4,144 results match your criteria immune modifying

Innate immunity stimulation via CpG oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates Alzheimer's disease pathology in aged squirrel monkeys.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Center for Cognitive Neurology and Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia and the only illness among the top 10 causes of death for which there is no disease-modifying therapy. The failure rate of clinical trials is very high, in part due to the premature translation of successful results in transgenic mouse models to patients. Extensive evidence suggests that dysregulation of innate immunity and microglia/macrophages plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Can rheumatologists stop causing demyelinating disease?

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 1;53:103057. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, E1 2AT, United Kingdom; Clinical Board:Medicine (Neuroscience), The Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Perhaps the most informative experiments in human disease are clinical trials and notably, responses to specific therapies can be highly-informative to help understand disease pathogenesis. There are reagents that inhibit a variety of different autoimmune conditions, such as CD20 memory B cell depleters that are active in both multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other conditions, suggesting influences on common immune mechanisms in different diseases. However, a notable exception seemed to be the use of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors that limits RA, yet seem to, rarely, trigger demyelination and induce MS. Read More

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Gut Microbiota Aberration in Patients of Systemic Sclerosis and Bleomycin-Induced Mice Model.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 28;11:647201. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an immune-mediated systemic autoimmune disease with unknown etiology, which has high morbidity and mortality. Current treatments to dispose of this disorder are limited. And there are still no ideal animal models that can fully replicate the four basic pathophysiological features of SSc, including vascular lesions, fibrosis, inflammation, and autoimmunity, let alone animal models specifically designed to study gastrointestinal lesions. Read More

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The Epidemiology of COVID-19 and MS-Related Characteristics in a National Sample of People With MS in China.

Front Neurol 2021 28;12:682729. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Few studies have focused on immune status and disease activity in MS patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study is to investigate immune status, COVID-19 infection, and attacks in MS patients during the pandemic. An online questionnaire about COVID-19 infection, MS attack, and MS treatment during the pandemic was administered to all 525 MS patients registered in our hospital database from January 1, 2011, to June 1, 2020. Read More

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Recognition and management of rapid-onset gluten ataxias: case series.

Cerebellum Ataxias 2021 Jun 13;8(1):16. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Academic department of neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Most immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias, including those associated with gluten sensitivity (Gluten Ataxia), tend to present subacutely and usually progress gradually. Acute presentations with rapid progression outside the context of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration require prompt diagnosis and early access to disease-modifying immunotherapy in order to avert severe and permanent neurological disability.

Case Presentations: We describe three cases of rapid-onset Gluten Ataxia, an immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia due to gluten sensitivity. Read More

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Cross-sectional analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in lymphopenic and non-lymphopenic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with dimethyl fumarate.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 7;52:103003. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Alberta Canada T6G 2M8, Edmonton, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. Dimethyl Fumarate is a disease-modifying medication used to treat RRMS patients that can induce lymphopenia. We aimed to immunophenotype peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RRMS patients cross-sectionally and examine the characteristics and modifications of lymphopenia over time. Read More

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The impact of a baked muffin matrix on the bioaccessibility and IgE reactivity of egg and peanut allergens.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;362:129879. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Baked matrices, such as muffin, may help to promote tolerance to food allergens by modifying allergen structure, digestibility, and capacity to stimulate the immune responses. However, the impact of the muffin matrix on the bioaccessibility of allergens in the gastrointestinal tract is not well understood. Muffin containing egg and peanut was subjected to in vitro oral-gastro-duodenal digestion. Read More

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Altered Immune Phenotypes and Gene Variation in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Failing Interferon Treatment.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:628375. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cytokine Signaling Unit, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: Interferon beta (IFN) has been prescribed as a first-line disease-modifying therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) for nearly three decades. However, there is still a lack of treatment response markers that correlate with the clinical outcome of patients.

Aim: To determine a combination of cellular and molecular blood signatures associated with the efficacy of IFN treatment using an integrated approach. Read More

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Characterization and Functional Analysis of Tumor-Derived Microparticles.

Curr Protoc 2021 Jun;1(6):e144

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan, China.

Microparticles (MPs) are heterogeneous populations of cell-derived vesicles that play an important role in intercellular communications. The release of MPs by tumor cells is a very common event in tumor microenvironments (TMEs). Tumor cell-derived MPs (T-MPs) contain a variety of bioactive molecules, thus modulating various biological processes, including the regulation of immune cell phenotype and function, as well as immune responses. Read More

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Sjögren's syndrome: a systemic autoimmune disease.

Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by ocular and oral dryness resulting from lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction. Besides, a variety of systemic manifestations may occur, involving virtually any organ system. As a result, the disease is characterized by pleomorphic clinical manifestations whose characteristics and severity may vary greatly from one patient to another. Read More

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CD34+ derived macrophage and dendritic cells display differential responses to paraquat.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Jun 9;75:105198. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Toxicology Department, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Harwell Campus, OX11 0RQ, UK. Electronic address:

Paraquat (PQ) is a redox cycling herbicide known for its acute toxicity in humans. Airway parenchymal cells have been identified as primary sites for PQ accumulation, tissue inflammation and cellular injury. However, the role of immune cells in PQ induced tissue injury is largely unknown. Read More

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Cholesterol metabolism: a new molecular switch to control inflammation.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Jun;135(11):1389-1408

Centre for Inflammation Biology and Cancer Immunology, Department of Inflammation Biology, King's College London, London, U.K.

The immune system protects the body against harm by inducing inflammation. During the immune response, cells of the immune system get activated, divided and differentiated in order to eliminate the danger signal. This process relies on the metabolic reprogramming of both catabolic and anabolic pathways not only to produce energy in the form of ATP but also to generate metabolites that exert key functions in controlling the response. Read More

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Vaccine Considerations for Multiple Sclerosis in the COVID-19 Era.

Adv Ther 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at risk for infections that can result in amplification of baseline symptoms and possibly trigger clinical relapses. Vaccination can prevent infection through the activation of humoral and cellular immune responses. This is particularly pertinent in the era of emerging novel vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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MAIT Cells and Microbiota in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Autoimmune Diseases.

Microorganisms 2021 May 24;9(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Centre for Experimental Neurological Therapies (CENTERS), Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy.

The functions of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells in homeostatic conditions include the interaction with the microbiota and its products, the protection of body barriers, and the mounting of a tissue-repair response to injuries or infections. Dysfunction of MAIT cells and dysbiosis occur in common chronic diseases of inflammatory, metabolic, and tumor nature. This review is aimed at analyzing the changes of MAIT cells, as well as of the microbiota, in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune disorders. Read More

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The Significance of COVID-19 Immunological Status in Severe Neurological Complications and Multiple Sclerosis-A Literature Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 31;22(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-276 Bialystok, Poland.

SARS-CoV-2/Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for the pandemic, which started in December 2019. In addition to the typical respiratory symptoms, this virus also causes other severe complications, including neurological ones. In diagnostics, serological and polymerase chain reaction tests are useful not only in detecting past infections but can also predict the response to vaccination. Read More

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Transcriptionally Active Chromatin-Lessons Learned from the Chicken Erythrocyte Chromatin Fractionation.

Cells 2021 May 30;10(6). Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada.

The chicken erythrocyte model system has been valuable to the study of chromatin structure and function, specifically for genes involved in oxygen transport and the innate immune response. Several seminal features of transcriptionally active chromatin were discovered in this system. Davie and colleagues capitalized on the unique features of the chicken erythrocyte to separate and isolate transcriptionally active chromatin and silenced chromatin, using a powerful native fractionation procedure. Read More

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Potential Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist Montelukast in Treatment of Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Laboratory of Translational Neuropharmacology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder where misfolded alpha-synuclein-enriched aggregates called Lewy bodies are central in pathogenesis. No neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments are currently available. Parkinson's disease is considered a multifactorial disease and evidence from multiple patient studies and animal models has shown a significant immune component during the course of the disease, highlighting immunomodulation as a potential treatment strategy. Read More

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Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomedicines 2021 May 7;9(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Translational Medicine International Clinical Research Centre, St. Anne's University Hospital, CZ-65691 Brno, Czech Republic.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with human aging. Ten percent of individuals over 65 years have AD and its prevalence continues to rise with increasing age. There are currently no effective disease modifying treatments for AD, resulting in increasingly large socioeconomic and personal costs. Read More

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Immunology of Acute and Chronic Wound Healing.

Biomolecules 2021 May 8;11(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan.

Skin wounds greatly affect the global healthcare system, creating a substantial burden on the economy and society. Moreover, the situation is exacerbated by low healing rates, which in fact are overestimated in reports. Cutaneous wounds are generally classified into acute and chronic. Read More

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β-Glucans as Dietary Supplement to Improve Locomotion and Mitochondrial Respiration in a Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Nutrients 2021 May 12;13(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked neuromuscular childhood disorder that causes progressive muscle weakness and degeneration. A lack of dystrophin in DMD leads to inflammatory response, autophagic dysregulation, and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle fibers that play a key role in the progression of the pathology. β-glucans can modulate immune function by modifying the phagocytic activity of immunocompetent cells, notably macrophages. Read More

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Exploratory Evaluation of the Relationship Between iNKT Cells and Systemic Cytokine Profiles of Critically Ill Patients with Neurological Injury.

