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To err is (not only) human: Mechanisms of post-error attentional regulation illuminated in mice.

Neuron 2021 Apr;109(7):1074-1076

Department of Genetics & Molecular Neurobiology, Institute of Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany.

Errors yield unfavorable outcomes but also elicit adaptive mechanisms optimizing future behavior. Norman et al. demonstrate a previously unknown direct projection from medial frontal performance-monitoring areas in mice that modulate visual cortex network activity and enable post-error attentional adaptation. Read More

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Mucosal immunoglobulins of teleost fish: a decade of advances.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Mar 27:104079. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Immunoglobulins (Igs) are complex glycoproteins that play critical functions in innate and adaptive immunity of all jawed vertebrates. Given the unique characteristics of mucosal barriers, secretory Igs (sIgs) have specialized to maintain homeostasis and keep pathogens at bay at mucosal tissues from fish to mammals. In teleost fish, the three main IgH isotypes, IgM, IgD and IgT/Z can be found in different proportions at the mucosal secretions of the skin, gills, gut, nasal, buccal, and pharyngeal mucosae. Read More

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The assessment of psychology, quality of life in acne patients and evaluation of ALA-PDT for moderate to severe acne.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 27;33:102099. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Dermatology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the state of psychology and quality of life of patients effected by acne and also the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) for moderate to severe acne patients.

Methods: In the questionnaire part, a pre-designed form was filled out. The questionnaire was comprised of 2 sections related to acne including sociodemographic and disease information as well as Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). Read More

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Chemistry Informer Libraries: Conception, Early Experience, and Role in the Future of Cheminformatics.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 16;54(7):1586-1596. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Chemistry Capabilities Accelerating Therapeutics, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, New Jersey 07033, United States.

ConspectusThe synthetic chemistry literature traditionally reports the scope of new methods using simple, nonstandardized test molecules that have uncertain relevance in applied synthesis. In addition, published examples heavily favor positive reaction outcomes, and failure is rarely documented. In this environment, synthetic practitioners have inadequate information to know whether any given method is suitable for the task at hand. Read More

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Interstates of Infection: Preliminary Investigations of Human Mobility Patterns in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Rural Health 2021 03 15;37(2):266-271. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Sociology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated various heterogeneities between urban and rural environments in public health. The SARS-CoV-2 virus initially spread into the United States from international ports of entry and into urban population centers, like New York City. Over the course of the pandemic, cases emerged in more rural areas, implicating issues of transportation and mobility. Read More

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Otosurgery with the High-Definition Three-Dimensional (3D) Exoscope: Advantages and Disadvantages.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, 60-355 Poznań, Poland.

Background: The aim of the study was to describe our initial experience with the high-definition three-dimensional (3D) exoscope for middle ear surgery versus the operating microscope.

Methods: The study included 60 randomly chosen patients diagnosed with otosclerosis ( = 30) or chronic otitis media ( = 30) with a clinical indication for surgery. The primary measurement was the subjective estimation of quality of the visibility of the operating field provided by the 3D exoscope-VITOM-3D (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) in comparison to the operating microscope. Read More

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February 2021

X-ray dynamical diffraction Talbot effect behind a crystal in free space.

Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv 2021 Mar 1;77(Pt 2):149-159. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Applied Problems of Physics, Hr. Nersisyan 25, Yerevan 0014, Armenia.

The dynamical diffraction Talbot effect takes place inside a crystal, when a periodic object is illuminated by a plane or spherical X-ray wave which then falls on the crystal at an angle close to the Bragg angle for some reflection. Both theoretical consideration and numerical calculations show that the dynamical diffraction Talbot effect also takes place behind the crystal. The effect is accompanied by the dynamical diffraction pendulum effect and wave focusing. Read More

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Curriculum Changes and Trends 2010-2020: A Focused National Review Using the AAMC Curriculum Inventory and the LCME Annual Medical School Questionnaire Part II.

