27,699 results match your criteria impaired insulin

Late diagnosis of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia: long-term consequences during adulthood.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 May 1;2021. Epub 2021 May 1.

Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Department, Coimbra Hospital and University Center, Coimbra, Portugal.

Summary: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders related to enzyme deficiencies in the adrenal steroidogenesis pathway leading to impaired corticosteroid biosynthesis. Depending on the extension of enzyme defect, there may be variable severities of CAH - classic and non-classic. We report the case of a 37-year-old male patient with a previously unknown diagnosis of classic CAH referred to Endocrinology evaluation due to class III obesity and insulin resistance. Read More

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Islet Autoimmunity in Adults With Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Recently Diagnosed, Treatment Naïve Type 2 Diabetes in the Restoring Insulin SEcretion (RISE) Study.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:640251. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

The presence of islet autoantibodies and islet reactive T cells (T+) in adults with established type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been shown to identify those patients with more severe β-cell dysfunction. However, at what stage in the progression toward clinical T2D does islet autoimmunity emerge as an important component influencing β-cell dysfunction? In this ancillary study to the Restoring Insulin SEcretion (RISE) Study, we investigated the prevalence of and association with β-cell dysfunction of T+ and autoantibodies to the 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase antigen (GADA) in obese pre-diabetes adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and recently diagnosed treatment naïve (Ndx) T2D. We further investigated the effect of 12 months of RISE interventions (metformin or liraglutide plus metformin, or with 3 months of insulin glargine followed by 9 months of metformin or placebo) on islet autoimmune reactivity. Read More

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CBP/p300 HAT maintains the gene network critical for β cell identity and functional maturity.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 12;12(5):476. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Loss of β cell identity and functional immaturity are thought to be involved in β cell failure in type 2 diabetes. CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralogue p300 act as multifunctional transcriptional co-activators and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) with extensive biological functions. However, whether the regulatory role of CBP/p300 in islet β cell function depends on the HAT activity remains uncertain. Read More

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Free triiodothyronine /free thyroxine ratio as an index of deiodinase type 1 and 2 activities negatively correlates with casual serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Endocr J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Hoshi-iin, Maebashi, Gunma 379-2131, Japan.

Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4) ratio is considered as an index of the activities of iodothyronine deiodinase types 1 and 2 (DIO1 and DIO2, respectively) and is reportedly associated with insulin resistance in euthyroid adults. Euthyroid women with polycystic ovary syndrome accompanied with insulin resistance have lesser deiodinase activities. Correspondingly, the serum insulin level in a fasted condition positively correlates with the FT3/FT4 ratio, and insulin depletion decreases the DIO2 activity in mice. Read More

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Lack of brain insulin receptor substrate-1 causes growth retardation, with decreased expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus.

Diabetes 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan

Insulin receptor substrate-1 (Irs1) is one of the major substrates for insulin receptor and Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor tyrosine kinases. Systemic Irs1-deficient mice show growth retardation, with resistance to insulin and IGF-1, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. For this study, we generated mice with brain-specific deletion of Irs1 (NIrs1KO mice). Read More

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Nuclear factor Y in male mouse pancreatic β-cells plays a crucial role in glucose homeostasis by regulating β-cell mass and insulin secretion.

Diabetes 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Molecular Medicine Research Center and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China;

Pancreatic β-cell mass and insulin secretion are determined by the dynamic change of transcription factor expression levels in response to altered metabolic demand. Nuclear factor-Y (Nf-y) is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor playing critical roles in multiple cellular processes. However, the physiological role of Nf-y in pancreatic β-cells is poorly understood. Read More

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Galectin-1 impacts on glucose homeostasis by modulating pancreatic insulin release.

Glycobiology 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo Nacional de investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, involving defective insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells and peripheral insulin resistance, leading to impaired glucose regulation. Galectin-1, an endogenous lectin with affinity for N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc)-containing glycans, has emerged as a regulator of inflammatory and metabolic disorders. However, the role of galectin-1 in glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β-cell function, independently of hypercaloric diets, has not been explored. Read More

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Preserved glycemic control and baroreflex efficacy in young adult hypertensive female obese Zucker rats.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Physiology and Anatomy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, United Statesgrid.266871.c.

