18,129 results match your criteria immunomodulation inhibitors

Association Between FSIP2 Mutation and an Improved Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients With Skin Cutaneous Melanoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 24;8:629330. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Oncology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown remarkable success in treating skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM); however, the response to treatment varies greatly between patients. Considering that the efficacy of ICI treatment is influenced by many factors, we selected the Fibrosheath interacting protein 2 (FSIP2) gene and systematically analyzed its potential to predict the efficacy of ICI treatment.

Methods: Patient data were collected from an ICI treatment cohort ( = 120) and a The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-SKCM cohort ( = 467). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Uncharted waters: mesenchymal stem cell treatment for pediatric refractory rheumatic diseases; a single center case series.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2021 Jun 10;19(1):87. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: With the advent of innovative therapies including biologics and Janus kinase inhibitors, children with rheumatic diseases are more likely to have improved outcomes. Despite these advances, some children do not respond, or they, or their parents fear adverse events and seek other alternatives. Increasingly, private companies are offering mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as an alternative, which are described as natural therapies for rheumatic diseases, often insinuating them as a cure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Current status and future prospects of immunotherapy for multiple myeloma].

Yoichi Imai

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(5):407-417

IMSUT Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo.

The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation, proteasome inhibitors, and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) has improved the treatment outcome for multiple myeloma (MM). However, many patients develop resistance to existing therapies, and novel treatment strategies for these patients must be established. Therapeutic antibodies including daratumumab targeting CD38 and elotuzumab targeting SLAMF7 have been introduced in the clinic as immunotherapies for MM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Research Advance of Immune Checkpoint Molecule TIGIT in Hematological Malignancies--Review].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;29(3):993-997

Department of Hematology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430020, Hubei Province, China,E-mail:

TIGIT is an inhibitory receptor containing T cell immunoglobulin and immune receptor protein tyrosine inhibitory motif domain. It shows high expression level on the surface of immune cells in tumor patients and plays an inhibitory role by binding to corresponding ligands, CD155 and CD112. Studying the mechanism of inhibitory effect of TIGIT and the way to block it shows a great significance in the immunotherapy of tumor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synergistic immunotherapy of glioblastoma by dual targeting of IL-6 and CD40.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3424. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Immunologically-cold tumors including glioblastoma (GBM) are refractory to checkpoint blockade therapy, largely due to extensive infiltration of immunosuppressive macrophages (Mϕs). Consistent with a pro-tumor role of IL-6 in alternative Mϕs polarization, we here show that targeting IL-6 by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition moderately improves T-cell infiltration into GBM and enhances mouse survival; however, IL-6 inhibition does not synergize PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade. Interestingly, anti-IL-6 therapy reduces CD40 expression in GBM-associated Mϕs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Potential therapeutic uses of rexinoids.

Adv Pharmacol 2021 4;91:141-183. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States. Electronic address:

The discovery of nuclear receptors, particularly retinoid X receptors (RXR), and their involvement in numerous pathways related to development sparked interest in their immunomodulatory properties. Genetic models using deletion or overexpression of RXR and the subsequent development of several small molecules that are agonists or antagonists of this receptor support a promising therapeutic role for these receptors in immunology. Bexarotene was approved in 1999 for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Benefits and Prospects of VEGF-targeted Anti-angiogenic Therapy and Immunotherapy for High-grade Glioma].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 May;49(3):597-607

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba.

Elucidation of the ecological characteristics of malignant tumors has shown that angiogenesis and an immunosuppressive status in the tumor microenvironment are important for resolving treatment resistance and poor prognosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and components of related signaling pathway can be targeted by anti-angiogenic therapy. Suppression of abundant angiogenesis using anti-angiogenic agents in high-grade gliomas inhibits rapid neurological deterioration in patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Immunotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma].

Rev Med Liege 2021 May;76(5-6):398-402

Service d'Oncologie médicale, CHU Liège, Belgique.

Current recommendations for systemic treatments of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma have been significantly modified with the advent of immunotherapy for a majority of these cancers. Indeed, immune checkpoint inhibitors are now recommended in metastatic disease and in locoregional recurrence not amenable to a local treatment. PD-L1 positive tumours are eligible for immunotherapy in first line and immunotherapy is also available in second line, after failure of platinum based chemotherapy, regardless of PD-L1 expression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mathematical Modelling Based on In Vivo Imaging Suggests CD137-Stimulated Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Exert Superior Tumour Control Due to an Enhanced Antimitotic Effect on Tumour Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 24;13(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Division of Drug Discovery and Safety, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Several immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer are under development. Two prominent strategies are adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of CTLs and modulation of CTL function with immune checkpoint inhibitors or with costimulatory antibodies. Despite some success with these approaches, there remains a lack of detailed and quantitative descriptions of the events following CTL transfer and the impact of immunomodulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multi-Omics Perspective Reveals the Different Patterns of Tumor Immune Microenvironment Based on Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression and Predictor of Responses to Immune Checkpoint Blockade across Pan-Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 13;22(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies have shown great promise in cancer treatment. However, the intra-heterogeneity is a major barrier to reasonably classifying the potential benefited patients. Comprehensive heterogeneity analysis is needed to solve these clinical issues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diverse Immunological Factors Influencing Pathogenesis in Patients with COVID-19: A Review on Viral Dissemination, Immunotherapeutic Options to Counter Cytokine Storm and Inflammatory Responses.

