7,579 results match your criteria immune neural


Deficiency of innate immunity against enhances behavioral avoidance via the HECW-1/NPR-1 module in .

Infect Immun 2021 Jul 26:IAI0006721. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, and College of Life Science, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China.

To antagonize infection of pathogenic bacteria in soil and confer increased survival, employs innate immunity and behavioral avoidance synchronously as the two main defensive strategies. Although both biological processes and their individual signaling pathways have been partially elucidated, knowledge of their interrelationship remains limited. The current study reveals that deficiency of innate immunity triggered by mutation of the classic immune gene promotes avoidance behavior in ; and vice versa. Read More

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Histological Studies of the Ventricular-Subventricular Zone as Neural Stem Cell and Glioma Stem Cell Niche.

J Histochem Cytochem 2021 Jul 26:221554211032003. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

The neural stem cell niche of the ventricular-subventricular zone supports the persistence of stem and progenitor cells in the mature brain. This niche has many notable cytoarchitectural features that affect the activity of stem cells and may also support the survival and growth of invading tumor cells. Histochemical studies of the niche have revealed many proteins that, in combination, can help to reveal stem-like cells in the normal or cancer context, although many caveats persist in the quest to consistently identify these cells in the human brain. Read More

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LAG3 is not expressed in human and murine neurons and does not modulate α-synucleinopathies.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Jul 26:e14745. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Institute of Neuropathology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

While the initial pathology of Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies is often confined to circumscribed brain regions, it can spread and progressively affect adjacent and distant brain locales. This process may be controlled by cellular receptors of α-synuclein fibrils, one of which was proposed to be the LAG3 immune checkpoint molecule. Here, we analysed the expression pattern of LAG3 in human and mouse brains. Read More

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Profiling of Sexually Dimorphic Genes in Neural Cells to Identify , Whose Overexpression Causes Autism-Like Behaviors in Male Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:669798. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, Institute for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Many neurological disorders exhibit sex differences and sex-specific therapeutic responses. Unfortunately, significant amounts of studies investigating molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these neurological disorders use primary cell cultures with undetermined sexes; and this may be a source for contradictory results among different studies and impair the validity of study conclusion. Herein, we comprehensively compared sexual dimorphism of gene expression in primary neurons, astrocytes, and microglia derived from neonatal mouse brains. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence Enhances Studies on Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 8;9:635764. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is an idiopathic condition related to a dysregulated immune response to commensal intestinal microflora in a genetically susceptible host. As a global disease, the morbidity of IBD reached a rate of 84.3 per 100,000 persons and reflected a continued gradual upward trajectory. Read More

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Mechanisms and Clinical Trials of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunotherapy.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:691391. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Oncology, Center for Molecular Medicine, School of Basic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most common and lethal tumors worldwide, is usually not diagnosed until the disease is advanced, which results in ineffective intervention and unfavorable prognosis. Small molecule targeted drugs of HCC, such as sorafenib, provided only about 2.8 months of survival benefit, partially due to cancer stem cell resistance. Read More

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The CD8 T Cell-Epstein-Barr Virus-B Cell Trialogue: A Central Issue in Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:665718. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

The cause and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), are still under scrutiny. During the last decade, awareness has increased that multiple genetic and environmental factors act in concert to modulate MS risk. Likewise, the landscape of cells of the adaptive immune system that are believed to play a role in MS immunopathogenesis has expanded by including not only CD4 T helper cells but also cytotoxic CD8 T cells and B cells. Read More

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Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Diseases of the CNS: Challenges and Approaches to Diagnosis and Management.

Front Neurol 2021 7;12:673339. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Antibody-mediated disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) are increasingly recognized as neurologic disorders that can be severe and even life-threatening but with the potential for reversibility with appropriate treatment. The expanding spectrum of newly identified autoantibodies targeting glial or neuronal (neural) antigens and associated clinical syndromes (ranging from autoimmune encephalitis to CNS demyelination) has increased diagnostic precision, and allowed critical reinterpretation of non-specific neurological syndromes historically associated with systemic disorders (e.g. Read More

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Id proteins: emerging roles in CNS disease and targets for modifying neural stemcell behavior.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are found in the adult brain and spinal cord, and endogenous or transplanted NSPCs contribute to repair processes and regulate immune responses in the CNS. However, the molecular mechanisms of NSPC survival and integration as well as their fate determination and functionality are still poorly understood. Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins are increasingly recognized as key determinants of NSPC fate specification. Read More

