55,896 results match your criteria impact sex


Does Lolland-Falster make people sick, or do sick people move to Lolland-Falster? An example of selective migration and mortality in Denmark, 1968-2017.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113893. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Centre for Epidemiological Research, Nykøbing Falster Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Nykøbing Falster, Denmark.

Introduction: Lolland-Falster is a rural area in south-eastern Denmark that scores unfavourable in health surveys and has the lowest life expectancy in the country. To determine the origin of poor health in Lolland-Falster, we investigated impact on mortality of long-term population movements.

Methods: We used data from the Danish Central Population Register 1968-2017 to track movements in and out of Lolland-Falster. Read More

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Sex-related patterns of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in the neuropsychiatric conditions.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sex differences are often observed in psychiatric patients, especially major depressive disorders (MDD), schizophrenia, and developmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The prevalence rates between males and females seem variate according to the clinical condition. Although the findings are still incipient, it is suggested that these differences can involve neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and physiological sex differences. Read More

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Red Cell Distribution Width is Associated with Mortality in Non-Anemic Patients with COVID-19.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Introduction: We have read with great interest the meta-analysis that examined the impact of increased red cell distribution width (RDW) and COVID-19 outcomes, conducted by Lee and colleagues, and recently published in the Journal of Medical Virology. The authors concluded that elevations in RDW were associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, the impact of elevation of RDW independent of anemia in COVID-19 remains to be clarified. Read More

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Gender Differences in Treatment Allocation and Survival of Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer: a Population-Based Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Biological sex and gender have been reported to impact incidence and overall survival (OS) of curatively treated gastroesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to compare palliative treatment allocation and OS between women and men with advanced gastroesophageal cancer.

Methods: Patients with an unresectable (cT4b) or metastatic (cM1) esophageal (including cardia) adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) diagnosed in 2015-2018 were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among general Bangladeshi population: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 9;11(4):e045727. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Objectives: Mental health problems significantly increased worldwide during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. At the early stage of the outbreak, the government of Bangladesh imposed lockdown and quarantine approaches to prevent the spread of the virus, which impacted people's daily life and health. The COVID-19 pandemic has also affected people's economic status, healthcare facilities and other lifestyle factors in Bangladesh. Read More

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Impact of lockdown on key workers: findings from the COVID-19 survey in four UK national longitudinal studies.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing, University College London, London, UK

Background: Key workers played a pivotal role during the national lockdown in the UK's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Although protective measures have been taken, the impact of the pandemic on key workers is yet to be fully elucidated.

Methods: Participants were from four longitudinal age-homogeneous British cohorts (born in 2001, 1990, 1970 and 1958). Read More

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The impact of treatment facility type on the survival of brain metastases patients regardless of the primary cancer type.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 9;21(1):387. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986861 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-6861, USA.

Background: Cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) require multidisciplinary care, and treatment facility may play a role. This study aimed to investigate the impact of receiving treatment at academic centers on the overall survival (OS) of cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) regardless of the primary cancer site.

Methods: This retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Database (NCDB) included patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, other types of lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, and kidney cancer and had brain metastases at the time of diagnosis. Read More

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Sex differences in resting EEG power in Fragile X Syndrome.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Mar 31;138:89-95. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3230 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA.

Electrophysiological alterations may represent a neural substrate of impaired neurocognitive processes and other phenotypic features in Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). However, the role of biological sex in electroencephalography (EEG) patterns that differentiate FXS from typical development has not been determined. This limits use of EEG in both the search for biomarkers of impairment in FXS as well as application of those markers to enhance our understanding of underlying neural mechanisms to speed treatment discovery. Read More

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Identification of COVID-19 subtypes based on immunogenomic profiling.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 27;96:107615. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Biomedical Informatics Research Lab, School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Big Data Research Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Although previous studies have shown that the host immune response is crucial in determining clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients, the association between host immune signatures and COVID-19 patient outcomes remains unclear. Based on the enrichment levels of 11 immune signatures (eight immune-inciting and three immune-inhibiting signatures) in leukocytes of 100 COVID-19 patients, we identified three COVID-19 subtypes: Im-C1, Im-C2, and Im-C3, by clustering analysis. Im-C1 had the lowest immune-inciting signatures and high immune-inhibiting signatures. Read More

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Examining the impact of weight bias on the association between exercise identity and maladaptive exercise behaviors.

Eat Behav 2021 Mar 29;41:101503. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA.

Objective: Though exercise behaviors are typically viewed as health-promoting, certain forms of exercise (i.e., excessive exercise, unhealthy muscle-building behaviors) are considered maladaptive and are associated with negative physical and psychological outcomes. Read More

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Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Among Hospitalized Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Positive Patients Predict Higher Mortality, Prolonged Intensive Care Unit and Hospital Stays in A Multi-Site Healthcare System.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To assess the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in comparison with a matched cohort with similar cardiovascular risk factors, as well as the impact of DVT/PE on hospital course.

Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on COVID-19 patients hospitalized from 03/11/2020 to 09/04/2020 was performed. Patients were randomly matched in a 1:1 ratio by age, sex, hospital of admission, smoking history, diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease with a cohort of non-COVID-19 patients. Read More

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3D image analysis of the complete ventricular-subventricular zone stem cell niche reveals significant vasculature changes and progenitor deficits in males versus females with aging.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Neural Stem Cell Institute, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA. Electronic address:

With age, neural stem cell (NSC) function in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) declines, reducing memory and cognitive function in males; however, the impact on females is not well understood. To obtain a global view of how age and sex impact the mouse V-SVZ, we constructed 3D montages after multiplex immunostaining, and used computer-based 3D image analysis to quantify data across the entire niche at 2, 18, and 22 months. We discovered dramatic sex differences in the aging of the V-SVZ niche vasculature, which regulates NSC activity: females showed increased diameter but decreased vessel density with age, while males showed decreased diameter and increased tortuosity and vessel density. Read More

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Validation of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in a mental health setting.

Psychol Health Med 2021 Apr 9:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Mental health problems are highly prevalent in primary care. Validated tools to detect mental disorders in general practice are needed. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) was designed to help GPs differentiating between psychological distress and psychopathological conditions (depression, anxiety, somatization). Read More

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Examining How Health Navigation Affects Mental Health Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Guatemala.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 Apr;35(4):126-133

Department of Health Behavior, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by mental health problems and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health navigation has the potential to improve both HIV and mental health outcomes; however, few studies have measured the impact of navigation on mental health among people living with HIV. We analyzed longitudinal data from a sociobehavioral survey and navigation monitoring system with GBMSM living with HIV in Guatemala ( = 346) that participated in a 12-month differentiated care intervention. Read More

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Identifying key prescribing cascades in older people (iKASCADE): a transnational initiative on drug safety through a sex and gender lens-rationale and design.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: To describe the objectives, methods and expected impact of an international consortium (iKASCADE) whose purpose is to improve drug safety for older adults by addressing prescribing cascades through a sex and gender lens.

Methods: To create a comprehensive, internationally relevant inventory of prescribing cascades affecting older adults, the consortium has created a modified Delphi procedure where international experts in prescribing and managing pharmacotherapy for older adults will rank a list of prescribing cascades as to their clinical importance. We will use administrative and clinical data on older adults to evaluate the frequency of prescribing cascades by sex internationally, in the hospital, long-term care and community settings. Read More

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Biomedical Researchers' Perceptions of the NIH's Sex as a Biological Variable Policy for Animal Research: Results from a U.S. National Survey.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Social Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

In 2015, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established a policy on sex as a biological variable (SABV) in an effort to address the overrepresentation of men and male animals in biomedical research and the lack of attention to sex-based responses to medical treatments. However, questions remain regarding how U.S. Read More

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Expedited Partner Therapy in Adolescent Females: A Study of Acceptance and the Impact on Reinfection Rates.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

University Health Services, University of Wisconsin-Madison Nationwide Children's Hospital The Ohio State University College of Medicine Columbus Health Department Center for Biostatistics at The Ohio State University Biostatistics Resource at Nationwide Children's Hospital The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital.

Background: Given the high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in adolescents and young adults (AYA), this study evaluated expedited partner therapy (EPT) acceptance and STI reinfection rates in AYA females before and after availability of EPT.

Methods: The pre-EPT cohort was a 3-year (11/2012-11/2015) retrospective chart review of AYA females positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) prior to introduction of EPT. An EPT protocol for CT and TV infections was implemented following legalization in Ohio in 2016. Read More

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Impact of immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy among men who have sex with men infected with HIV in Chengdu, southwest China: trends analysis, 2008-2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 8;21(1):689. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, 610041 No. 17 Section 3, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Given the rampant HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chengdu, southwest China, Treat All policy, defined as immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after HIV diagnosis, was implemented since 2014. Real-world research evaluating impacts of immediate ART on HIV epidemics is needed to optimize policy-making as national and international guidelines have been lowering ART eligibility threshold. The purpose of this study is to: assess temporal trends of the HIV epidemic and impacts of Treat All policy among MSM; and lay foundation for HIV-related policy evaluation using longitudinal routine data from health information systems. Read More

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Comparison and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 between January and February 2020 in Wuhan, China.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to make a deadly impact on human life all over the world. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the changes in clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients over time.

Methods: We recruited 896 patients who were admitted to the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between 30th January 2020 and 16st March 2020. Read More

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Metabolic syndrome in Zambian adults with human immunodeficiency virus on antiretroviral therapy: Prevalence and associated factors.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25236

University of Zambia School of Public Health.

Abstract: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance that separately and together significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. In sub-Saharan Africa, with a substantial burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increasing prevalence of CVD and diabetes, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics associated with MetS among people with HIV (people with human [PWH]). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden and factors influencing MetS in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals in Zambia. Read More

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A decision analytics model to optimize investment in interventions targeting the HIV PrEP cascade of care.

AIDS 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Division of Health Policy and Management, University of Minnesota Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School.

Objectives: Gaps between recommended and actual levels of HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use remain among men who have sex with men (MSM). Interventions can address these gaps, but it is unknown how public health initiatives should invest prevention funds into these interventions to maximize their population impact.

Design: We used a stochastic network-based HIV transmission model for MSM in the Atlanta area paired with an economic budget optimization model. Read More

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Upper limb energy demand during unilateral arm crank submaximal exercise testing in individuals with chronic stroke.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

NeuroGroup, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Objective: To investigate (i) upper limb (UL) energy demand during unilateral arm crank submaximal exercise testing in individuals with stroke compared with healthy controls, and (ii) the relationship between UL energy demand and UL activity in individuals with stroke.

Design: Cross-sectional, observational study.

Setting: Research laboratory. Read More

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Impact of obesity on risk of cancer.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2021 Mar;29(1):38-44

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.

Epidemiological data consistently show sustained upward trend in the incidence of cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) estimated that in 2018 more than 18 million people were diagnosed with cancer, and in about 9.6 million cases cancer could be the cause of death. Read More

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Sex-differences in circulating biomarkers during acute myocardial infarction: An analysis from the SWEDEHEART registry.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249830. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sex-differences in the pathobiology of myocardial infarction are well established but incompletely understood. Improved knowledge on this topic may help clinicians to improve management of men and women with myocardial infarction.

Methods: In this registry-based cohort study (SWEDEHEART), we analyzed 175 circulating biomarkers reflecting various pathobiological axes in 856 men and 243 women admitted to Swedish coronary care units because of myocardial infarction. Read More

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Rotavirus disease burden pre-vaccine introduction in young children in Rural Southern Mozambique, an area of high HIV prevalence.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249714. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM), Maputo, Mozambique.

Background: Rotavirus vaccines have been adopted in African countries since 2009, including Mozambique (2015). Disease burden data are needed to evaluate the impact of rotavirus vaccine. We report the burden of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Mozambique from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) before vaccine introduction. Read More

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Social network characteristics and alcohol use by ethnic origin: An ego-based network study on peer similarity, social relationships, and co-existing drinking habits among young Swedes.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249120. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CHESS, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

The study explores how social network determinants relate to the prevalence and frequency of alcohol use among peer dyads. It is studied how similar alcohol habits co-exist among persons (egos) and their peers (alters) when socio-demographic similarity (e.g. Read More

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Risky Casual Sex and Posttraumatic Stress in College Females: An Examination of Assault History, Self-Esteem, and Social Support.

Violence Against Women 2021 Apr 8:1077801221998797. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Binghamton University, State University of New York, USA.

Casual sex, although common in college culture, can increase the risk of sexual victimization, which in turn can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined sexual victimization, self-esteem, and social support as relative predictors of PTSD and risky casual sex (RCS) in a sample of 229 female undergraduates. Results suggested that enhancing self-esteem may have a greater relative impact on PTSD symptoms compared with social support, even after accounting for the impact of sexual victimization. Read More

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Effect of ethylenethiourea on metamorphosis and ovary development: A comparative study of three larval frogs.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Amphibian endocrine systems interact with each other during normal development. Interference with one of the endocrine systems may influence others. We studied the effect of a thyroid inhibitor (ethylenethiourea [ETU]) on metamorphosis and ovary development of three species, Sphaerotheca pashchima, Indosylvirana caesari, and Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with different larval durations. Read More

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Serotonin Transporter Ala276 Mouse: Novel Model to Assess the Neurochemical and Behavioral Impact of Thr276 Phosphorylation In Vivo.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, FL, USA.

The serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling and is a major target for antidepressants and psychostimulants. Human SERT coding variants have been identified in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that impact transporter phosphorylation, cell surface trafficking and/or conformational dynamics. Prior to an initial description of a novel mouse line expressing the non-phosphorylatable SERT substitution Thr276Ala, we review efforts made to elucidate the structure and conformational dynamics of SERT with a focus on research implicating phosphorylation at Thr276 as a determinant of SERT conformational dynamics. Read More

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Sex Differences in the Association of Cigarette Craving with Insula Structure.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Cigarette craving, which can negatively impact smoking cessation, is reportedly stronger in women than in men when they initiate abstinence from smoking. Identifying approaches to counteract craving in people of different sexes may facilitate the development of personalized treatments for Tobacco Use Disorder, which disproportionally affects women. Because cigarette craving is associated nicotine dependence and structure of the insula, this study addressed whether a person's sex influences these associations. Read More

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