Pathogens 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243122, India.

The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still not fully unraveled. Though preventive vaccines and treatment methods are out on the market, a specific cure for the disease has not been discovered. Recent investigations and research studies primarily focus on the immunopathology of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low RECK Expression Is Part of the Cervical Carcinogenesis Mechanisms.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 6;13(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

Laboratory of Oncovirology, Department of Microbiology, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced carcinogenesis comprises alterations in the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their regulators. Reversion-inducing Cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) inhibits the activation of specific metalloproteinases and its expression is frequently lost in human cancers. Here we analyzed the role of RECK in cervical carcinogenesis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PD-1/PD-L1 in Cancer: Pathophysiological, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Immunology Area, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Immune evasion is a key strategy adopted by tumor cells to escape the immune system while promoting their survival and metastatic spreading. Indeed, several mechanisms have been developed by tumors to inhibit immune responses. PD-1 is a cell surface inhibitory receptor, which plays a major physiological role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recognition, Staging, and Management of Melanoma.

Med Clin North Am 2021 Jul;105(4):643-661

Department of Dermatology, Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02466, USA. Electronic address:

Melanoma accounts for approximately 1% of all skin cancers but contributes to almost all skin cancer deaths. The developing picture suggests that melanoma phenotypes are driven by epigenetic mechanisms that reflect a complex interplay between genotype and environment. Furthermore, the growing consensus is that current classification standards, notwithstanding pertinent clinical history and appropriate biopsy, fall short of capturing the vast complexity of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Low titers of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies after first vaccination dose in cancer patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 05 31;14(1):86. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Clinical Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Alexandra General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 80 Vas. Sofias Avenue, 11528, Athens, Greece.

Vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 provides significant protection against the infection in the general population. However, only limited data exist for patients with cancer under systemic therapy. Based on this, our site has initiated a study evaluating safety and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with solid and hematological malignancies under several systemic therapies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunomodulation by the Commensal Microbiome During Immune-Targeted Interventions: Focus on Cancer Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy and Vaccination.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:643255. Epub 2021 May 13.

Exploratory Science Center, Merck & Co., Inc., Cambridge, MA, United States.

Emerging evidence in clinical and preclinical studies indicates that success of immunotherapies can be impacted by the state of the microbiome. Understanding the role of the microbiome during immune-targeted interventions could help us understand heterogeneity of treatment success, predict outcomes, and develop additional strategies to improve efficacy. In this review, we discuss key studies that reveal reciprocal interactions between the microbiome, the immune system, and the outcome of immune interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Role of α7nAChR-Mediated Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway in Vagal Nerve Regulated Atrial Fibrillation.

Int Heart J 2021 ;62(3):607-615

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University.

The aim was to investigate the role of the α7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in vagal nerve regulated atrial fibrillation (AF).18 beagles (standard dogs for testing) were used in this study, and the effective refractory period (ERP) of atrium and pulmonary veins and AF inducibility were measured hourly during rapid atrial pacing at 800 beats/minute for 6 hours in all beagles. After cessation of 3 hours of RAP, the low-level vagal nerve stimulation (LL-VNS) group (n = 6) was given LL-VNS and injection of salinne (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Experiences of cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ExCIm)-insights of people affected by cancer and healthcare professionals: a qualitative study protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 05 27;11(5):e043750. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Healthcare Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK

Introduction: There is a global interest in cancer immunotherapy. Clinical trials have found that one group, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), has demonstrated clinical benefits across various cancers. However, research focused on the experiences of people affected by cancer who have undergone this treatment using qualitative methodology is currently limited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A brand new era of cancer immunotherapy: breakthroughs and challenges.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 May 19;134(11):1267-1275. Epub 2021 May 19.

Cancer Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, Jilin, China.

Abstract: Immunotherapy has opened a new era in cancer treatment. Drugs represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to important breakthroughs in the treatment of various solid tumors, greatly improving the survival rate of cancer patients. Many types of immunotherapeutic drugs have become widely available; however, their efficacy is variable, and relatively few patients with advanced cancer experience life-altering durable survival, reflecting the complex and highly regulated nature of the immune system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Managing side effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jun 21;162:103354. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Early Drug Development for Innovative Therapy, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology and Haematology (DIPO), University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent a major development in cancer therapy. The indications for these agents continue to expand across malignancies and disease settings. For years breast cancer (BC) has been considered immunologically quiescent compared with other tumor types. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vaccination as a Strategy to Modulate the Immune Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:650486. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a highly prevalent malignancy that develops in patients with chronic liver diseases and dysregulated systemic and hepatic immunity. The tumor microenvironment (TME) contains tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and is central to mediating immune evasion and resistance to therapy. The interplay between these cells types often leads to insufficient antigen presentation, preventing effective anti-tumor immune responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Druggable epigenetic suppression of interferon-induced chemokine expression linked to amplification in neuroblastoma.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Institute of Experimental Oncology, Medical Faculty, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany

Background: Amplification of the oncogene is a molecular hallmark of aggressive neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. There is evidence that promotes a non-inflamed and T-cell infiltration-poor ('cold') tumor microenvironment (TME) by suppressing interferon signaling. This may explain, at least in part, why patients with NB seem to have little benefit from single-agent immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolism of Immune Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Jin G Jung Anne Le

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1311:173-185

Department of Pathology and Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex biological structure surrounding tumor cells and includes blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and extracellular matrix (ECM) [1, 2]. These heterogeneous surrounding structures provide nutrients, metabolites, and signaling molecules to provide a cancer-friendly environment. The metabolic interplay between immune cells and cancer cells in the TME is a key feature not only for understanding tumor biology but also for discovering cancer cells' vulnerability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Granulomatous colitis in a patient with metastatic melanoma under immunotherapy: a case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 19;21(1):227. Epub 2021 May 19.

First Department of Pathology, Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75, Mikras Asias street, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have changed the way advanced malignancies are currently confronted, improving cancer patients' outcomes but also generating distinct immune-related (ir) adverse events. ICPIs-induced colitis is a common complication showing different clinical and histological manifestations. In the literature review, 14 cases with ICPIs related colon granulomas have been reported in 5 studies with either limited or unavailable information regarding histology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Place of immunotherapy in digestive oncology].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 May;17(739):979-984

Service d'oncologie médicale, Département d'oncologie, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

Digestive tumors account for a quarter of all new cancer cases diagnosed worldwide and are responsible for a third of global cancer-related deaths. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has recently shown its effectiveness in the therapeutic arsenal of these tumors, mainly in the advanced stages. This article summarizes the current indications and the future direction of immunotherapy in patients with digestive malignancies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Immunotherapy for bladder cancer in 2021].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 May;17(739):974-977

Service d'oncologie médicale, Département d'oncologie, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

Intravesical immunotherapy with Calmette-Guerin bacillus (BCG) have been used since decades for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and is a proof of principle that immunotherapy works for this malignancy. Since 2016, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) demonstrated clinical benefits in locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer, providing potentially durable tumor control in first line therapy or upon relapse after standard treatments. Ongoing clinical trials aim to demonstrate the efficiency of ICI for the treatment of localized disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chrysoeriol ameliorates COX-2 expression through NF-κB, AP-1 and MAPK regulation via the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 3;22(1):718. Epub 2021 May 3.

The Research Institute for Health Functional Materials, Dong-Eui University, Busanjin-gu, Busan 47340, Republic of Korea.

Chrysoeriol is a flavonoid that has diverse biological properties, including antioxidation, anti-inflammation, chemoprevention and immunomodulation. Despite its reported anti-inflammatory activity, the exact underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of chrysoeriol involving lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its upstream signaling molecules was investigated in RAW 264. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nanobubbles Containing sPD-1 and Ce6 Mediate Combination Immunotherapy and Suppress Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 10;16:3241-3254. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and sonodynamic therapy (SDT) are types of immunotherapy. In order to combine soluble programmed cell death protein 1 (sPD-1)-mediated immune checkpoint therapy and chlorin e6 (Ce6)-assisted SDT, nanobubbles (NBs) were generated to simultaneously load sPD-1 and Ce6.

Materials And Methods: The sPD-1/Ce6-NBs, which were prepared by thin-film hydration and mechanical oscillation, had a stable physical condition, and delivered sPD-1 and Ce6 in a targeted manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PLGA-particle vaccine carrying TLR3/RIG-I ligand Riboxxim synergizes with immune checkpoint blockade for effective anti-cancer immunotherapy.

Nat Commun 2021 05 18;12(1):2935. Epub 2021 May 18.

Division of Immunology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

With emerging supremacy, cancer immunotherapy has evolved as a promising therapeutic modality compared to conventional antitumor therapies. Cancer immunotherapy composed of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles containing antigens and toll-like receptor ligands induces vigorous antitumor immune responses in vivo. Here, we demonstrate the supreme adjuvant effect of the recently developed and pharmaceutically defined double-stranded (ds)RNA adjuvant Riboxxim especially when incorporated into PLGA particles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Semiconducting polymer nano-PROTACs for activatable photo-immunometabolic cancer therapy.

Nat Commun 2021 05 18;12(1):2934. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Immunometabolic intervention has been applied to treat cancer via inhibition of certain enzymes associated with intratumoral metabolism. However, small-molecule inhibitors and genetic modification often suffer from insufficiency and off-target side effects. Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) provide an alternative way to modulate protein homeostasis for cancer therapy; however, the always-on bioactivity of existing PROTACs potentially leads to uncontrollable protein degradation at non-target sites, limiting their in vivo therapeutic efficacy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF