44,962 results match your criteria immunodeficiencies immune


Health and Art (HEART): Integrating Science and Art to Fight COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:937-964

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Netting individuals separated from each other by vast distances; the present condition of COVID-19 needs art and its extraordinary capacity to connect human beings and integrate scientific disciplines. We can predict that the COVID-19 pandemic would leave the mind lonely and vulnerable to diseases, for, on the one hand, the COVID-19 pandemic and related problems, in particular social isolation, are itself stressor. On the other hand, studies confirm the potential of COVID-19 to involve the central nervous system by affecting the immune system, either directly or indirectly. Read More

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Nutrition and Immunity in COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:485-497

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nutrition can strongly influence infection trajectories by either boosting or suppressing the immune system. During the recently emerged pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), individuals who possess diets high in fat, refined carbohydrates, and sugars have shown to be highly prone to the disease and associated adverse outcomes. Both micronutrients and macronutrients provide benefits at different stages of the infection. Read More

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Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Severity, Criticality, and Mortality in COVID-19: A Multisystem Disease.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:369-402

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues devastating effects on healthcare systems. Such a crisis calls for an urgent need to develop a risk stratification tool. The present chapter aimed to identify laboratory and clinical correlates of adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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Geriatrics and COVID-19.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:209-222

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to infect people. The virus first occurred in Wuhan, China, but the whole world is now struggling with the pandemic. Over 13 million confirmed cases and 571,000 deaths have been reported so far, and this number is growing. Read More

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Potential Antiviral Immune Response Against COVID-19: Lessons Learned from SARS-CoV.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:149-167

Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

Virus and host innate immune system interaction plays a significant role in forming the outcome of viral diseases. Host innate immunity initially recognizes the viral invasion and induces a rapid inflammatory response, and this recognition activates signaling cascades that trigger the release of antiviral mediators. This chapter aims to explore the mechanisms by which newly emerged coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activates the host immune system. Read More

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How COVID-19 Has Globalized: Unknown Origin, Rapid Transmission, and the Immune System Nourishment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:119-147

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) profoundly influences T-cell immunity. The counts of total T cells and T-cell subsets, especially CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, are decreased in patients with COVID-19. Also, the function of these cells becomes less effective as the expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as Tim3 and PD-1, increases over time during the disease. Read More

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Coronavirus: Pure Infectious Disease or Genetic Predisposition.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:91-107

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is the seventh pathogenic coronavirus recently discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. To date, our knowledge about its effect on the human host remains limited. It is well known that host genetic factors account for the individual differences in the susceptibility to infectious diseases. Read More

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Introduction on Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: The Global Challenge.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:1-22

Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

By driving the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronaviruses have become a significant change in twenty-first-century medicine, healthcare systems, education, and the global economy. This chapter rapidly reviews the origin, immunopathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and potential therapeutics of COVID-19. It would also explore the effects of the introduction of a single virus, the so-called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), on the public health preparedness planning. Read More

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Investigation of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network in colorectal cancer using an integrative bioinformatics approach.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(2):141-153

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to integrate both coding and non-coding available microarray data in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) with bioinformatics analyses to attain a more inclusive pathobiologic map of their molecular interactions and functions.

Background: Identification of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), especially circRNAs, has become a new hotspot in cancer research, although their roles and underlying mechanisms in CRC development remain mostly unknown.

Methods: Microarray data was retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and analyzed. Read More

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January 2021

CD34+ Stem Cell Selection and CD3+ T Cell Add-Back from Matched Unrelated Adult Donors in Children with Primary Immunodeficiencies and Hematological Diseases.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 24;27(5):426.e1-426.e9. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Stem Cell Laboratory, Section of Hematology and Blood Coagulation, Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Diagnostics Department, ASST Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Less than 25% of children who require hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) or genetic hematological diseases have an HLA-identical sibling. For them, a matched unrelated donor (MUD), although baring a greater risk of graft failure, delayed engraftment and immune reconstitution, and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), represents a valid alternative. The stem cell source is also important, as unprocessed peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) contain 5 to 10 times more T cells than bone marrow (BM)-derived grafts, a major risk especially for small children with PID. Read More

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Clinical, Immunological, and Genetic Features in 938 Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED): a Systematic Review.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare inborn immune error associated with the autoimmune regulator () gene mutation. It is classically characterized by a triad of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), hypoparathyroidism (HP), and adrenal insufficiency (ADI).

Methods: Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using related keywords, and included studies were systematically evaluated. Read More

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Activation-induced deaminase is critical for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns prior to the germinal center reaction.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Epigenetics and Immune Disease Group, Josep Carreras Research Institute (IJC), 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.

Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates antibody diversification in germinal center B cells by deaminating cytosines, leading to somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. Loss-of-function mutations in AID lead to hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2), a rare human primary antibody deficiency. AID-mediated deamination has been proposed as leading to active demethylation of 5-methycytosines in the DNA, although evidence both supports and casts doubt on such a role. Read More

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Immune Dysfunction in Inborn Errors of Immunity Causing Malignancies.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Marmara University, School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Istanbul, Turkey.

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplant for the treatment of adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency.

Authors:
Caroline Y Kuo

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 05;126(5):449-450

Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

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"Original Antigenic Sin": A potential threat beyond the development of booster vaccination against novel SARS-CoV-2 variants.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 3:1-6. Epub 2021 May 3.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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Acute pericarditis: A peculiar manifestation of common variable immune deficiency.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 1;49(3):115-119. Epub 2021 May 1.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran;

Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is known as the most prevalent symptomatic inborn error of immunity associated with autoimmune and inflammatory complications in addition to recurrent infections. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of acute pericarditis as a complication in the past medical history of 337 CVID patients. We found five patients (1. Read More

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Effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes and Their Subsets in Children: Imbalanced CD4/CD8 T Cell Ratio and Disease Severity.

Front Pediatr 2021 14;9:643299. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

While pathogenesis in COVID-19 is not fully known and the effects between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system are complicated, it is known that lymphopenia, hyper-inflammatory responses, and cytokines play an important role in the pathology of COVID-19. While some hematological abnormalities have been described among the laboratory features of COVID-19, there have not been studies reported on lymphocyte subset analyses in children. The aim of this study was to describe lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with mild/moderate or severe COVID-19. Read More

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Immune Profile in Patients With COVID-19: Lymphocytes Exhaustion Markers in Relationship to Clinical Outcome.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 15;11:646688. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Centre for Primary Immunodeficiencies, Clinic of Pneumology and Phthisiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin University Hospital, Martin, Slovakia.

The velocity of the COVID-19 pandemic spread and the variable severity of the disease course has forced scientists to search for potential predictors of the disease outcome. We examined various immune parameters including the markers of immune cells exhaustion and activation in 21 patients with COVID-19 disease hospitalised in our hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia. The results showed significant progressive lymphopenia and depletion of lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19) in correlation to the disease severity. Read More

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Treatment Strategies for GLILD in Common Variable Immunodeficiency: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:606099. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatric Immunology and Rheumatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Introduction: Besides recurrent infections, a proportion of patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID) may suffer from immune dysregulation such as granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). The optimal treatment of this complication is currently unknown. Experienced-based expert opinions have been produced, but a systematic review of published treatment studies is lacking. Read More

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Altered immunoemotional regulatory system in COVID-19: From the origins to opportunities.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 16;356:577578. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the worldwide spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have led to social regulations that caused substantial changes in manners of daily life. The subsequent loneliness and concerns of the pandemic during social distancing, quarantine, and lockdown are psychosocial stressors that negatively affect the immune system. These effects occur through mechanisms controlled by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis that alter immune regulation, namely the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), which promotes inflammation and diminishes antiviral responses, leading to inadequate protection against viral disease. Read More

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Selective cell death in HIV-1-infected cells by DDX3 inhibitors leads to depletion of the inducible reservoir.

Nat Commun 2021 04 30;12(1):2475. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

An innovative approach to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells emerging out of latency, the major hurdle to HIV-1 cure, is to pharmacologically reactivate viral expression and concomitantly trigger intracellular pro-apoptotic pathways in order to selectively induce cell death (ICD) of infected cells, without reliance on the extracellular immune system. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of DDX3 inhibitors on selectively inducing cell death in latent HIV-1-infected cell lines, primary CD4+ T cells and in CD4+ T cells from cART-suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLWHIV). We used single-cell FISH-Flow technology to characterise the contribution of viral RNA to inducing cell death. Read More

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Genomic Spectrum and Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Human IL-21 Receptor Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia.

