181,841 results match your criteria immunodeficiency virus

Thoughts on "AIDS and COVID-19: A Tale of Two Pandemics and the Role of Statisticians" by Susan S. Ellenberg and Jeffrey S. Morris.

Mitchell H Gail

Stat Med 2021 May;40(11):2513-2514

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus and Covid-19 (or SARS-CoV-2) differ in their incubation distributions and in their susceptibility to immunologic defense. These features affect our ability to predict the course of these epidemics and to control them. Read More

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Extracellular vesicles regulate gap junction-mediated intercellular communication and HIV-1 infection of human neural progenitor cells.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 4:105388. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 33136, USA. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier and cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) through a process that may involve direct or indirect interactions with the CNS cells and alterations of amyloid β (Aβ) homeostasis. The present study focused on the mechanisms of HIV-1 infecting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and affecting NPC intercellular communications with human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC). Despite the lack of the CD4 receptor, hNPCs were effectively infected by HIV-1 via a mechanism involving the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Read More

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Microbial co-infections in COVID-19: Associated microbiota and underlying mechanisms of pathogenesis.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 4:104941. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh; Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has traumatized the whole world with the ongoing devastating pandemic. A plethora of microbial domains including viruses (other than SARS-CoV-2), bacteria, archaea and fungi have evolved together and interact in complex molecular pathogenesis along with SARS-CoV-2. However, the involvement of other microbial co-pathogens and underlying molecular mechanisms leading to extortionate ailment in critically ill COVID-19 patients has yet not been extensively reviewed. Read More

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Dual-Fluorescence Labeling Pseudovirus for Real-Time Imaging of Single SARS-CoV-2 Entry in Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Quantitative Engineering Biology, Shenzhen Institute of Synthetic Biology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The pseudovirus strategy makes studies of highly pathogenic viruses feasible without the restriction of high-level biosafety facility, thus greatly contributing to virology and is used in the research studies of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we generated a dual-color pseudo-SARS-CoV-2 virus using a human immunodeficiency virus-1 pseudovirus production system and the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, of which the membrane was labeled with a lipophilic dye (DiO) and the genomic RNA-related viral protein R (Vpr) of the viral core was fused with mCherry. With this dual-color labeling strategy, not only the movement of the whole virus but also the fate of the labeled components can be traced. Read More

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Dried blood spot sampling as an alternative for the improvement of hepatitis B and C diagnosis in key populations.

World J Hepatol 2021 Apr;13(4):504-514

Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 21040360, Brazil.

Background: To achieve the elimination of hepatitis B and C, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies to increase the access of diagnosis, particularly among key populations such as people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), individuals with coagulopathies and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Aim: To evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) in the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers.

Methods: A total of 430 individuals comprised of people living with HIV, coagulopathies and CKD provided paired serum and DBS samples. Read More

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Single-Cell TCR Sequencing Reveals the Dynamics of T Cell Repertoire Profiling During Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:637500. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

T cell responses play critical roles in host adaptive immunity against . However, the dynamics and diversity of the T cell immune repertoire in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative pneumonia (PCP) remains unclear. In this study, single-cell RNA and single-cell T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing were applied to cells sorted from lung tissues of mice infected with . Read More

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Neuroinflammation in HIV-Related Neuropathic Pain.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:653852. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Pain Medicine and Special Environmental Medicine, Nantong University, Jiangsu, China.

In the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection around the world, chronic complications are becoming a new problem along with the prolonged life expectancy. Chronic pain is widespread in HIV infected patients and even affects those with a low viral load undergoing long-term treatment with antiviral drugs, negatively influencing the adherence to disease management and quality of life. A large proportion of chronic pain is neuropathic pain, which defined as chronic pain caused by nervous system lesions or diseases, presenting a series of nervous system symptoms including both positive and negative signs. Read More

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Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus disease secondary to measles in an immunocompetent infant: A case report.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(15):1655-1663

Department of Pathology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen 518036, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs commonly in immunocompromised/immunodeficient patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, neoplasm, solid organ transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or treatment with immunosuppressants, but is rarely reported in association with measles infection.