Neurocrit Care 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive, NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Neurological injury can alter the systemic immune system, modifying the functional capacity of immune cells and causing a dysfunctional balance of cytokines, although mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to assess the temporal relationship between changes in the activation status of circulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and the balance of plasma cytokines among critically ill patients with neurological injury.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory prospective observational study of adult (18 years or older) intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute neurological injury (n = 20) compared with ICU patients without neurological injury (n = 22) and healthy controls (n = 10). Read More

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Pathophysiology of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: anti-IL-17 towards disease modification.

S Magina P Filipe

Drugs Today (Barc) 2021 May;57(5):347-357

Serviço de Dermatologia e Venereologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário Lisboa Norte, Lisboa, Portugal.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be triggered by injury, trauma, infection and medications. Genetic and immunologic studies have highlighted the importance of the interleukin (IL)-23/T-helper 17 (Th17) pathway in systemic psoriasis pathogenesis. Main IL-23 is an upstream regulatory cytokine with direct effects on epidermal keratinocytes and other resident skin cells while IL-17, a downstream molecule, can activate inflammatory responses in different cells across a diversity of organs. Read More

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Development of a Novel Fully Functional Coagulation Factor VIII with Reduced Immunogenicity Utilizing an In silico Prediction and Deimmunization Approach.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Biotest AG, Dreieich, Germany.

Background: Up to 30 % of Hemophilia A patients develop inhibitory antibodies against the infused Factor VIII (FVIII). The development of a deimmunized FVIII is an unmet high medical need. Although improved recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) products evolved within the last years, the immunogenicity has not been solved. Read More

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Tacrolimus exposure windows responsible for Listeria monocytogenes infection susceptibility.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 May 31:e13655. Epub 2021 May 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Tolerance, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA.

Tacrolimus is widely used to prevent graft rejection after allogeneic transplantation by suppressing T cells in a non-antigen-specific fashion. Global T cell suppression makes transplant recipients more susceptible to infection, especially infection by opportunistic intracellular pathogens. Infection followed by secondary challenge with the opportunistic intracellular bacterial pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, was used to probe when tacrolimus most significantly impacts antimicrobial host defense. Read More

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PPAR agonists as effective adjuvants for COVID-19 vaccines, by modifying immunogenetics: a review of literature.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 31;19(1):82. Epub 2021 May 31.

Research Accessibility Team, Student and Internship research program, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Several coronavirus vaccine have been fast-tracked to halt the pandemic, the usage of immune adjuvants that can boost immunological memory has come up to the surface. This is particularly of importance in view of the rates of failure of seroconversion and re-infection after COVID-19 infection, which could make the vaccine role and response debatable. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have an established immune-modulatory role, but their effects as adjuvants to vaccination have not been explored to date. Read More

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Monocyte Transcriptional Profiling Highlights a Shift in Immune Signatures Over the Course of Illness in Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:649494. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychiatry, The Psychiatric Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

With advanced understanding of the intricate interplay between the immune and central nervous systems in neurological and neuropsychiatric illness, there is renewed interest in the potential contribution of immune dysregulation to the development and progression of schizophrenia. To inform this line of inquiry requires a more nuanced understanding of specific immune changes throughout the course of illness. Here, we utilized a genome-wide sequencing approach to transcriptionally profile circulating monocytes in participants with chronic schizophrenia. Read More

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Metabolic reprogramming and epigenetic modifications on the path to cancer.

Protein Cell 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Guangzhou First People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Institutes for Life Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Metabolic rewiring and epigenetic remodeling, which are closely linked and reciprocally regulate each other, are among the well-known cancer hallmarks. Recent evidence suggests that many metabolites serve as substrates or cofactors of chromatin-modifying enzymes as a consequence of the translocation or spatial regionalization of enzymes or metabolites. Various metabolic alterations and epigenetic modifications also reportedly drive immune escape or impede immunosurveillance within certain contexts, playing important roles in tumor progression. Read More

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Association Between Baseline Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies and 6-Month Clinical Response Following Abatacept or TNF Inhibitor Treatment: A Real-World Analysis of Biologic-Experienced Patients with RA.

Rheumatol Ther 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Albany Medical College and the Center for Rheumatology, 47 New Scotland Ave, Albany, NY, 12208, USA.

Introduction: Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are associated with poor prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous data from randomized controlled trials and clinical practice have shown anti-CCP-positive (+) patients had a better response to treatment with abatacept or tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) treatment than those who were anti-CCP negative. This study assessed the association between baseline anti-CCP2 [a surrogate for anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)] concentration and 6-month treatment responses to abatacept or TNFi in patients with RA. Read More

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