Biallelic inactivating mutations in IL21R causes a combined immunodeficiency that is often complicated by cryptosporidium infections. While eight IL-21R-deficient patients have been reported previously, the natural course, immune characteristics of disease, and response to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain to be comprehensively examined. In our study, we have collected clinical histories of 13 patients with IL-21R deficiency from eight families across seven centers worldwide, including five novel patients identified by exome or NGS panel sequencing. Read More

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Goods syndrome combined with bronchiectasis: A case report and literature review.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;46(3):328-332

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

A patient with thymoma associated immunodeficiency syndrome (Good's syndrome) and bronchiectasis was retrospectively analyzed. Good's syndrome is a rare condition of immunodeficiency that is characterized by thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia. It is important to bear in mind that Good's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis When patients repeatedly visited for bronchiectasis or infection, we should alert to their immune state and history of thymoma. Read More

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Pulmonary granulomatosis of genetic origin.

Eur Respir Rev 2021 Jun 29;30(160). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Dept of General Paediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Medical Centre - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Granulomatous inflammation of the lung can be a manifestation of different conditions and can be caused by endogenous inflammation or external triggers. A multitude of different genetic mutations can either predispose patients to infections with granuloma-forming pathogens or cause autoinflammatory disorders, both leading to the phenotype of pulmonary granulomatosis. Based on a detailed patient history, physical examination and a diagnostic approach including laboratory workup, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), computed tomography (CT) scans, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung biopsies and specialised microbiological and immunological diagnostics, a correct diagnosis of an underlying cause of pulmonary granulomatosis of genetic origin can be made and appropriate therapy can be initiated. Read More

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The Role of RhoH in TCR Signalling and Its Involvement in Diseases.

Cells 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

As an atypical member of the Rho family small GTPases, RhoH shares less than 50% sequence similarity with other members, and its expression is commonly observed in the haematopoietic lineage. To date, RhoH function was observed in regulating T cell receptor signalling, and less is known in other haematopoietic cells. Its activation may not rely on the standard GDP/GTP cycling of small G proteins and is thought to be constitutively active because critical amino acids involved in GTP hydrolysis are absent. Read More

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Passive Immunoprophylaxis against Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children: Where Are We Now?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare (IRCCS), Sant'Orsola Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) represents the main cause of acute respiratory tract infections in children worldwide and is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants. RSV infection is a self-limiting condition and does not require antibiotics. However hospitalized infants with clinical bronchiolitis often receive antibiotics for fear of bacteria coinfection, especially when chest radiography is performed due to similar radiographic appearance of infiltrate and atelectasis. Read More

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Case Report: Infantile-Onset Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Caused by Novel Compound Heterozygous Variants.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:677572. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency is a subtype of common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Numerous case reports and cohort studies have described a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and variable disease phenotypes, including immune dysregulation, enteropathy, and recurrent infections. Although LRBA deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency resulting in a phenotype similar to CVID, it is a monogenic disease and separate from CVID. Read More

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Update on Real-World Use of Subcutaneous Immunoglobulins in Patients with Immunodeficiencies: Poster Extracts from the 19th Biennial Meeting of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Baxalta Innovations GmbH, a Takeda company, Austria.

SummaryImmunoglobulin replacement therapy has been shown in clinical trials to be an important therapeutic option for reducing the incidence of serious bacterial infections and improving the quality of life in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies (PID and SID, respectively). This article summarizes a poster series presented at the 19th Biennial Meeting of the European Society for Immunodeficiencies (October 14-17, 2020) further evaluating real-world usage and patient/physician experience with Immune Globulin Subcutaneous (Human) 20% Solution (Ig20Gly) in patients with PID and facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (fSCIG) in patients with PID or SID. Read More

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Immune activation and chronic inflammation: Is there an additional effect of HIV in a geriatric population?

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25678

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hôtel Dieu CHU Nantes, INSERM UIC 1413, CHU Nantes, France.

Abstract: HIV infection has become a chronic disease, with a lower mortality, but a consequent increase in age-related noninfectious comorbidities. Metabolic disorders have been linked to the effect of cART as well to the effects of immune activation and chronic inflammation. Whereas it is known that aging is intrinsically associated with hyperinflammation and immune system deterioration, the relative impact of chronic HIV infection on such inflammatory and immune activation has not yet been studied focusing on an elderly HIV-infected population. Read More

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Case Report: Interferon-γ Restores Monocytic Human Leukocyte Antigen Receptor (mHLA-DR) in Severe COVID-19 With Acquired Immunosuppression Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:645124. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical, Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II characterized by monocytes CD14+ expression of human leukocyte antigen receptors (HLA-DR), is essential for the synapse between innate and adaptive immune response in infectious disease. Its reduced expression is associated with a high risk of secondary infections in septic patients and can be safely corrected by Interferon-y (IFNy) injection. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) induces an alteration of Interferon (IFN) genes expression potentially responsible for the observed low HLA-DR expression in circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR). Read More

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