Obese Zucker rats (OZRs) develop hypertension and hyperinsulinemia by 3 months of age. Male OZRs also have diminished baroreflex-mediated activation of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and bradycardia, which are improved by correcting their hyperglycemia. Conversely, 3-month-old female OZRs and lean Zucker rats (LZRs) have equivalent baroreflex-mediated bradycardia that is impaired in 6-month-old OZRs. Read More

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Skeletal Response to Insulin in the Naturally Occurring Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Mouse Model.

JBMR Plus 2021 May 17;5(5):e10483. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

David B. Kriser Dental Center, Department of Molecular Pathobiology New York University College of Dentistry New York New York NY USA.

Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit reduced BMD and significant increases in fracture risk. Changes in BMD are attributed to blunted osteoblast activity and inhibited bone remodeling, but these cannot fully explain the impaired bone integrity in T1DM. The goal of this study was to determine the cellular mechanisms that contribute to impaired bone morphology and composition in T1DM. Read More

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Brexpiprazole caused glycolipid metabolic disorder by inhibiting GLP1/GLP1R signaling in rats.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Brexpiprazole (Bre) is a new multi-target antipsychotic drug (APD) approved by the US FDA in 2015, and shows good therapeutic potential. But it lacks assessments on the metabolic side effects, which obstructs the treatment of schizophrenia. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), an incretin associated with insulin action and metabolism, is involved in the metabolic syndrome (MS) caused by most APDs. Read More

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Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could improve diabetic intracavernosal pressure.

Asian J Androl 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Urology, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai 200080, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete various cytokines with angiogenic and neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (hWJ-MSCs) on diabetes-related intracavernosal pressure (ICP) impairment in rats. hWJ-MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly and transplanted into the corpus cavernosum of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by unilateral injection. Read More

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NMDA receptor inhibition increases, synchronizes, and stabilizes the collective pancreatic beta cell activity: Insights through multilayer network analysis.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 11;17(5):e1009002. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia.

NMDA receptors promote repolarization in pancreatic beta cells and thereby reduce glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a potential therapeutic target for diabetes. While the mechanism of NMDA receptor inhibition in beta cells is rather well understood at the molecular level, its possible effects on the collective cellular activity have not been addressed to date, even though proper insulin secretion patterns result from well-synchronized beta cell behavior. Read More

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Repetitiveness of the oral glucose tolerance test in children and adolescents.

World J Clin Pediatr 2021 May 9;10(3):29-39. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Paediatrics, University of Patras School of Medicine, Patras 26504, Greece.

Background: Data regarding the most suitable diagnostic method for the diagnosis of glucose impairment in asymptomatic children and adolescents are inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available on the reproducibility of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in children and adolescents who are obese (OB).

Aim: To investigate the usefulness of the OGTT as a screening method for glucose dysregulation in children and adolescents. Read More

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Can Myogenic Tone Protect Endothelial Function? Integrating Myogenic Activation and Dilator Reactivity for Cerebral Resistance Arteries in Metabolic Disease.

J Vasc Res 2021 May 10:1-15. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Medical Biophysics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

The obese Zucker rat (OZR) manifests multiple risk factors for impaired cerebrovascular function, including hypertension and insulin resistance although how they combine to produce integrated vascular function is unclear. As studies have suggested that myogenic activation (MA) severity for middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) may be proportional to hypertension severity, we hypothesized that MA will negatively correlate with dilator reactivity in OZR. MA of MCA from OZR was divided into low, medium, and high based on the slope of MA, while MCA reactivity and vascular metabolite bioavailability were assessed in all groups. Read More

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Early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in subjects with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Endocr Connect 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Q Lu, Department of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate early arteriosclerosis and its risk factors in populations with prediabetes and new-onset diabetes.

