897,398 results match your criteria immune function


The relevance of vitamin D in the oral health of HIV infected patients.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 May 4:105905. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, PA, USA.

HIV infection affects 36.9 million people globally, and vitamin D deficiency is a global public health concern for HIV patients. Approximately 70% to 80% of HIV-infected patients have vitamin D deficiency. Read More

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Resolution of hepatitis E virus infection in CD8+ T cell depleted rhesus macaques.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: HEV is a significant cause of acute hepatitis globally. Some genotypes establish persistent infection when immunity is impaired. Adaptive immune mechanisms that mediate resolution of infection have not been identified. Read More

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Low dose of methylprednisolone for pain and immune function after thoracic surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of single low-dose preoperative methylprednisolone (MP) on the immunological function and postoperative pain of patients undergoing elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under general anesthesia.

Methods: Eighty-one patients who underwent elective video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to the MP Group or the Control Group. The T lymphocyte subsets of CD3, CD4, and CD8, the CD4/CD8 ratio at T (before anesthesia), T (after surgery), and T (24 h after surgery) were all recorded. Read More

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Whole transcriptome analysis of the differential RNA profiles and associated competing endogenous RNA networks in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI).

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251359. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious inflammation disease usually arises alveolar epithelial membrane dysfunction and even causes death. Therefore, the aims of this study are to screen the differentially expressed lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in ALI based on the high-throughput sequencing. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mouse model was established, the injury of ALI mouse model was evaluated through histological analysis with hemotoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining assay, dry/wet ratio, infiltrated-immune cells, ET-1 mRNA expression and released-proinflammation factors. Read More

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Effects of LI05 on immunity and metabolism in germ-free rats.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases and Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Many Pediococcus spp. have health-promoting benefits, and Pediococcus pentosaceus LI05 is one such species that was proved to be beneficial in previous studies. Our research aimed to determine the immune and metabolic effects of P. Read More

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Overexpression of miR-7977 in CD4+ T cells is associated with multiplex autoimmunity in patients with Addison's disease.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

M Ruchala, Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, 60-355, Poland.

Objective: Autoimmune Addison's disease (AD) results from a combination of the genetic predisposition, unclear environmental triggers and ensuing immune dysfunction. MicroRNA molecules (miRNAs) are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of numerous target genes, hence may affect the immune function and promote autoimmunity. A deregulated miRNAs profile was reported in several autoimmune conditions. Read More

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Fol-milR1, a pathogenicity factor of Fusarium oxysporum, confers tomato wilt disease resistance by impairing host immune responses.

New Phytol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, JS, 225009, China.

Although miRNAs are well known to play crucial roles in multiple biological processes, there is currently no evidence indicating milRNAs from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) interfere with tomato resistance during infection. Read More

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c-Rel employs multiple mechanisms to promote the thymic development and peripheral function of regulatory T cells in mice.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

The NF-κB transcription factor c-Rel is a critical regulator of regulatory T cell (Treg) ontogeny, controlling multiple points of the stepwise developmental pathway. Here, we found that the thymic Treg development defect in c-Rel-deficient (cRel ) mice is quantitative not qualitative based on analyses of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR signalling strength. However, these parameters were altered in the thymic Treg-precursor population, which is also markedly diminished in cRel mice. Read More

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Nano drug delivery system reconstruct tumor vasculature for the tumor vascular normalization.

J Drug Target 2021 May 7:1-46. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Medical University, No. 1160, Shengli Street, Yinchuan, 750004, China.

The specific tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in the occurrence and development of tumors. Among them, the abnormal structure and function of blood vessels in the tumor microenvironment are obvious characteristics of the tumor. Abnormal blood vessels with high leakage can lead to impaired blood perfusion and non-specific leakage of blood components into the surrounding interstitial spaces. Read More

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[Modern ideas about bulbourethral glands].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):128-134

V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia.

Bulbourethral glands are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system, the leading function of which is associated with ejaculation and includes both the neutralization of the acidic urine residues and environment of the female vagina, and friction reduction during the sexual intercourse. These glands play the role of immune barrier for urogenital infections, and also synthesize important autocrine and paracrine factors for the male urogenital system development. Glands pathologies usually have a subclinical course, however they can also lead to the functional disorders of the human urogenital system. Read More

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Dendritic cells support a proliferative antigen-specific T-cell response in the presence of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Biomaterials are known to modulate immune cell functions, which subsequently determine the host inflammatory and immune responses. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, a biodegradable and biocompatible biomaterial, induces a pro-inflammatory, mature phenotype in antigen presentation cells, namely dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. In vivo, PLGA can boost the humoral immune response to a co-delivered model antigen, a phenomenon known as the PLGA-adjuvant effect. Read More

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis effector PPE36 attenuates host cytokine storm damage via inhibiting macrophage M1 polarization.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Eco-Environment and Bio-Resource of the Three Gorges Area, Key Laboratory of Eco-environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Modern Biopharmaceuticals, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious global public health threat. Macrophage polarization is crucial for the innate immunity against M. tuberculosis. Read More

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Defining functional variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in the induced immune response.

