557,281 results match your criteria immunity

Predictors of adherence to a gluten-free diet in celiac disease: Do knowledge, attitudes, experiences, symptoms, and quality of life play a role?

Nutrition 2021 Mar 26;90:111249. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

King's College London, Department of Nutritional Sciences, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the relationship between adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) and demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding celiac disease (CD) and GFD, experiences of following a GFD, symptoms, and quality of life (QoL).

Methods: Patients with CD were recruited from outpatient clinics. Adherence to GFD was assessed using the CD adherence test (CDAT) and GFD score (GFD-S). Read More

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Bivalve haemocyte adhesion, aggregation and phagocytosis: a tool to reckon arsenic induced threats to freshwater ecosystem.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Zoology, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata, PIN 700019, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

The freshwater aquifers of the Indo-Gangetic plains support rich biodiversity which is under the threat of arsenic contamination. The filter feeding bivalve mollusc Lamellidens marginalis is a sessile and sentinel resident of these freshwater habitats. In the present study, the classical cell behaviours of adhesion and aggregation were monitored in the circulating haemocytes of the freshwater bivalve under the exposure of sodium arsenite (NaAsO) at sublethal concentrations in controlled laboratory conditions for a maximum time-span of sixteen days. Read More

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RIPK1 activation mediates neuroinflammation and disease progression in multiple sclerosis.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109112

Sanofi, Neurological Diseases, 49 New York Ave., Framingham, MA 01701, USA. Electronic address:

Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) mediates cell death and inflammatory signaling and is increased in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain samples. Here, we investigate the role of glial RIPK1 kinase activity in mediating MS pathogenesis. We demonstrate RIPK1 levels correlate with MS disease progression. Read More

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Dynamic modulation of spleen germinal center reactions by gut bacteria during Plasmodium infection.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109094

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA; Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Herman B. Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota educate the local and distal immune system in early life to imprint long-term immunological outcomes while maintaining the capacity to dynamically modulate the local mucosal immune system throughout life. It is unknown whether gut microbiota provide signals that dynamically regulate distal immune responses following an extra-gastrointestinal infection. We show here that gut bacteria composition correlated with the severity of malaria in children. Read More

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Transferrable protection by gut microbes against STING-associated lung disease.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109113

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA; Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

STING modulates immunity by responding to bacterial and endogenous cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs). Humans and mice with STING gain-of-function mutations develop a syndrome known as STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI), which is characterized by inflammatory or fibrosing lung disease. We hypothesized that hyperresponsiveness of gain-of-function STING to bacterial CDNs might explain autoinflammatory lung disease in SAVI mice. Read More

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Erythroid precursors and progenitors suppress adaptive immunity and get invaded by SARS-CoV-2.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May;16(5):1165-1181

School of Dentistry, Division of Foundational Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2E1, AB, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2E1, AB, Canada; Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2E1, AB, Canada; Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2E1, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with lower blood oxygen levels, even in patients without hypoxia requiring hospitalization. This discordance illustrates the need for a more unifying explanation as to whether SARS-CoV-2 directly or indirectly affects erythropoiesis. Here, we show significantly enriched CD71 erythroid precursors/progenitors in the blood circulation of COVID-19 patients. Read More

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Glycolytic ATP fuels phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling to support effector T helper 17 cell responses.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):976-987.e7

Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunology and Microbial Pathogenesis Graduate Program, Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Louis V. Gerstner Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Aerobic glycolysis-the Warburg effect-converts glucose to lactate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and is a metabolic feature of effector T cells. Cells generate ATP through various mechanisms and Warburg metabolism is comparatively an energy-inefficient glucose catabolism pathway. Here, we examined the effect of ATP generated via aerobic glycolysis in antigen-driven T cell responses. Read More

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Six distinct NFκB signaling codons convey discrete information to distinguish stimuli and enable appropriate macrophage responses.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):916-930.e7

Institute for Quantitative and Computational Biosciences (QCBio), Molecular Biology Institute (MBI), and Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics (MIMG), University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 611 Charles E. Young Dr S, Los Angeles, CA 90093. Electronic address:

Macrophages initiate inflammatory responses via the transcription factor NFκB. The temporal pattern of NFκB activity determines which genes are expressed and thus, the type of response that ensues. Here, we examined how information about the stimulus is encoded in the dynamics of NFκB activity. Read More

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Fibroblast-macrophage reciprocal interactions in health, fibrosis, and cancer.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):903-915

Department of Cancer Immunology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Fibroblasts and macrophages are present in all tissues, and mounting evidence supports that these cells engage in direct communication to influence the overall tissue microenvironment and affect disease outcomes. Here, we review the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fibroblast-macrophage interactions in health, fibrosis, and cancer. We present an integrated view of fibroblast-macrophage interactions that is centered on the CSF1-CSF1R axis and discuss how additional molecular programs linking these cell types can underpin disease onset, progression, and resolution. Read More

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Redefining macrophage and neutrophil biology in the metastatic cascade.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):885-902

MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Tumor cells metastasize to distant organs through a complex series of events that are driven by tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In particular, non-malignant stromal cells, including immune cells, modify tumor metastatic behavior. Of these cells, tumor-associated innate immune cells, particularly macrophages and neutrophils, suppress the cytotoxic activity of innate and adaptive killer cells and interact with tumor cells to promote their growth and malignancy. Read More

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MDSC: Markers, development, states, and unaddressed complexity.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):875-884

The Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; The Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Human Immune Monitoring Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are one of the most discussed biological entities in immunology. While the context and classification of this group of cells has evolved, MDSCs most commonly describe cells arising during chronic inflammation, especially late-stage cancers, and are defined by their T cell immunosuppressive functions. This MDSC concept has helped explain myeloid phenomena associated with disease outcome, but currently lacks clear definitions and a unifying framework across pathologies. Read More

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Fungus fuels mucosal wounds in Crohn's disease.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):856-858

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Intestinal microbiome perturbation characterizes Crohn's disease (CD), though specific contributors to pathophysiology remain elusive. In a recent issue of Science, Jain et al. show that Debaryomyces hansenii impairs intestinal healing in mice via effects on type I interferon signaling and chemokine CCL5 expression in macrophages and that it is also prevalent in the inflamed mucosa of CD patients. Read More

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Cancer cells relax and resist cytotoxic attack.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):853-855

Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

When it comes to cancer evading the immune response, antigen presentation usually gets all the attention. In this issue of Immunity, Tello-Lafoz et al. reveal that cancer cells have another card up their sleeve: by regulating gene expression to "soften" their actin cytoskeleton, cancer cells limit susceptibility to lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxic attack. Read More

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Shining light on the neuro-immune axis in the gut.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):850-852

Center of Intestinal Neuro-immune Interaction, Translational Research Center for GI Disorders (TARGID), Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing, KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

In this issue of Immunity, Schiller et al. report that local sympathetic nerve activation decreases endothelial expression of the adhesion molecule MAdCAM-1, reducing immune cell infiltration and colitis-induced inflammation. These findings suggest that local sympathetic stimulation provides a key gateway for regulating organ homeostasis. Read More

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Fibroblast tissue priming-not so nice to C you!

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):847-850

Complement and Inflammation Research Section, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Institute for Systemic Inflammation Research, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms explaining why relapses of inflammatory arthritis occur at previously affected sites are unknown. In this issue of Immunity, Friščić et al. propose that local fibroblasts perpetuate inflammation after priming through cell-intrinsic complement C3, which reprograms their bioenergetics and activates the inflammasome. Read More

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Time will tell: The temporal code of immune threats.

Immunity 2021 May;54(5):845-847

Department of Immunology and Center for Systems Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Activation of NF-κB is a common downstream consequence of inflammatory stimulation, yet it achieves stimulus-specific transcriptional responses. In this issue of Immunity, Adelaja et al. use single-cell imaging and computational approaches to understand temporal features of NF-κB dynamics that transmit information about immune threats. Read More

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Virus-mediated inactivation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members promotes Gasdermin-E-dependent pyroptosis in barrier epithelial cells.

Immunity 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Two sets of innate immune proteins detect pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) bind microbial products, whereas guard proteins detect virulence factor activities by the surveillance of homeostatic processes within cells. While PRRs are well known for their roles in many types of infections, the role of guard proteins in most infectious contexts remains less understood. Read More

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The inhibitory receptor TIM-3 limits activation of the cGAS-STING pathway in intra-tumoral dendritic cells by suppressing extracellular DNA uptake.

Immunity 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Immunology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA; Department of Breast Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Electronic address:

Blockade of the inhibitory receptor TIM-3 shows efficacy in cancer immunotherapy clinical trials. TIM-3 inhibits production of the chemokine CXCL9 by XCR1 classical dendritic cells (cDC1), thereby limiting antitumor immunity in mammary carcinomas. We found that increased CXCL9 expression by splenic cDC1s upon TIM-3 blockade required type I interferons and extracellular DNA. Read More

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The Immunity Clock.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Genetics, Physiology and Microbiology (Unity of Animal Physiology), Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid (UCM), Madrid, Spain.

The immune system has been for long considered a marker of health. The age-related decline in its function results in a greater incidence of infections, autoimmune diseases and cancer. Nevertheless, it is still not known if immune function can be used to accurately estimate the rate of aging of an individual. Read More

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The duration of antibiotic treatment is associated with carriage of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of Clostridioides difficile in dogs.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0245949. Epub 2021 May 12.

Veterinary Pathology, Public Health and Disease Investigation, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Clostridioides difficile is a leading cause of human antibiotic-associated diarrhoeal disease globally. Zoonotic reservoirs of infection are increasingly suspected to play a role in the emergence of this disease in the community and dogs are considered as one potential source. Here we use a canine case-control study at a referral veterinary hospital in Scotland to assess: i) the risk factors associated with carriage of C. Read More

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Glyphosate inhibits melanization and increases susceptibility to infection in insects.