Materials And Methods: A total of 148 participants who did not have diabetes mellitus were assigned to three groups through an oral glucose tolerance test: the normal glucose tolerance group; the impaired glucose regulation, also known as prediabetes, group; and the new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The insulin resistance index was assessed using the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance. Read More

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Polycystic ovary syndrome: Pathways and mechanisms for possible increased susceptibility to COVID-19.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(12):2711-2720

Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius LT-03101, Lithuania.

In 75% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin action is impaired. In obesity, visceral adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional: Chronic inflammation is favored over storage, contributing to the development of metabolic complications. PCOS, metabolic syndrome (MetSy) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) apparently share common pathogenic factors; these include abdominal adiposity, excess body weight and insulin resistance. Read More

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Pathological Hyperinsulinemia and Hyperglycemia in the Impaired Glucose Tolerance Stage Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction Through miR-21, PTEN/AKT/eNOS, and MARK/ET-1 Pathways.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:644159. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

NHC Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Disease, Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is an important prediabetic stage characterized by elevated concentrations of glucose and insulin in the blood. The pathological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in IGT may regulate the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and affect the downstream insulin signaling pathways, leading to endothelial cell dysfunction and early renal damage.

Methods: The individual and combined effects of insulin and glucose were investigated using human glomerular endothelial cells (HGECs). Read More

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Impact of the exposome on the development and function of pancreatic β-cells.

David J Hill

Mol Aspects Med 2021 May 5:100965. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Lawson Health Research Institute, St Joseph Health Care, 268 Grosvenor St, London, ON, N6A 4V2, Canada. Electronic address:

The development and plasticity of the endocrine pancreas responds to both the intrauterine and postnatal exposome in a constant attempt to predict and respond to alterations in nutritional availability and metabolic requirements. Both under- and over-nutrition in utero, or exposure to adverse environmental pollutants or maternal behaviors, can each lead to altered β-cell or function at birth, and a subsequent mismatch in pancreatic hormonal demands and secretory capacity postnatally. This can be further exacerbated by metabolic stress postnatally such as from obesity or pregnancy, resulting in an increased risk of gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and even type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Nonfunctional adrenal adenomas and impaired glucose metabolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocrine 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

First Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Laiko Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: Evidence on nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma's (NFAI) associated comorbidities and in particular, glucose disorders, is unclear in contrast to adrenal tumors with mild autonomous cortisol secretion. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the burden of impaired glucose metabolism including diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and fasting blood insulin (FBI) levels in patients with NFAI and 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ODST) ≤ 1.8 μg/dl across published studies. Read More

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Pulse wave velocity is decreased in acromegaly compared to non-acromegaly study participants with similar cardiovascular risk profile.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Apr 29;57-58:101395. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Ulica Akkuratova 2, St. Petersburg 197341, Russia.

Objective: Acromegaly patients were reported to have an increased arterial stiffness that could contribute to the frequent cardiovascular complications in this population. The chronic excess of GH and IGF-1 may lead to arterial stiffening via different mechanisms, including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, however, it is not known whether the activation of GH/IGF-1 axis might influence arterial stiffening independently of cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this prospective case-control study was to compare arterial stiffness assessed with pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in acromegaly versus non-acromegaly group with similar cardiovascular risk profile. Read More

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Metformin perturbs pancreatic differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

Diabetes 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Stem Cells and Diabetes Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IMCB), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138673, Singapore

Metformin is becoming a popular treatment before and during pregnancy but current literature on exposure to metformin lacks long-term clinical trials and mechanistic studies. Current literature on the effects of metformin on mature pancreatic β cells highlighted its dual, opposing, protective or inhibitory, effects depending on metabolic environments. However, the impact of metformin on developing human pancreatic β cells remains unknown. Read More

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Caffeic acid protects mice pancreatic islets from oxidative stress induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(1):77-85. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Student Research Committee, Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Increasing applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) indicate the necessity to examine their toxicity. According to previous studies, CNTs caused oxidative stress that impaired β-cell functions and reduced insulin secretion. Our previous study indicated that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) could induce oxidative stress in pancreatic islets. Read More