Brain Commun 2021 19;3(2):fcab083. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.

Defining the mechanisms involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease from genome-wide association studies alone is challenging since Alzheimer's disease is polygenic and most genetic variants are non-coding. Non-coding Alzheimer's disease risk variants can influence gene expression by affecting miRNA binding and those located within enhancers and within CTCF sites may influence gene expression through alterations in chromatin states. In addition, their function can be cell-type specific. Read More

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Hepatitis C Virus Relapse After Ultrashort Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy Associates With Expression of Genes Involved With Natural Killer-Cell and CD8 T-Cell Function.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13;8(4):ofab118. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

To identify immunologic correlates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) relapse after direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, we quantified select immune transcripts in whole blood from noncirrhotic HCV subjects treated with 4-6 weeks of DAAs. We identified specific markers of natural killer-cell and CD8 T-cell function (, , ) with higher expression in subjects who relapsed. These findings suggest a role for host immunity in HCV eradication with ultrashort DAA therapy. Read More

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Shark Antibody Variable Domains Rigidify Upon Affinity Maturation-Understanding the Potential of Shark Immunoglobulins as Therapeutics.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:639166. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of General, Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Sharks and other cartilaginous fish are the phylogenetically oldest living organisms that have antibodies as part of their adaptive immune system. As part of their humoral adaptive immune response, they produce an immunoglobulin, the so-called immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR), a heavy-chain only antibody. The variable domain of an IgNAR, also known as V , binds the antigen as an independent soluble domain. Read More

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Intravital Metabolic Autofluorescence Imaging Captures Macrophage Heterogeneity Across Normal and Cancerous Tissue.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 20;9:644648. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

Macrophages are dynamic immune cells that govern both normal tissue function and disease progression. However, standard methods to measure heterogeneity in macrophage function within tissues require tissue excision and fixation, which limits our understanding of diverse macrophage function . Two-photon microscopy of the endogenous metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (metabolic autofluorescence imaging) enables dynamic imaging of mouse models . Read More

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A high magnesium concentration in citrate dialysate prevents oxidative stress and damage in human monocytes .

Clin Kidney J 2021 May 30;14(5):1403-1411. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Dpto de Biología de Sistemas, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The use of dialysis fluids (DFs) during haemodialysis has been associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced serum magnesium (Mg) levels, contributing to chronic inflammation. Since the role of Mg in modulating immune function and reducing oxidative stress has been demonstrated, the aim of this study was to characterize whether increasing the Mg concentration in DFs could protect immune cells from oxidative stress and damage.

Methods: The effect of citrate [citrate dialysis fluid (CDF), 1 mM] or acetate [acetate dialysis fluid (ADF), 3 mM] dialysates with low (0. Read More

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Could the Gut Microbiota Serve as a Therapeutic Target in Ischemic Stroke?

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 17;2021:1391384. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Rehabilitation Center, Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, 411 Guogeli Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang, China.

The brain-gut axis is a relatively recent discovery of a two-way regulation system between the gut and brain, suggesting that the gut microbiota may be a promising targeted prevention and treatment strategy for patients with a high risk of acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. There are many risk factors for ischemic stroke, and many studies have shown that the gut microbiota affects the absorption and metabolism of the body, as well as the risk factors of stroke, such as blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipids, and atherosclerosis, either directly or indirectly. Furthermore, the gut microbiota can affect the occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke by regulating risk factors or immune responses. Read More

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Plasmodesmata-Dependent Intercellular Movement of Bacterial Effectors.

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:640277. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

Pathogenic microorganisms deliver protein effectors into host cells to suppress host immune responses. Recent findings reveal that phytopathogens manipulate the function of plant cell-to-cell communication channels known as plasmodesmata (PD) to promote diseases. Several bacterial and filamentous pathogen effectors have been shown to regulate PD in their host cells. Read More

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Case Report: A Novel IL2RG Frame-Restoring Rescue Mutation Mimics Early T Cell Engraftment Following Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Patient With X-SCID.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:644687. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Immunology Outpatient Clinic, Vienna, Austria.

Mutations of the interleukin 2 receptor γ chain (IL2RG) result in the most common form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is characterized by severe and persistent infections starting in early life with an absence of T cells and natural killer cells, normal or elevated B cell counts and hypogammaglobulinemia. SCID is commonly fatal within the first year of life, unless the immune system is reconstituted by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy. We herein describe a male infant with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) diagnosed at 5 months of age. Read More

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Therapeutic Strategies by Regulating Interleukin Family to Suppress Inflammation in Hypertrophic Scar and Keloid.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:667763. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Hypertrophic scar (HS) and keloid are fibroproliferative disorders (FPDs) of the skin due to aberrant wound healing, which cause disfigured appearance, discomfort, dysfunction, psychological stress, and patient frustration. The unclear pathogenesis behind HS and keloid is partially responsible for the clinical treatment stagnancy. However, there are now increasing evidences suggesting that inflammation is the initiator of HS and keloid formation. Read More

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A Combination of Atorvastatin and Aspirin Enhances the Pro-Regenerative Interactions of Marrow Stromal Cells and Stroke-Derived Monocytes .

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:589418. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, Institute for Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease, McGovern Medical School at UTHealth, Houston, TX, United States.

Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are being tested in clinical trials for stroke patients. MSCs appear to promote recovery through secretomes that promote modulation of immune cells, including myeloid phagocytes. Many stroke patients have comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes for which they are prescribed medications that might affect the function of MSCs and monocytes (Mo) when they are administered in stroke patients. Read More

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Shaoyao Decoction Inhibits Inflammation and Improves Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice With Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:524287. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Clinical Medical College, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Shaoyao decoction (SYD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine formula, is effective for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of SYD on IBD and possible mechanisms. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3. Read More

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Skin-resident immune cells actively coordinate their distribution with epidermal cells during homeostasis.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Organs consist of multiple cell types that ensure proper architecture and function. How different cell types coexist and interact to maintain their homeostasis in vivo remains elusive. The skin epidermis comprises mostly epithelial cells, but also harbours Langerhans cells (LCs) and dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs). Read More

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Robust microbe immune recognition in the intestinal mucosa.

Genes Immun 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The mammalian mucosal immune system acts as a multitasking mediator between bodily function and a vast diversity of microbial colonists. Depending on host-microbial interaction type, mucosal immune responses have distinct functions. Immunity to pathogen infection functions to limit tissue damage, clear or contain primary infection, and prevent or lower the severity of a secondary infection by conferring specific long-term adaptive immunity. Read More

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Adipocyte inflammation and pathogenesis of viral pneumonias: an overlooked contribution.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Epidemiological evidence establishes obesity as an independent risk factor for increased susceptibility and severity to viral respiratory pneumonias associated with H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. Given the global obesity prevalence, a better understanding of the mechanisms behind obese susceptibility to infection is imperative. Altered immune cell metabolism and function are often perceived as a key causative factor of dysregulated inflammation. Read More

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Effect of plane of nutrition in early life on the transcriptome of visceral adipose tissue in Angus heifer calves.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9716. Epub 2021 May 6.

Teagasc Animal and Bioscience Research Department, Teagasc Grange, Dunsany, Co Meath, Ireland.

Adipose tissue represents not only an important energy storage tissue but also a major endocrine organ within the body, influencing many biochemical systems including metabolic status, immune function and energy homeostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an enhanced dietary intake during the early calfhood period on the transcriptome of visceral adipose tissue. Artificially reared Angus × Holstein-Friesian heifer calves were offered either a high (HI, n = 15) or moderate (MOD, n = 15) plane of nutrition from 3 to 21 weeks of life. Read More

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Glutamate and microglia activation as a driver of dendritic apoptosis: a core pathophysiological mechanism to understand schizophrenia.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 6;11(1):271. Epub 2021 May 6.

Barcelona Clínic Schizophrenia Unit (BCSU). Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Schizophrenia disorder remains an unsolved puzzle. However, the integration of recent findings from genetics, molecular biology, neuroimaging, animal models and translational clinical research offers evidence that the synaptic overpruning hypothesis of schizophrenia needs to be reassessed. During a critical period of neurodevelopment and owing to an imbalance of excitatory glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, a regionally-located glutamate storm might occur, triggering excessive dendritic pruning with the activation of local dendritic apoptosis machinery. Read More

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Current Therapy for Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.

Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2021 Jun 10;35(3):469-493. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, KS 118, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a highly lethal malignancy in the metastatic state. Platinum-based chemotherapy regimens have been the backbone treatment for patients with advanced UC in the first-line setting. However, a large subset of patients are suboptimal candidates for these combinations owing to poor renal function and/or other comorbidities. Read More

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Conditional knockout of Tsc1 in RORγt-expressing cells induces brain damage and early death in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 6;18(1):107. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Materia Medica, College of Pharmacy, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) is known to regulate the development and function of various cell types, and RORγt is a critical transcription factor in the immune system. However, whether Tsc1 participates in regulating RORγt-expressing cells remains unknown.

Methods: We generated a mouse model in which Tsc1 was conditionally deleted from RORγt-expressing cells (Tsc1) to study the role of RORγt-expressing cells with Tsc1 deficiency in brain homeostasis. Read More

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