36,953 results match your criteria immune challenge


Orally administered nano-polystyrene caused vitellogenin alteration and oxidative stress in the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:147984. Epub 2021 May 29.

Dept. Life Sciences, University of Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 5, 34127 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Nanoplastics (≤100 nm) represent the smallest fraction of plastic litter and may result in the aquatic environment as degradation products of larger plastic material. To date, few studies focused on the interactions of micro- and nanoplastics with freshwater Decapoda. The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard, 1852) is an invasive species able to tolerate highly perturbed environments. Read More

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Identification of a TRIM32 from Penaeus monodon is involved in autophagy and innate immunity during white spot syndrome virus infection.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104169. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, 510300, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; Sanya Tropical Fisheries Research Institute, Sanya, Hainan Province, China; Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genomics, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Many tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins played an important role in regulating innate immune and autophagy pathway and were important for host defenses against viral pathogens. However, the role of TRIM proteins in autophagy and innate immunity during virus infection was seldom studied in crustaceans. In this study, a novel TRIM32 homolog was identified from Penaeus monodon (named PmTRIM32). Read More

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Lineage-specific gene evolution of innate immunity in Bombyx mori to adapt to challenge by pathogens, especially entomopathogenic fungi.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104171. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China; Sericulture Research Center, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China. Electronic address:

Bombyx mori is a model species of Lepidoptera, in which 21 gene families and 220 genes have been identified as involved in immunity. However, only 45 B. mori - Drosophila melanogaster - Anopheles gambiae - Apis mellifera - Tribolium castaneum 1:1:1:1:1 orthologous genes were identified. Read More

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New Insight To The Rol Of Α-Enolase (Eno-1) As Immunological Marker In Rainbow Trout Fry.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 9:104163. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Grupo de Marcadores Inmunológicos, Laboratorio de Genética e Inmunología Molecular, Instituto de Biología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad #330, 2373223, Valparaíso, Chile; Núcleo Biotecnológico de Curauma (NBC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad #330, 2373223, Valparaíso, Chile. Electronic address:

α-Enolase is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway that has also been involved in vertebrate inflammatory processes through its interaction with plasminogen. However, its participation in the immune response of lower vertebrates during early life development is unknown. Opportunistic pathogens in salmon farming are the principal cause of mortality in the fry stage. Read More

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Chitosan and alginate salt as biomaterials are potential natural adjuvants for killed cholera vaccine.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt.

Chitosan and alginate salts are natural biopolymers that have gained recent attention in the biomedical sectors. Their properties allow them to become potential candidates as safe, cheap, and effective vaccine adjuvants. The present study aimed to enhance the immunogenic response of a current injectable killed cholera vaccine (KCV) using chitosan and alginate salt as natural adjuvants against alum. Read More

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Sex, age, and parental harmonic convergence behavior affect the immune performance of Aedes aegypti offspring.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 11;4(1):723. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Harmonic convergence is a potential cue, female mosquitoes use to choose male mates. However, very little is known about the benefits this choice confers to offspring performance. Using Aedes aegypti (an important vector of human disease), we investigated whether offspring of converging parental pairs showed differences in immune competence compared to offspring derived from non-converging parental pairs. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 RBD trimer protein adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 protects from SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune pathology in the lung.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3587. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

There is a great need for the development of vaccines that induce potent and long-lasting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Multimeric display of the antigen combined with potent adjuvant can enhance the potency and longevity of the antibody response. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is a primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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Molecular-scale spatio-chemical control of the activating-inhibitory signal integration in NK cells.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel.

The role of juxtaposition of activating and inhibitory receptors in signal inhibition of cytotoxic lymphocytes remains strongly debated. The challenge lies in the lack of tools that allow simultaneous spatial manipulation of signaling molecules. To circumvent this, we produced a nanoengineered multifunctional platform with molecular-scale spatial control of ligands, which was applied to elucidate KIR2DL1-mediated inhibition of NKG2D signaling-receptors of natural killer cells. Read More