Case Summary: We describe a case of extensive gastrointestinal CMV disease secondary to measles infection in a 9-mo-old boy who presented with persistent fever and bloody diarrhea. His condition was improved after ganciclovir treatment. Read More

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Understanding of cabotegravir degradation through isolation and characterization of key degradation products and kinetic studies.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 23;201:114096. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy, Aškerčeva c. 7, SI-1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Sandoz Development Center Slovenia, Analytics Department, Verovškova ulica 57, SI-1526, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Cabotegravir is a novel human immunodeficiency virus integrase enzyme inhibitor used for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The combinational final dosage form, as extended release injection suspension in combination with rilpivirine and as cabotegravir tablets (for lead-in therapy), was recently approved in Canada, EU and in USA and is currently seeking approval also in other countries. The subject of this investigation was to study the degradation of cabotegravir under different stress conditions as per the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Read More

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Ultrasensitive detection and quantification of viral nucleic acids with raindance droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

Methods 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, United States.

Sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids is critically important for diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of infectious diseases such as those caused by SARS-CoV2, HIV-1, and other viruses. In HIV-1 infection cases, assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions that are superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has benefited tremendously from the development of sensitive HIV-1 DNA and RNA quantitation assays. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Rhesus macaques is similar in many key aspects to human HIV-1 infection and consequently this non-human primate (NHP) model has and continues to prove instrumental in evaluating HIV prevention, treatment and eradication approaches. Read More

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Frequency of high grade squamous cervical lesions among women over age 65 years living with the human immunodeficiency virus.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Background: Current U.S. cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend a stop to screening at age 65 years provided women have adequate prior screening and no history of precancer. Read More

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High prevalence of unawareness of HCV infection status among both HCV-seronegative and seropositive people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Taiwan.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251158. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Objectives: HCV infection status awareness is crucial in the HCV care continuum for both HCV-seropositive (HCV-positive status awareness) and seronegative (HCV-negative status awareness) populations. However, trends in the unawareness of HCV infection status (UoHCV) remain unknown in HIV-positive patients. This study investigated UoHCV prevalence, the associated factors of UoHCV, and its association with HCV-related knowledge in HIV-positive patients. Read More

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African based researchers' output on models for the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and public health interventions: A scoping review.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250086. Epub 2021 May 6.

DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence in Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Background: Applied epidemiological models are used in predicting future trends of diseases, for the basic understanding of disease and health dynamics, and to improve the measurement of health indicators. Mapping the research outputs of epidemiological modelling studies concerned with transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and public health interventions in Africa will help to identify the areas with substantial levels of research activities, areas with gaps, and research output trends.

Methods: A scoping review of applied epidemiological models of infectious disease studies that involved first or last authors affiliated to African institutions was conducted. Read More

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Viral hepatitis in haemophilia: historical perspective and current management.

Br J Haematol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Sheffield Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

The introduction of clotting factor concentrates has substantially improved the lives of people with clotting factor deficiencies. Unfortunately, the transmission of blood-borne viral infections through these plasma-derived products led to a huge epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in people with haemophilia (PWH). In a significant proportion of PWH exposed to these viruses, the ensuing decades-long chronic infection resulted in excess morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Fiction, Hope or Hype? An Updated Review.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 28;17:371-387. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) that began in China had infected so far more than 109,217,366 million individuals worldwide and accounted for more than 2,413,912 fatalities. With the dawn of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there was a requirement to select potential therapies that might effectively kill the virus, accelerate the recovery, or decrease the case fatality rate. Besides the currently available antiviral medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) regimen with or without azithromycin has been repurposed in China and was recommended by the National Health Commission, China in mid-February 2020. Read More

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Control of sexually transmitted infections and global elimination targets, South-East Asia Region.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 Apr;99(4):304-311

Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

The World Health Organization (WHO) set targets for a 90% reduction in the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhoea between 2018 and 2030. We review trends in sexually transmitted infections in the WHO South-East Asia Region to assess the feasibility of reaching these targets. Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand reported 90% or greater reductions in the incidence or prevalence of syphilis and/or gonorrhoea between 1975 and 2005. Read More

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Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 Apr 21;99(4):287-295. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Global HIV, Hepatitis and STI Programmes, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Triple elimination is an initiative supporting the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of three diseases - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, syphilis and hepatitis B. Significant progress towards triple elimination has been made in some regions, but progress has been slow in sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the highest burden of these diseases. The shared features of the three diseases, including their epidemiology, disease interactions and core interventions for tackling them, enable an integrated health-systems approach for elimination of mother-to-child transmission. Read More

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Improving care of migrants is key for viral hepatitis elimination in Europe.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 Apr 21;99(4):280-286. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Hepatology Section, Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, 10th Floor QEQM Wing, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, South Wharf Street, London W2 1NY, England.