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International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 22;8(5). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Paediatric Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit (M.N.), Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova; Neuroimmunology Group (M.N.), Paediatric Research Institute "Città della Speranza," Padova, Italy; Department of Paediatrics (T.T.), Neurology Service, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences (M.E.), King's College London; Children's Neurosciences (M.E.), Evelina London Children's Hospital at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Pediatric Neurology (B.A.), Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; Neuroimmunology Program (T.A.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona; Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit (T.A.), Neurology Department, Sant Joan de Déu (SJD) Children's Hospital, University of Barcelona, Spain; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (S.M.B.), Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Division of Rheumatology (T.C.), Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (K.D.), Pediatric Neurology Department, University Hospitals Paris Saclay, Bicêtre Hospital, France; French Reference Network of Rare Inflammatory Brain and Spinal Diseases (K.D.), Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France and European Reference Network-RITA; Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics (W.G.), Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, CA; Division of Pediatric Neurology (G.G.), Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, GA; Department of Neurology (M.P.G.), Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Neuroinflammation (Y.H.), Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London; Department of Paediatric Neurology (Y.H.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom; Department of Pediatrics (Y.J.), Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Department of Pediatrics (B.C.L.), Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience Center, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea; Department of Pediatrics (E.M.), Section Rheumatology, Co-appointment in the Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Division of Paediatric Neurology (A.N.), Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town; Faculty of Health Sciences (A.N.), University of Cape Town Neuroscience Institute, South Africa; Department of Neurology (R.N.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Neurology (K.R.), Children's Hospital Datteln, University Witten/Herdecke, Germany; Department of Brain and Neural Science (H.S.), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan; Department of Pediatrics (Neurology Division) (S.S.), Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India; Department of Neurology (S.N.T.), National Pediatric Hospital Dr. J. Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Department of Pediatrics (H.A.V.M.), Duke University, Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (E.W.), Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC; Neuropaediatric Unit (R.W.), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology (A.K.Y.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York; Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group (S.R.I.), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital; Department of Neurology (S.R.I.), Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Neuroimmunology Program (J.D.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain; Children's Neurosciences (M.L.), Evelina London Children's Hospital at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust; King's Health Partners Academic Health Science Centre (M.L.); Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine (M.L.), King's College Hospital, United Kingdom; and Kids Neuroscience Centre (R.C.D.), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To create an international consensus treatment recommendation for pediatric NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE).

Methods: After selection of a panel of 27 experts with representation from all continents, a 2-step Delphi method was adopted to develop consensus on relevant treatment regimens and statements, along with key definitions in pediatric NMDARE (disease severity, failure to improve, and relapse). Finally, an online face-to-face meeting was held to reach consensus (defined as ≥75% agreement). Read More

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Complement C4 Is Reduced in iPSC-Derived Astrocytes of Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 15;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, 05652-900 São Paulo, Brazil.

In recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that the innate immune complement system is involved in several aspects of normal brain development and in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although abnormal expression of complement components was observed in post-mortem brain samples from individuals with ASD, little is known about the expression patterns of complement molecules in distinct cell types in the developing autistic brain. In the present study, we characterized the mRNA and protein expression profiles of a wide range of complement system components, receptors and regulators in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells, neurons and astrocytes of individuals with ASD and neurotypical controls, which constitute in vitro cellular models that recapitulate certain features of both human brain development and ASD pathophysiology. Read More

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Toll-Like Receptor 9-Mediated Neuronal Innate Immune Reaction Is Associated with Initiating a Pro-Regenerative State in Neurons of the Dorsal Root Ganglia Non-Associated with Sciatic Nerve Lesion.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Cellular and Molecular Research Group, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, CZ-62500 Brno, Czech Republic.

One of the changes brought about by Wallerian degeneration distal to nerve injury is disintegration of axonal mitochondria and consequent leakage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-the natural ligand for the toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). RT-PCR and immunohistochemical or Western blot analyses were used to detect TLR9 mRNA and protein respectively in the lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C7-C8) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) ipsilateral and contralateral to a sterile unilateral sciatic nerve compression or transection. The unilateral sciatic nerve lesions led to bilateral increases in levels of both TLR9 mRNA and protein not only in the lumbar but also in the remote cervical DRG compared with naive or sham-operated controls. Read More

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Targeting Immune Modulators in Glioma While Avoiding Autoimmune Conditions.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Anatomy, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden School of Medicine, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Communication signals and signaling pathways are often studied in different physiological systems. However, it has become abundantly clear that the immune system is not self-regulated, but functions in close association with the nervous system. The neural-immune interface is complex; its balance determines cancer progression, as well as autoimmune disorders. Read More

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Grand Challenges in Musculoskeletal Pain Research: Chronicity, Comorbidity, Immune Regulation, Sex Differences, Diagnosis, and Treatment Opportunities.