Acad Med 2020 09;95(9S A Snapshot of Medical Student Education in the United States and Canada: Reports From 145 Schools):S5-S14

A.D. Blood is director of curricular resources, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC. J.M. Farnan is professor of medicine and associate dean, evaluation and continuous quality improvement, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. W. Fitz-William is senior data specialist, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

Medical school curricula have evolved from 2010 to 2020. Numerous pressures and influences affect medical school curricula, including those from external sources, academic medical institutions, clinical teaching faculty, and undergraduate medical students. Using data from the AAMC Curriculum Inventory and the LCME Annual Medical School Questionnaire Part II, the nature of curriculum change is illuminated. Read More

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September 2020

Effects of artificial light on growth, development, and dispersal of two North American fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

J Insect Physiol 2021 Apr 16;130:104200. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Tufts University, Department of Biology, 200 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155, United States.

Holometabolous insects exhibit complex life cycles in which both morphology and ecological niche change dramatically during development. In the larval stage, many insects have soft, slow-moving bodies and poor vision, limiting their ability to respond to environmental threats. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an environmental perturbation known to severely impact the fitness of adult insects by disrupting both temporal and spatial orientation. Read More

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Involvement of relatives in chronic non-malignant pain rehabilitation at multidisciplinary pain centres: part one - the patient perspective.

Scand J Pain 2021 Jan 8;21(1):81-94. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Anaesthesia, Respiratory Support and Pain, the Neuroscience Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Valdemar Hansens Vej 15, 2600 Glostrup, Denmark.

Objectives: Chronic non-malignant pain (CNP) is a significant healthcare problem with considerable consequences for patients, relatives and society. CNP is a lifelong condition that calls for acceptance and self-management. Existing research indicates that the involvement of relatives improves patients' and relatives' management of CNP, but the area is, at present, scarcely described. Read More

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January 2021

Feel the light: sight-independent negative phototactic response in octopus arms.

J Exp Biol 2021 Mar 5;224(Pt 5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Faculty of Marine Sciences, Ruppin Academic Center, Michmoret 40297, Israel.

Controlling the octopus's flexible hyper-redundant body is a challenging task. It is assumed that the octopus has poor proprioception which has driven the development of unique mechanisms for efficient body control. Here we report on such a mechanism: a phototactic response of extraocular photoreception. Read More

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Developing models of cholangiocarcinoma to close the translational gap in cancer research.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2021 Feb 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, the University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, UK.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive primary liver malignancy with abysmal prognosis and increasing global incidence. Individuals afflicted with CCA often remain asymptomatic until late stages of disease, resulting in very limited possibilities for therapeutic intervention. The emergence of numerous preclinical models and has expanded the tool kit for CCA researchers; nonetheless, how these tools can be best applied to understand CCA biology and accelerate drug development requires further scrutiny. Read More

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February 2021

Ten recent insights for our understanding of cooperation.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 28;5(4):419-430. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Since Hamilton published his seminal papers in 1964, our understanding of the importance of cooperation for life on Earth has evolved beyond recognition. Early research was focused on altruism in the social insects, where the problem of cooperation was easy to see. In more recent years, research into cooperation has expanded across the entire tree of life, and has been revolutionized by advances in genetic, microbiological and analytical techniques. Read More

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Drift and termination of spiral waves in optogenetically modified cardiac tissue at sub-threshold illumination.

Elife 2021 Jan 27;10. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Research Group Biomedical Physics, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Goettingen, Germany.

The development of new approaches to control cardiac arrhythmias requires a deep understanding of spiral wave dynamics. Optogenetics offers new possibilities for this. Preliminary experiments show that sub-threshold illumination affects electrical wave propagation in the mouse heart. Read More

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January 2021

Bats seek refuge in cluttered environment when exposed to white and red lights at night.

Mov Ecol 2021 Jan 22;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Artificial light at night is recognized as an increasing threat to biodiversity. However, information on the way highly mobile taxa such as bats spatially respond to light is limited. Following the hypothesis of a behavioural adaptation to the perceived risks of predation, we hypothesised that bats should avoid lit areas by shifting their flight route to less exposed conditions. Read More

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January 2021

Faricimab: an investigational agent targeting the Tie-2/angiopoietin pathway and VEGF-A for the treatment of retinal diseases.

Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2021 Mar 4;30(3):193-200. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

University Eye Clinic, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino IRCCS, Genoa, Italy.

Introduction: Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs represent the first-line treatment option for wet age-related macular degeneration (w-AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME); however, the frequent injection intervals have illuminated to the necessity for new molecules allowing a more prolonged treatment regimen. Faricimab is a promising bispecific drug targeting VEGF-A and the Ang-Tie/pathway. Phase II STAIRWAY and AVENUE Trials showed its clinical efficacy for the treatment of w-AMD, while the phase II BOULEVARD Trial revealed its superiority to monthly ranibizumab in the management of DME with a monthly treatment regimen. Read More

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Nostalgia and Heroism: Theoretical Convergence of Memory, Motivation, and Function.