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Uterine Insulin Sensitivity Defects Induced Embryo Implantation Loss Associated with Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Triggered Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 12;2021:6655685. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Methods And Results: Herein, a comprehensive proteomic analysis was conducted on proliferative endometria from sows with low and normal reproductive performance (LRP and NRP, respectively). Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed proteins revealed alterations in endometrial remodeling, substance metabolism (mainly lipid, nitrogen, and retinol metabolism), immunological modulation, and insulin signaling in LRP sows. Importantly, aberrant lipid metabolite accumulation and dysregulation of insulin signaling were coincidently confirmed in endometria of LPR sows, proving an impaired insulin sensitivity. Read More

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Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Metabolism among 10- to 17-Year-Old Overweight and Obese Lithuanian Children and Adolescents.

Obes Facts 2021 May 5:1-12. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Endocrinology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: Overweight (Ow) and obesity among adults and children increases the risk of metabolic consequences. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and impaired glucose metabolism are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS and impaired glucose metabolism among Ow and obese (Ob) children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) in Lithuania, and to evaluate the associations between insulin resistance (IR) indices and anthropometric parameters as well as metabolic disturbances. Read More

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Comparison of islet cell function, insulin sensitivity, and incretin axis between Asian-Indians with either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance, and normal healthy controls.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 May 2:108846. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Endocrinology, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, India.

Aims: The objective of this study was to compare the islet cell function, insulin sensitivity, and incretin axis between Asian-Indians subjects with either impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT).

Materials And Methods: Prediabetes subjects underwent a mixed meal tolerance test after overnight fasting. Samples for glucose, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes. Read More

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Too much of a good thing: Excess exercise can harm mitochondria.

Cell Metab 2021 May;33(5):847-848

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Health benefits of aerobic exercise are indisputable and are closely related to the maintenance of mitochondrial energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Flockhart et al. (2021) demonstrate, however, that a high volume of high-intensity aerobic exercise adversely affects mitochondrial function and may cause impaired glucose tolerance. Read More

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Glucose-lowering action through targeting islet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes - focus on DPP-4 inhibition.

Bo Ahrén

J Diabetes Investig 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund university, Lund, Sweden.

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition is a glucose-lowering medication for type 2 diabetes. It works through stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, resulting in lowered fasting and postprandial glycemia with low risk of hypoglycemia. Since impaired insulin secretion and augmented glucagon secretion are key factors underlying hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, DPP-4 inhibition represents a therapy that targets the underlying mechanisms of the disease. Read More

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Hemoglobin A1c Is a Predictor of New Insulin Dependence After Partial Pancreatectomy: A Multi-Institutional Analysis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, 395 W. 12th Avenue, Suite 670, Columbus, OH, 43210-1267, USA.

Background: Pancreatic diseases have long been associated with impaired glucose control. This study sought to identify the incidence of new insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) after pancreatectomy and the predictive accuracy of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or blood glucose.

Methods: Patients who underwent partial pancreatectomy and had preoperative HbA1c available at two academic institutions were assessed for new IDDM on discharge in relation to complication rates and survival. Read More

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Lipocalin 2 regulates iron homeostasis, neuroinflammation, and insulin resistance in the brains of patients with dementia: Evidence from the current literature.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

Dementia accompanied by memory loss is considered one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide, and its prevalence is gradually increasing. Known risk factors for dementia include genetic background, certain lifestyle and dietary patterns, smoking, iron overload, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose metabolism in the brain. Here, we review recent evidence on the regulatory role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in dementia from various perspectives. Read More

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The Cutoff Value of Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Its Predictive Role in Impaired Glucose Metabolism Among Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Low levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and when combined with insulin resistance (IR), lead to impaired glucose metabolism. Few studies involve women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Studies on cutoff values of SHBG among Asian women were scanty. Read More

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