By 2040, deaths from chronic viral hepatitis worldwide are projected to exceed those from human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis and malaria combined. The burden of this disease is predominantly carried by low-resource countries in Africa and Asia. In resource-rich countries, the epidemiological spread of viral hepatitis is partially driven by migrant movements from areas of high endemicity. Read More

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Unconventional p97/VCP-Mediated ER to Endosomal Trafficking of a Retroviral Protein.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Center for Infectious Disease, and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) encodes a Rem precursor protein that specifies both regulatory and accessory functions. Rem is cleaved at the ER membrane into a functional N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and the C-terminus (Rem-CT). Rem-CT lacks a membrane-spanning domain and a known ER retention signal, yet was not detectably secreted into cell supernatants. Read More

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Effect of community-based interventions targeting female sex workers along the HIV care cascade in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2021 May 6;10(1):137. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Female sex workers are extremely vulnerable and highly susceptible to being infected with human immunodeficiency virus. As a result, community-based targeted interventions have been recommended as one of the models of care to improve access to HIV services and continued engagement in care. We conducted a systematic review to (1) assess the effect of FSW-targeted community interventions on the improvement of HIV services access along the treatment cascade and (2) describe community-based interventions that positively affect continuation in HIV care across the HIV treatment cascade for FSWs in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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Predictors of mortality rate among adult HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy in Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective follow-up study.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 May 5;18(1):27. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is an ongoing public health issue associated with high morbidity and mortality. Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy. However, the incidence and predictors of mortality in border areas like Metema were not investigated. Read More

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Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine against the B.1.351 Variant.

N Engl J Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

From Novavax, Gaithersburg, MD (V.S., L. Fries, S.C.-C., M.Z., C.B., G.A., E.F., J.S.P., A.R., S.N., I.C., G.M.G., F.D.); and the South African Medical Research Council, Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences (S.B., V.B., A.L.K., A.O.-J., A.T., S.A.M.), Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (L. Fairlie, G.B.), University of the Witwatersrand, and Soweto Clinical Trials Centre (Q.B., A.E.B.), Johannesburg, Josha Research Centre, Bloemfontein (Z.H., J.J.L., S.F.), the Paediatric Infectious Diseases Unit (M.A., R.M.), the Respiratory and Critical Care Unit (U.L., N.L.), the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (D.M.), Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (S.H.), and Kwazulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform (T.O.), Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, the Setshaba Research Centre, Tshwane (M.S.L.M., A.P., K.A.), the Limpopo Clinical Research Initiative, Rustenburg (L. Fouche, P.-L.V.), the Madibeng Centre for Research, Department of Family Medicine, School of Health, University of Pretoria (C.L.), and the Aurum Institute (C.G.), Pretoria, the South African TB Vaccine Initiative (M.T., N.S., A.L.) and the Centre for Lung Infection and Immunity, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, and UCT Lung Institute (K.D., A.E.), University of Cape Town, and the Health Systems Research Unit and the HIV Prevention Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council (N.S., A.G.), Cape Town, Mzansi Ethical Research Centre, Middelburg (G.K., F.G.P.), and Peermed Clinical Trial Centre, Kempton Park (N.C.-G.) - all in South Africa.

Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants threatens progress toward control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In a phase 1-2 trial involving healthy adults, the NVX-CoV2373 nanoparticle vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and was associated with strong neutralizing-antibody and antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy was needed in a setting of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Read More

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Four-Month Rifapentine Regimens with or without Moxifloxacin for Tuberculosis.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(18):1705-1718

From the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (S.E.D.); the UCSF Center for Tuberculosis, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (P.N., P.P.J.P., R.M.S.); the Vietnam National Tuberculosis Program-University of California, San Francisco Research Collaboration Unit (P.N., P.P.J.P., H.T.T.P., N.V.N., T.H.P., R.M.S.) and the National Lung Hospital (N.V.N., T.H.P.) - both in Hanoi; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (E.V.K., K.B., S.V.G., A.E.P., N.A.S., E.S., A.V.); the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio (M.E., M.W.); the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare (J.H., W.S.); Case Western Reserve University, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland (J.L.J.); the Uganda-Case Western Reserve University Research Collaboration, Kampala (J.L.J., G.M.); TASK (M.L.), the University of Cape Town Lung Institute (K.N.), and the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (J.S.), Cape Town, the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand (N.A.M., Z.W.), and the Wits Health Consortium (I.S.), Johannesburg - all in South Africa; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (K.E.D., N.A.M., R.E.C.), and the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Rockville (A.E.P.) - both in Maryland; the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO), Port-au-Prince (S.N., S.P.); and the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (S.S.).

Background: Rifapentine-based regimens have potent antimycobacterial activity that may allow for a shorter course in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

Methods: In an open-label, phase 3, randomized, controlled trial involving persons with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis from 13 countries, we compared two 4-month rifapentine-based regimens with a standard 6-month regimen consisting of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (control) using a noninferiority margin of 6.6 percentage points. Read More

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The impact of aging on innate and adaptive immunity in the human female genital tract.

Aging Cell 2021 May 5:e13361. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Mucosal tissues in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) are primary sites for both gynecological cancers and infections by a spectrum of sexually transmitted pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that compromise women's health. While the regulation of innate and adaptive immune protection in the FRT by hormonal cyclic changes across the menstrual cycle and pregnancy are being intensely studied, little to nothing is known about the alterations in mucosal immune protection that occur throughout the FRT as women age following menopause. The immune system in the FRT has two key functions: defense against pathogens and reproduction. Read More

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Validation of Oxford Cognitive Screen: Executive Function (OCS-EF), a tablet-based executive function assessment tool amongst adolescent females in rural South Africa.

Int J Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Short, reliable, easily administered executive function (EF) assessment tools are needed to measure EF in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa given the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder. We administered Oxford Cognitive Screen-Executive Function (OCS-EF) to 932 rural South African females (mean age 19.7 years). Read More

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Machine Learning in Discovery of New Antivirals and Optimization of Viral Infections Therapy.

Curr Med Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, Moscow. Russian Federation.

Nowadays, computational approaches play an important role in the design of new drug-like compounds and optimization of pharmacotherapeutic treatment of diseases. The emerging growth of viral infections, including those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Ebola virus, recently detected coronavirus, and some others, leads to many newly infected people with a high risk of death or severe complications. A huge amount of chemical, biological, clinical data is at the disposal of the researchers. Read More

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Arterial structure and function in Africans with HIV for > 5 years: longitudinal relationship with endothelial activation and cardiovascular risk markers.

HIV Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Objectives: We aimed to determine whether people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWHIV) have increased measures of arterial injury [carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)] and large artery stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV)] when compared with their counterparts without HIV, and whether baseline markers of endothelial activation and cardiovascular risk are associated with cIMT and cfPWV after 5 years.

Methods: We matched 126 PWHIV from North West Province, South Africa, to 126 without HIV according to age, sex and locality. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function markers [soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1)] were measured at baseline and cIMT and cfPWV at follow-up. Read More

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Reactive oxygen species as potential antiviral targets.

Rev Med Virol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are by-products of cellular metabolism and can be either beneficial, at low levels, or deleterious, at high levels, to the cell. It is known that several viral infections can increase oxidative stress, which is mainly facilitated by viral-induced imbalances in the antioxidant defence mechanisms of the cell. While the exact role of ROS in certain viral infections (adenovirus and dengue virus) remains unknown, other viruses can use ROS for enhancement of pathogenesis (SARS coronavirus and rabies virus) or replication (rhinovirus, West Nile virus and vesicular stomatitis virus) or both (hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus). Read More

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