Authors:
Ke Ren

Front Pain Res (Lausanne) 2020 Oct 23;1. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States.

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October 2020

Contextual Fear Memory Maintenance Changes Expression of pMAPK, BDNF and IBA-1 in the Pre-limbic Cortex in a Layer-Specific Manner.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 6;15:660199. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and chronic fear-based disorder. Pavlovian fear conditioning protocols have long been utilised to manipulate and study these fear-based disorders. Contextual fear conditioning (CFC) is a particular Pavlovian conditioning procedure that pairs fear with a particular context. Read More

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Efficient roles of miR-146a in cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammatory disorders: An effectual review in neuroimmunology.

Immunol Lett 2021 Jul 19;238:1-20. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Known as one of the most sophisticated systems of the human body, the nervous system consists of neural cells and controls all parts of the body. It is closely related to the immune system. The effects of inflammation and immune reactions have been observed in the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. Read More

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Geospatial Analysis of Neighborhood Environmental Stress in Relation to Biological Markers of Cardiovascular Health and Health Behaviors in Women: Protocol for a Pilot Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jul 22;10(7):e29191. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Social Determinants of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk Laboratory, Cardiovascular Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Background: Innovative analyses of cardiovascular (CV) risk markers and health behaviors linked to neighborhood stressors are essential to further elucidate the mechanisms by which adverse neighborhood social conditions lead to poor CV outcomes. We propose to objectively measure physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and neighborhood stress using accelerometers, GPS, and real-time perceived ecological momentary assessment via smartphone apps and to link these to biological measures in a sample of White and African American women in Washington, DC, neighborhoods.

Objective: The primary aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that living in adverse neighborhood social conditions is associated with higher stress-related neural activity among 60 healthy women living in high or low socioeconomic status neighborhoods in Washington, DC. Read More

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Function of cofactor Akirin2 in the regulation of gene expression in model human Caucasian neutrophil-like HL60 cells.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jul;41(7)

SaBio, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC-CSIC-UCLM-JCCM, Ronda de Toledo s/n, Ciudad Real 13005, Spain.

The Akirin family of transcription cofactors are involved throughout the metazoan in the regulation of different biological processes (BPs) such as immunity, interdigital regression, muscle and neural development. Akirin do not have catalytic or DNA-binding capability and exert its regulatory function primarily through interacting proteins such as transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, and RNA-associated proteins. In the present study, we focused on the human Akirin2 regulome and interactome in neutrophil-like model human Caucasian promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells. Read More

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Transcriptome-wide association study for inflammatory bowel disease reveals novel candidate susceptibility genes in specific colon subsites and tissue categories.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Oncology Data Analytics Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Genome-wide association studies [GWAS] for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have identified 240 risk variants. However, the benefit of understanding the genetic architecture of IBD remains to be exploited. Transcriptome-wide association studies [TWAS] associate gene expression with genetic susceptibility to disease, providing functional insight into risk loci. Read More

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CXCL12 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1302:51-70

Microenvironment Molecular Targets, Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS - Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy.

Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the local environment of tumor, composed of tumor cells and blood vessels, extracellular matrix (ECM), immune cells, and metabolic and signaling molecules. Chemokines and their receptors play a fundamental role in the crosstalk between tumor cells and TME, regulating tumor-related angiogenesis, specific leukocyte infiltration, and activation of the immune response and directly influencing tumor cell growth, invasion, and cancer progression. The chemokine CXCL12 is a homeostatic chemokine that regulates physiological and pathological process such as inflammation, cell proliferation, and specific migration. Read More

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Development of a Deep-Learning Pipeline to Recognize and Characterize Macrophages in Colo-Rectal Liver Metastasis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pathology, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Italy.

Quantitative analysis of Tumor Microenvironment (TME) provides prognostic and predictive information in several human cancers but, with few exceptions, it is not performed in daily clinical practice since it is extremely time-consuming. We recently showed that the morphology of Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) correlates with outcome in patients with Colo-Rectal Liver Metastases (CLM). However, as for other TME components, recognizing and characterizing hundreds of TAMs in a single histopathological slide is unfeasible. Read More

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The role of macrophage polarization and associated mechanisms in regulating the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture: a literature review and perspectives.

