlled processing. Read More

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Dental care - an emotional and physical challenge for the sexually abused.

Eur J Oral Sci 2020 Aug;128(4):317-324

Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The aim was to explicate persistent psychological and bodily memories of sexual abuse and how they are expressed during dental appointments. The participants comprised 13 sexually abused individuals (11 women), who recalled and expressed these experiences during a dental appointment. They were encouraged to describe, in detail, aspects of the appointment which triggered memories of the sexual abuse. Read More

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Types and Timing of Teaching During Clinical Shifts in an Academic Emergency Department.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 29;22(2):301-307. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives: Academic emergency physicians must find ways to teach residents, medical students, and advanced practice providers amidst the myriad demands on their time during clinical shifts. In this study, we sought to characterize in detail what types of teaching occurred, how often they occurred, and how attending teaching styles differed at one academic emergency department (ED).

Methods: We conducted this observational study in a large, urban, quaternary care, academic Level I trauma center with an emergency medicine (EM) residency. Read More

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January 2021

International Validation of the Turkish Inappropriate Medication Use in the Elderly (TIME) Criteria Set: A Delphi Panel Study.

Drugs Aging 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Section of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine and Paediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: Explicit screening tools and implicit evaluation methods have been developed to assist healthcare professionals in the management of pharmacotherapy in older adults. As prescribing habits and locally available medications vary considerably between countries, guides tailored to the needs of specific regions may be required. We aimed to report the results of the international Delphi validation study for the Turkish Inappropriate Medication use in the Elderly (TIME) criteria set, which aims to detect inappropriate prescribing in older adults in Eastern Europe. Read More

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Conformational Shifts of Stacked Heteroaromatics: Vacuum vs. Water Studied by Machine Learning.

Front Chem 2021 26;9:641610. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center of Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck, Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Stacking interactions play a crucial role in drug design, as we can find aromatic cores or scaffolds in almost any available small molecule drug. To predict optimal binding geometries and enhance stacking interactions, usually high-level quantum mechanical calculations are performed. These calculations have two major drawbacks: they are very time consuming, and solvation can only be considered using implicit solvation. Read More

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Enhancing mental health awareness in emergency services (the ENHANcE I project): cross-sectional survey on mental health stigma among emergency services staff.

BJPsych Open 2021 Apr 12;7(3):e77. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Research & Development Department, Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, UK; and School of Psychology, University of Sussex, UK.

Background: The number of mental health-related 999 calls to emergency services has increased in recent years. However, emergency services staff have an unfavourable reputation when it comes to supporting people experiencing mental health problems.

Aims: To assess the levels of explicit and implicit mental health stigma among accident and emergency, ambulance and police staff, and draw comparisons with the general population. Read More

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Detecting and Reporting Deceptive Prescription Drug Promotion: Differences Across Consumer and Physician Audiences and by Number and Type of Deceptive Claims and Tactics.

Health Commun 2021 Apr 12:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

RTI International, Center for Communication Science.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Bad Ad program provides an avenue for healthcare providers to report false or misleading prescription drug promotion. Read More

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Impaired intrinsic functional connectivity among medial temporal lobe and sub-regions related to memory deficits in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala, 695011, India.

Purpose: The functional changes concerning memory deficits in dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) brain are inadequately understood. This study aimed to understand the functional connectivity alterations of brain regions widely affirmed for explicit and implicit memory functions in dAVF patients (DP) and look into the frequency effects of the altered functional networks.

Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) analysis was done in the memory-associated regions of 30 DP and 30 healthy controls (HC). Read More

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The Role of Worldview in Moral Case Deliberation: Visions and Experiences of Group Facilitators.

J Relig Health 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Religion and Theology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study investigates the role of worldview in moral case deliberation (MCD). MCD is a form of clinical ethics support which aims to assist caregivers in reflection on moral dilemmas, experienced in daily practice. Bioethicists acknowledge that existential and religious aspects must be taken into account in the analysis of ethical questions, but it remains unclear how these elements are addressed in clinical ethics support. Read More

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I am what I am: A meta-analysis of the association between substance user identities and substance use-related outcomes.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Use, & Addictions.

Objective: Research indicates that a substance user identity (i.e., drinking, smoking, and marijuana identity) is positively correlated with substance use-related outcomes (e. Read More

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Modeling Complex Solvent Effects on the Optical Rotation of Chiral Molecules: A Combined Molecular Dynamics and Density Functional Theory Study.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

The challenge of assigning the absolute stereochemical configuration to a chiral compound can be overcome accurate ab initio predictions of optical rotation, a sensitive molecular property that is further complicated by solvent effects. The solvent's "chiral imprint"-the transfer of the chirality from the solute to the surrounding achiral solvent-is explored here using conformational averaging and time-dependent density-functional theory. These complex solvent effects are taken into account simple averaging over a molecular dynamics trajectory together with the explicit quantum mechanical consideration of the solvent molecules within the solute's cybotactic region and implicit modeling of the bulk solvent. Read More

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Evidence That Habit Moderates the Implicit Belief-Behavior Relationship in Health Behaviors.

