Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 27;96:107615. Epub 2021 Mar 27.
Biomedical Informatics Research Lab, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Big Data Research Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:
Although previous studies have shown that the host immune response is crucial in determining clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, the association between host immune signatures and COVID-19 patient outcomes remains unclear. Based on the enrichment levels of 11 immune signatures (eight immune-inciting and three immune-inhibiting signatures) in leukocytes of 100 COVID-19 patients, we identified three COVID-19 subtypes: Im-C1, Im-C2, and Im-C3, by clustering analysis. Im-C1 had the lowest immune-inciting signatures and high immune-inhibiting signatures. Read More