Chin Med 2021 Jul 19;16(1):56. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Research Center of Experimental Acupuncture Science, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.10 Poyang Lake Road, Tuanbo New Town, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301617, People's Republic of China.

Acupuncture is used in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions and diseases. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory action are complex and have not been systematically investigated. Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system, thus, balancing the M1/M2 macrophage ratio and modulating cytokine levels in the inflammatory environment may be desirable therapeutic goals. Read More

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Microglia, Cytokines, and Neural Activity: Unexpected Interactions in Brain Development and Function.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:703527. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Neuroscience Department, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, United States.

Intercellular signaling molecules such as cytokines and their receptors enable immune cells to communicate with one another and their surrounding microenvironments. Emerging evidence suggests that the same signaling pathways that regulate inflammatory responses to injury and disease outside of the brain also play powerful roles in brain development, plasticity, and function. These observations raise the question of how the same signaling molecules can play such distinct roles in peripheral tissues compared to the central nervous system, a system previously thought to be largely protected from inflammatory signaling. Read More

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Pre-clinical study of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the treatment of traumatic brain injury: safety evaluation from immunogenic and oncogenic perspectives.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Feb;17(2):354-361

Basic Medical Laboratory, General Hospital of the Central Theater Command; Hubei Key Laboratory of Central Nervous System Tumor and Intervention, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.

Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, animal experiments are needed to evaluate safety; in particular, to examine the immunogenicity and tumorigenicity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) before clinical application. In this study, huMSCs were harvested from human amniotic membrane and umbilical cord vascular tissue. Read More

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February 2022

Dying by fire: noncanonical functions of autophagy proteins in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Feb;17(2):246-250

USF Health Byrd Alzheimer's Center and Neuroscience Institute; Department of Molecular Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA.

Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration are key components in the establishment and progression of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Over the past decade increasing evidence is emerging for the use of components of the canonical autophagy machinery in pathways that are characterized by LC3 lipidation yet are distinct from traditional macro-autophagy. One such pathway that utilizes components of the autophagy machinery to target LC3 to endosomes, a process termed LC3-associated endocytosis (LANDO), has recently been identified and regulates neuroinflammation. Read More

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February 2022

CD206 Expression in Induced Microglia-Like Cells From Peripheral Blood as a Surrogate Biomarker for the Specific Immune Microenvironment of Neurosurgical Diseases Including Glioma.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:670131. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Targeting the unique glioma immune microenvironment is a promising approach in developing breakthrough immunotherapy treatments. However, recent advances in immunotherapy, including the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, have not improved the outcomes of patients with glioma. A way of monitoring biological activity of immune cells in neural tissues affected by glioma should be developed to address this lack of sensitivity to immunotherapy. Read More

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Systems biology informed neural networks (SBINN) predict response and novel combinations for PD-1 checkpoint blockade.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 15;4(1):877. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy has recently shown tremendous success for the treatment of several aggressive cancers. However, variability and unpredictability in treatment outcome have been observed, and are thought to be driven by patient-specific biology and interactions of the patient's immune system with the tumor. Here we develop an integrative systems biology and machine learning approach, built around clinical data, to predict patient response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy and to improve the response rate. Read More

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Toward Equity: Understanding the Impact of Environmental Stressors on Neural-Immune Interactions During Childhood Development.

Authors:
Laurel S Morris

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Aug;90(3):138-140

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

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The Gene Family: From Embryo to Disease.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 28;14:672511. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, United States.

The genes encode gated chloride channels that are found in animals, plants, and even simple eukaryotes, signifying their deep evolutionary origin. In vertebrates, the gene family is highly conserved and consists of three members-, and -that are important for the regulation of cell volume. While research has elucidated potential physiological functions of in neural stem cell maintenance, proliferation, and filopodia formation during neural development, the roles of and are less characterized, though their expression patterns during embryonic and fetal development suggest potential roles in the development of a wide range of tissues including a role in the immune system in response to pathogen-associated molecules. Read More

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Allergic diseases influence symptom severity and T lymphocyte subgroups of children with tic disorders.

J Investig Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China

Tic disorders (TD) are childhood-onset neurological disorders. Immune system dysregulation has been postulated to play a role in TD, and its mechanisms likely involve dysfunctional neural-immune cross-talk, which ultimately leads to altered maturation of the brain pathways that control different TD clinical manifestations and behavioral and emotional damages. Clinical studies have demonstrated an association between TD and allergies and overactive immune responses at a systemic level. Read More

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