Int J Behav Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Health and Psychology Innovations (HaPI) Laboratory, School of Applied Psychology, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, 176 Messines Ridge Road, Mt Gravatt, Brisbane, QLD, 4122, Australia.

Background: Theory suggests that implicit beliefs are more likely to be associated with spontaneous, impulsive health behaviors (e.g., smoking, snacking), while controlled, consciously accessible beliefs are more likely to be associated with behaviors that require deliberation and reasoned decision-making (e. Read More

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Neural responses to implicit forms of peer influence in young adults.

Soc Neurosci 2021 Apr 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Human Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Young adults are acutely sensitive to peer influences. Differences have been found in neural sensitivity to peer influences, such as seeing peer ratings on social media. The present study aimed to identify patterns of neural sensitivity to peer influences, which involve more subtle cues that shape preferences and behaviors. Read More

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Wakeful rest during storage and consolidation enhances priming effects for those with acquired memory impairment.

Memory 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Centre for Applied Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

A period of rest after learning results in better explicit memory for the material than a period of unrelated mental activity. This study investigated whether the same applies to priming. Thirty-four people with memory impairments due to acquired brain injury took part. Read More

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Potentiated perceptual neural responses to learned threat during Pavlovian fear acquisition and extinction in adolescents.

Dev Sci 2021 Apr 4:e13107. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Adolescents' experience of heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders is believed to partly result from blunted fear extinction processes. However, whether this anxiety is mediated by adolescent-specific differences in perceptual responses to learned threat is not known. To investigate this, we used EEG to examine reinforcement-dependent changes in early visual event-related potentials in adolescents (N = 28, 13-14 years) and adults (N = 23, 25-26 years old) during a differential Pavlovian fear conditioning task, with one conditioned stimulus (CS+) paired with an aversive sound (unconditioned stimulus [US]) on 50% of trials, and another (CS-) never paired with the US. Read More

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Definition and Measurement of Physical and Chemical Restraint in Long-Term Care: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 31;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Primary and Allied Health Care & National Centre for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Moorooduc Highway, Frankston, VIC 3199, Australia.

This systematic review aimed to identify thematic elements within definitions of physical and chemical restraint, compare explicit and implicit definitions, and synthesize reliability and validity of studies examining physical and/or chemical restraint use in long-term care. Studies were included that measured prevalence of physical and/or chemical restraint use, or evaluated an intervention to reduce restraint use in long-term care. 86 papers were included in this review, all discussed physical restraint use and 20 also discussed chemical restraint use. Read More

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Quantum Chemical Microsolvation by Automated Water Placement.

Molecules 2021 Mar 23;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80-82, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

We developed a quantitative approach to quantum chemical microsolvation. Key in our methodology is the automatic placement of individual solvent molecules based on the free energy solvation thermodynamics derived from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and grid inhomogeneous solvation theory (GIST). This protocol enabled us to rigorously define the number, position, and orientation of individual solvent molecules and to determine their interaction with the solute based on physical quantities. Read More

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Packet Flow Based Reinforcement Learning MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 24;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Electronic Engineering, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.

Medium access control (MAC) is one of the key requirements in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). For a MAC protocol to provide its basic function of efficient sharing of channel access, the highly dynamic underwater environment demands MAC protocols to be adaptive as well. Q-learning is one of the promising techniques employed in intelligent MAC protocol solutions, however, due to the long propagation delay, the performance of this approach is severely limited by reliance on an explicit reward signal to function. Read More

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Interleaved practice benefits implicit sequence learning and transfer.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Compared to blocked practice, interleaved practice of different tasks leads to superior long-term retention despite poorer initial acquisition performance. This phenomenon, the contextual interference effect, is well documented in various domains but it is not yet clear if it persists in the absence of explicit knowledge in terms of fine motor sequence learning. Additionally, while there is some evidence that interleaved practice leads to improved transfer of learning to similar actions, transfer of implicit motor sequence learning has not been explored. Read More

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Deep learning for label-free nuclei detection from implicit phase information of mesenchymal stem cells.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Mar 1;12(3):1683-1706. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Biological and Medical Engineering, School of Engineering, Medicine and Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Cátolica de Chile, Vicuña Makenna 4860, Macul, Santiago, Chile.

Monitoring of adherent cells in culture is routinely performed in biological and clinical laboratories, and it is crucial for large-scale manufacturing of cells needed in cell-based clinical trials and therapies. However, the lack of reliable and easily implementable label-free techniques makes this task laborious and prone to human subjectivity. We present a deep-learning-based processing pipeline that locates and characterizes mesenchymal stem cell nuclei from a few bright-field images captured at various levels of defocus under collimated illumination. Read More

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Implicit bias in healthcare: clinical practice, research and decision making.

Future Healthc J 2021 Mar;8(1):40-48

Royal Centre of Defence Medicine, Edgbaston, UK.

Bias is the evaluation of something or someone that can be positive or negative, and implicit or unconscious bias is when the person is unaware of their evaluation. This is particularly relevant to policymaking during the coronavirus pandemic and racial inequality highlighted during the support for the Black Lives Matter movement. A literature review was performed to define bias, identify the impact of bias on clinical practice and research as well as clinical decision making (cognitive bias). Read More

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Self-Schemas and Self-Esteem Discrepancies in Subclinical Paranoia: The Essential Role of Depressive Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 15;12:623755. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Departament de Psicologia Clínica i de la Salut, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Self-concepts are being intensively investigated in relation to paranoia, but research has shown some contradictory findings. Studying subclinical phenomena in a non-clinical population should allow for a clearer understanding given that clinical confounding factors are avoided. We explored self-esteem, self-schemas, and implicit/explicit self-esteem discrepancies in three non-clinical groups with different psychopathological traits and a control group. Read More

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Recovery preparedness of global air transport influenced by COVID-19 pandemic: Policy intervention analysis.

Transp Policy (Oxf) 2021 Jun 26;106:54-63. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute for Transport Planning and Systems, ETH Zürich, Zürich, 8093, Switzerland.

The outbreak of COVID-19 constitutes an unprecedented disruption globally, in which risk management framework is on top priority in many countries. Travel restriction and home/office quarantine are some frequently utilized non-pharmaceutical interventions, which bring the worst crisis of airline industry compared with other transport modes. Therefore, the post-recovery of global air transport is extremely important, which is full of uncertainty but rare to be studied. Read More

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Making Nature Explicit in Children's Drawings of Wellbeing and Happy Spaces.

Child Indic Res 2021 Mar 24:1-23. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine & Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Previous research on children's wellbeing indicators has focused extensively on adults', rather than children's perspectives, despite there being a broad consensus that children's conceptualisations differ significantly from adults'. In response, this study aimed to explore what constitutes children's wellbeing through their drawings and discussions. Ninety-one seven and eight-year old children from two primary schools in areas of relatively high deprivation in eastern England participated in this study. Read More

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Relations between implicit attitudes towards eating disorder stimuli and disordered eating symptoms among at-risk college women.

Eat Behav 2021 Mar 19;41:101499. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Miami University, Department of Psychology, United States of America. Electronic address:

This study examined implicit attitudes towards different eating disorder (ED) relevant stimuli- emaciation, hard-exercise, the self, and eating related stimuli-and their relationship with explicit ED symptoms in two symptomatic samples of college-aged women. Study 1 found that positive implicit attitudes towards eating and self-relevant images were associated with greater state body image satisfaction and self-esteem and with less ED-related intentions. Study 2 found that positive implicit attitudes towards eating and self-relevant images were associated with less trait global ED psychopathology and distress and greater self-esteem. Read More

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A dual adaptive explicit time integration algorithm for efficiently solving the cardiac monodomain equation.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2021 Mar 29:e3461. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Aragón Institute of Engineering Research, IIS Aragón, , University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.

The monodomain model is widely used in in-silico cardiology to describe excitation propagation in the myocardium. Frequently, operator splitting is used to decouple the stiff reaction term and the diffusion term in the monodomain model so that they can be solved separately. Commonly, the diffusion term is solved implicitly with a large time step while the reaction term is solved by using an explicit method with adaptive time stepping. Read More

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Psychometric Properties of Two Implicit Associations Tests measuring Adult Attachment.

Psychol Belg 2021 Mar 16;61(1):88-103. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Psychology, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

Adult attachment style has consequences for mental health, interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation. This occurs partly deliberately, also referred to as explicit, and partly on an automatic level outside of conscious awareness, also referred to as implicit. Whereas explicit adult attachment can be assessed with self-report instruments, measurement of implicit adult attachment requires indirect methods. Read More

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Computer-delivered behavioural activation and approach-avoidance training in major depression: Proof of concept and initial outcomes.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have problems with engaging in approach behaviour to potentially rewarding encounters, which contributes to the maintenance of depressive symptoms. Approach-avoidance training (AAT) retrains implicit approach tendencies, and behavioural activation (BA) promotes explicit approach behaviour in MDD. As a novel MDD treatment strategy, this study aimed to implement a brief, computerized version of BA integrated with implicit AAT. Read More

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Implicit Solvents for the Polarizable Atomic Multipole AMOEBA Force Field.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Apr 26;17(4):2323-2341. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Roy J Carver Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, United States.

Computational protein design, ab initio protein/RNA folding, and protein-ligand screening can be too computationally demanding for explicit treatment of solvent. For these applications, implicit solvent offers a compelling alternative, which we describe here for the polarizable atomic multipole AMOEBA force field based on three treatments of continuum electrostatics: numerical solutions to the nonlinear and linearized versions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), the domain-decomposition conductor-like screening model (ddCOSMO) approximation to the PBE, and the analytic generalized Kirkwood (GK) approximation. The continuum electrostatics models are combined with a nonpolar estimator based on novel cavitation and dispersion terms. Read More

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