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Chimeric enterovirus 71 virus-like particle displaying conserved coxsackievirus A16 epitopes elicits potent immune responses and protects mice against lethal EV71 and CA16 infection.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease of infants and young children frequently caused by the enterovirus A species, mainly enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). In this study, we prepared the EV71 virus-like particle (EV71-VLP) and its chimeras using recombinant baculovirus (Bac-P1-3CD) co-expressing EV71 P1 (under polyhedrin promoter) and 3CD (under CMV-IE promoter) proteins in Sf9 cells. EV71-VLP chimera ChiEV71(1E)-VLP or ChiEV71(4E)-VLP displayed single CA16 PEP71 epitope in VP1 or four conserved CA16 neutralizing epitopes (PEP71 in VP1, aa136-150 in VP2, aa176-190 in VP3 and aa48-62 in VP4) by substitution of the corresponding regions of EV71 structure proteins, respectively. Read More

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Co-expression analysis identifies neuro-inflammation as a driver of sensory neuron aging in Aplysia californica.

Authors:
N S Kron L A Fieber

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0252647. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States of America.

Aging of the nervous system is typified by depressed metabolism, compromised proteostasis, and increased inflammation that results in cognitive impairment. Differential expression analysis is a popular technique for exploring the molecular underpinnings of neural aging, but technical drawbacks of the methodology often obscure larger expression patterns. Co-expression analysis offers a robust alternative that allows for identification of networks of genes and their putative central regulators. Read More

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Immunization of chicken with flagellin adjuvanted Salmonella enteritidis bacterial ghosts confers complete protection against chicken salmonellosis.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 21;100(7):101205. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, 54596, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The present study describes the generation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) ghosts with a surface decorated Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) flagellin (FliC) antigen for immune enhancement and strain-specific protection. The ghosts were generated by biological means using pJHL184::fliC temperature inducible plasmid where the lysis occurs by phage PhiX174 lysis gene E expression. Being an inactivated strain, no environmental contamination was observed by fecal shedding upon inoculation into the chicken. Read More

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Evaluation of serum antioxidative status, immune status and intestinal condition of Linwu duck challenged by lipopolysaccharide with various dosages and replications.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 20;100(7):101199. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Hunan Institute of Animal and Veterinary Science, Changsha 410131, China. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the dosage and replication effects of lipopolysaccharide challenges on the serum oxidative and immune status, and the intestinal morphology and permeability of Linwu ducks at the growing stage. A total of 500 54-day-old Linwu ducks were randomly assigned into 10 treatments, which included a factorial arrangement of 2 levels of LPS challenge replications (1 and 2 times) × 5 levels of lipopolysaccharide challenging dosages (0, 0.1, 0. Read More

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Cloning and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its roles in biogenic amines synthesis, immune regulation, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus by RNA interference.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 8:104167. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Aquaculture, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, 91201, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

The biogenic amines, tyramine and octopamine, in the octopaminergic synthesis pathway play critical roles in regulating physiological and immunological homeostasis in Litopenaeus vannamei. Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) is an enzyme catalyzing the first decarboxylation step in the biosynthesis of tyramine and octopamine. The full-length gene sequence of TDC cloned from the brain of L. Read More

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A copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from redlip mullet, Liza haematocheila: Insights to its structural characteristics, immune responses, antioxidant activity, and potent antibacterial properties.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 8:104165. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Marine Life Sciences & Fish Vaccine Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63243, Republic of Korea; Marine Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63333, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) is a nuclear-encoded metalloenzyme responsible for scavenging harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the CuZnSOD homolog from redlip mullet (Liza haematochelia) (MuCuZnSOD) was structurally and functionally characterized to evaluate its antioxidant capacity, antibacterial properties, and protective level in various pathogenic stress conditions. Structural characteristics of MuCuZnSOD were evaluated using different bioinformatics tools. Read More

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Protein Microarray-Based Proteomics for Disease Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2344:3-6

Biodesign Center for Personalized Diagnostics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

As we approach the twentieth anniversary of completing the international Human Genome Project, the next (and arguably most significant) frontier in biology consists of functionally understanding the proteins, which are encoded by the genome and play a crucial role in all of biology and medicine. To accomplish this challenge, different proteomics strategies must be devised to examine the activities of gene products (proteins) at scale. Among them, protein microarrays have been used to accomplish a wide variety of investigations such as examining the binding of proteins and proteoforms to DNA, small molecules, and other proteins; characterizing humoral immune responses in health and disease; evaluating allergenic proteins; and profiling protein patterns as candidate disease-specific biomarkers. Read More