PLoS Biol 2021 May 12;19(5):e3001182. Epub 2021 May 12.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Melanin, a black-brown pigment found throughout all kingdoms of life, has diverse biological functions including UV protection, thermoregulation, oxidant scavenging, arthropod immunity, and microbial virulence. Given melanin's broad roles in the biosphere, particularly in insect immune defenses, it is important to understand how exposure to ubiquitous environmental contaminants affects melanization. Glyphosate-the most widely used herbicide globally-inhibits melanin production, which could have wide-ranging implications in the health of many organisms, including insects. Read More

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Nanobased Platforms for Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19: From Benchtop to Bedside.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Materials Interfaces, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera 56025, Pisa, Italy.

Human respiratory viral infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Among the various respiratory viruses, coronaviruses (e.g. Read More

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PGD /CRTH2 signaling promotes acquired immunity against bee venom by enhancing IgE production.

FASEB J 2021 Jun;35(6):e21616

Animal Radiology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

IgE-dependent/independent activation of mast cell (MC) has been assumed to play a host defensive role against venom injection in skin. However, its detailed mechanisms remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the contribution of MC-derived prostaglandin D (PGD )-mediated signaling in host defense against bee venom (BV). Read More

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Cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts all-cause mortality in pulmonary hypertension associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, England.

This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and associated pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary hypertension-HFpEF). Patients with pulmonary hypertension-HFpEF were recruited from the ASPIRE registry and underwent right heart catheterisation (RHC) and CMR. On RHC, the inclusion criteria was a mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) ≥ 25 mmHg and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure > 15 mmHg and, on CMR, a left atrial volume > 41 ml/m with left ventricular ejection fraction > 50%. Read More

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Persisting Salivary IgG against SARS-CoV-2 at 9 Months After Mild COVID-19: A Complementary Approach to Population Surveys.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Karolinska Institutet, Department of Dental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Declining humoral immunity in COVID-19 patients and the possibility of reinfection have raised concern. Mucosal immunity, particularly salivary antibodies, may be short-lived although long-term studies are lacking.

Methods: Using a multiplex bead-based array platform, we investigated antibodies specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins in 256 saliva samples from convalescent patients 1-9 months after symptomatic COVID-19 (n=74, Cohort 1), undiagnosed individuals with self-reported questionnaires (n=147, Cohort 2), and individuals sampled pre-pandemic time (n= 35, Cohort 3). Read More

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PaIntDB: Network-based omics integration and visualization using protein-protein interactions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centre for Microbial Diseases and Immunity Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Summary: The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Interaction Database, PaIntDB, is an intuitive web-based tool for network-based systems biology analyses using protein-protein interactions (PPI) in this medically-important pathogen. It enables the integration and visualization of omics analyses including RNA-Seq and Tn-Seq. High-throughput datasets can be mapped onto PPI networks, which can be explored visually and filtered to uncover novel putative molecular pathways related to the conditions of study. Read More

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Ferroptosis in infection, inflammation, and immunity.

J Exp Med 2021 Jun 12;218(6). Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangzhou Municipal and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation, The Third Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Ferroptosis is a type of regulated necrosis that is triggered by a combination of iron toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and plasma membrane damage. The upstream inducers of ferroptosis can be divided into two categories (biological versus chemical) and activate two major pathways (the extrinsic/transporter versus the intrinsic/enzymatic pathways). Excessive or deficient ferroptotic cell death is implicated in a growing list of physiological and pathophysiological processes, coupled to a dysregulated immune response. Read More

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NHR-49/PPAR-α and HLH-30/TFEB cooperate for host defense via a flavin-containing monooxygenase.

Elife 2021 May 12;10. Epub 2021 May 12.

Microbiology and Physiological Systems, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, United States.

The model organism mounts transcriptional defense responses against intestinal bacterial infections that elicit overlapping starvation and infection responses, the regulation of which is not well understood. Direct comparison of that were starved or infected with revealed a large infection-specific transcriptional signature, which was almost completely abrogated by deletion of transcription factor , except for six genes including a flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) gene, . Deletion of severely compromised infection survival, thus identifying the first FMO with innate immunity functions in animals. Read More

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CCL5-Deficiency Promotes HCC Progression by Affecting B-cell Recruitment.

J Dig Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Hepatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Abnormal expression of C-C chemokine motif ligand 5 (CCL5) occurs in many solid tumors. The mechanism by which CCL5 affects hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor progression is still unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the expression level of CCL5 in HCC, explore the function of CCL5 in regulating the immune microenvironment, and elaborate its regulatory mechanism involved in tumor immunity. Read More

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Beyond cytokines: Influences of the endocrine system on human immune homeostasis.

Simon Milling

Immunology 2021 Jun;163(2):113-114

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The immune system must be tightly controlled to prevent potentially damaging over-response to pathogens and must also be actively maintained in a responsive state when no immediate threat is present. These processes of control and maintenance are important for sustaining a state of immune homeostasis and are controlled by a network of cellular and molecular interactions. Here, we highlight a recent publication in Immunology (2021) where the authors have examined the effects of the thyroid and pituitary hormones, thyrotrophin and thyroxine, on immune homeostasis in humans. Read More

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