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January 2021

Antigen-Presenting, Self-Assembled Protein Nanobarrels as an Adjuvant-Free Vaccine Platform against Influenza Virus.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST Institute for the BioCentury, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Although naturally occurring, self-assembled protein nanoarchitectures have been utilized as antigen-delivery carriers, and the inability of such carriers to elicit immunogenicity requires additional use of strong adjuvants. Here, we report an immunogenic outer membrane protein BP26-derived nanoarchitecture displaying the influenza extracellular domain of matrix protein-2 (M2e) as a vaccine platform against influenza virus. Genetic engineering of a monomeric BP26 containing four or eight tandem repeats of M2e resulted in a hollow barrel-shaped nanoarchitecture (BP26-M2e nanobarrel). Read More

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Ozone nanobubble treatments improve survivability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with a pathogenic multi-drug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand.

A rapid increase in multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in aquaculture highlights the risk of production losses due to diseases and potential public health concerns. Previously, we reported that ozone nanobubbles (NB-O ) were effective at reducing concentrations of pathogenic bacteria in water and modulating fish immunity against pathogens; however, multiple treatments with direct NB-O exposures caused alterations to the gills of exposed fish. Here, we set up a modified recirculation system (MRS) assembled with an NB-O device (MRS-NB-O ) to investigate whether MRS-NB-O (a) were safe for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), (b) were effective at reducing bacterial load in rearing water and (c) improved survivability of Nile tilapia following an immersion challenge with a lethal dose of MDR Aeromonas hydrophila. Read More

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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) and Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome (DIHS) following Immunotherapy and BRAF/MEK Inhibition with Continued Response in Metastatic Melanoma.

Case Rep Oncol Med 2021 12;2021:8845063. Epub 2021 May 12.

Blue Ridge Cancer Care, 2013 S Jefferson St, Roanoke, VA 24014, USA.

. The role of immunotherapy continues to evolve across both solid and hematologic malignancies. However, while use of immunotherapy has increased via the advent of checkpoint inhibition, chimeric antigen receptors, and vaccines against malignant cells, there remains uncertainty regarding the recognition and management of delayed immune-related reactions and post treatment immune-related sensitivity to subsequent medications, such as BRAF/MEK kinase inhibitors. Read More

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Immunomics-Guided Antigen Discovery for Praziquantel-Induced Vaccination in Urogenital Human Schistosomiasis.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:663041. Epub 2021 May 25.

Centre for Molecular Therapeutics, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia.

Despite the enormous morbidity attributed to schistosomiasis, there is still no vaccine to combat the disease for the hundreds of millions of infected people. The anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, is the mainstay treatment option, although its molecular mechanism of action remains poorly defined. Praziquantel treatment damages the outermost surface of the parasite, the tegument, liberating surface antigens from dying worms that invoke a robust immune response which in some subjects results in immunologic resistance to reinfection. Read More

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High-dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge cannot overcome BCG-induced protection in Chinese origin cynomolgus macaques; implications of natural resistance for vaccine evaluation.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12274. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

National Infection Service, Public Health England, Porton Down, Wiltshire, SP4 0JG, UK.

This study describes the use of cynomolgus macaques of Chinese origin (CCM) to evaluate the efficacy and immunogenicity of the BCG vaccine against high dose aerosol Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Progressive disease developed in three of the unvaccinated animals within 10 weeks of challenge, whereas all six vaccinated animals controlled disease for 26 weeks. Three unvaccinated animals limited disease progression, highlighting the intrinsic ability of this macaque species to control disease in comparison to macaques of other species and genotypes. Read More

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Adjuvant effects of bacterium-like particles in the intranasal vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 4;259:109144. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Given that the respiratory mucosa is an important site for the initial replication of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), developing intranasal vaccines for chickens is an effective strategy to protect against this disease. The low immunogenicity of inactivated NDV administered by the mucosal route motivated us to identify a safe and potent adjuvant. Previous studies have shown that bacterium-like particles (BLPs), which serve as mucosal adjuvants, induce effective local and systemic immune responses through TLR2 signaling in both mammals and humans. Read More

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The Notch receptor-ligand Delta is involved in the immune response of Penaeus vannamei.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Jun 7:104147. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China; STU-UMT Joint Shellfish Research Laboratory, Shantou University, Shantou, 515063, China. Electronic address:

In the Notch signaling pathway in vertebrates and invertebrates, the ligand Delta plays crucial roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and immunity. Although the Notch signaling pathway has recently been implicated in the immune defense of Penaeus vannamei, the association of Delta with this immune response remains unclear. Here, we cloned and characterized the Delta homolog in P. Read More

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Cardiovascular Complications Associated with Contemporary Lung Cancer Treatments.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2021 Jun 10;22(8):71. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Osaka Prefectural Hospital Organization, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Check-up, Osaka, Japan.

Opinion Statement: Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer in humans and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Traditionally, lung cancer has been diagnosed as either small cell lung cancer (SCLC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, recent developments in molecular pathology have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of the disease, thus improving patient prognosis and increasing the number of survivors. Read More

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Ubiquitination and degradation of NF90 by Tim-3 inhibits antiviral innate immunity.

Elife 2021 Jun 10;10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Immunology, Beijing Institute of Basic and Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Nuclear Factor 90 (NF90) is a novel virus sensor that serves to initiate antiviral innate immunity by triggering the stress granules (SGs) formation. However, the regulation of the NF90-SGs pathway remain largely unclear. We found that Tim-3, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of NF90 and inhibits NF90-SGs mediated antiviral immunity. Read More

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Methamphetamine Compromises the Adaptive B Cell-Mediated Immunity to Antigenic Challenge in C57BL/6 Mice.

Front Toxicol 2021 Mar 15;3. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Long Island University, Brookville, NY, United States.

Methamphetamine (METH) is a substance of abuse that causes dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immunity in users. B cells are involved in the humoral component of the adaptive immunity by producing and secreting antibodies (Abs). METH modifies Ab production, although limited information on the impact of this psychostimulant on antigen (Ag)-specific humoral immune responses is available. Read More

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The Therapeutic Potential of Galectin-3 in the Treatment of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Patients and Those Compromised With COVID-19.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 24;8:666054. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Drug Clinical Trial, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

The novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 is characterized by all age susceptibility, which imposes a dramatic threat to the human species all over the world. According to current available data, the cytokine storm appears to be the most life-threatening symptom of severe COVID-19 cases accompanied with lung fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a member of soluble β-galactoside-binding lectin families, has been implicated as a key regulator in various inflammation conditions in addition to its well-documented roles in cancer. Read More

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A Rare and Misdiagnosed Entity Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria: A Case Report.

Cureus 2021 May 8;13(5):e14902. Epub 2021 May 8.

Internal Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Institute of Medicine, Maharajgunj Medical Campus, Kathmandu, NPL.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired stem cell disorder manifesting as non-immunological hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, unusual thrombosis, and renal impairment due to deficiency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linked proteins in red blood cells. Patients present with features of chronic non-immune intravascular hemolysis, unexplained anemia, and thrombosis at unusual sites. It is often misdiagnosed and treated as anemia due to a low degree of suspicion. Read More

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Multi-Omics Data Analyses Construct a Six Immune-Related Genes Prognostic Model for Cervical Cancer in Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Genet 2021 24;12:663617. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The cross-talk between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an important factor in determining the tumorigenesis and progression of cervical cancer (CC). However, clarifying the potential mechanisms which trigger the above biological processes remains a challenge. The present study focused on immune-relevant differences at the transcriptome and somatic mutation levels through an integrative multi-omics analysis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Read More

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Adjuvant properties of IFN-γ and GM-CSF in the scFv6.C4 DNA vaccine against CEA-expressing tumors.

Gene Ther 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Research Center for Gene Therapy, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Tumor-associated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a natural target for vaccines against colorectal cancers. Our previous experience with a DNA vaccine with scFv6.C4, a CEA surrogate, showed a CEA-specific immune response with 40% of tumor-free mice after challenge with B16F10-CEA and 47% with MC38-CEA cells. Read More

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Application of Single-Domain Antibodies ("Nanobodies") to Laboratory Diagnosis.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Nov;41(6):549-558

Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

Antibodies have proven to be central in the development of diagnostic methods over decades, moving from polyclonal antibodies to the milestone development of monoclonal antibodies. Although monoclonal antibodies play a valuable role in diagnosis, their production is technically demanding and can be expensive. The large size of monoclonal antibodies (150 kDa) makes their re-engineering using recombinant methods a challenge. Read More

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November 2021