Front Psychol 2020 23;11:577862. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

This article seeks to develop theoretical convergences between the science of nostalgia and the science of heroism. We take four approaches in forging a conceptual relationship between these two phenomena. First, we examine the definitions of nostalgia and heroism from scholars, laypeople, and across cultures, noting how the history of defining the two phenomena has shaped current conceptualizations. Read More

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December 2020

Psychosocial Stress and Mechanisms of Skin Health: A Comprehensive Update.

J Drugs Dermatol 2021 01;20(1):62-69

Although the relationship between psychosocial stress and skin health is commonly invoked in both the scientific and popular literature, its underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the pathophysiology of stress and its clinical impact on skin homeostasis. The recent characterization of a bidirectional HPA stress axis in the skin has illuminated peripheral stress pathways, with effects spanning inflammation, atopy, barrier function, dermal thinning, wound healing, and melanogenesis. Read More

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January 2021

Enhanced neprilysin-mediated degradation of hippocampal Aβ42 with a somatostatin peptide that enters the brain.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(2):789-804. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is one of the main neuropathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neprilysin is the major enzyme degrading Aβ, with its activity enhanced by the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST). SST levels are decreased in the brains of AD patients. Read More

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January 2021

Pathways to Severe COVID-19 for People with Obesity.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 04;29(4):645-653

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Increased morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with obesity have illuminated the intersection of obesity with impaired responses to infections. Although data on mechanisms by which COVID-19 impacts health are being rapidly generated, there is a critical need to better understand the pulmonary, vascular, metabolic, and immunologic aspects that drive the increased risk for complications from COVID-19 in people with obesity. This review provides a broad overview of the intersection between COVID-19 and the physiology of obesity in order to highlight potential mechanisms by which COVID-19 disease severity is increased by obesity and identify areas for future investigation toward developing tailored therapy for people with obesity who develop COVID-19. Read More

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Gestational arsenic exposure induces site-specific DNA hypomethylation in active retrotransposon subfamilies in offspring sperm in mice.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2020 12 2;13(1):53. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Maternal-Fetal Biology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, 157-8535, Japan.

Background: Environmental impacts on a fetus can disrupt germ cell development leading to epimutations in mature germ cells. Paternal inheritance of adverse health effects through sperm epigenomes, including DNA methylomes, has been recognized in human and animal studies. However, the impacts of gestational exposure to a variety of environmental factors on the germ cell epigenomes are not fully investigated. Read More

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December 2020

Facile and low-cost ceramic fiber-based carbon-carbon composite for solar evaporation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 6;759:143546. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Solar-driven interfacial evaporation aiming at producing clean water without conventional energy consumption, has attracted worldwide research interest. Nevertheless, complex preparation processes and costly absorber materials might be the challenges for the practical application of this technology. Herein, a ceramic fiber was preferably selected as the supporting matrix, and a composite of activated carbon and carbon black was used as the photothermal material. Read More

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Landscape modification and nutrient-driven instability at a distance.

Ecol Lett 2021 Mar 21;24(3):398-414. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

McGill University, 1205 Dr-Penfield Ave, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1, Canada.

Almost 50 years ago, Michael Rosenzweig pointed out that nutrient addition can destabilise food webs, leading to loss of species and reduced ecosystem function through the paradox of enrichment. Around the same time, David Tilman demonstrated that increased nutrient loading would also be expected to cause competitive exclusion leading to deleterious changes in food web diversity. While both concepts have greatly illuminated general diversity-stability theory, we currently lack a coherent framework to predict how nutrients influence food web stability across a landscape. Read More

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Advances in the management of pediatric genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma.

Michael D Deel

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Oct;9(5):2441-2454

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Recent clinical trials have revealed several unanticipated complexities in the optimal management of genitourinary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Improvement in outcomes for low- and intermediate-risk RMS over the past several decades led to the design of clinical trials aimed at reducing acute and late toxicity from extirpative surgeries, conventional radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Results from these studies are mixed and have illuminated areas where historical risk stratification strategies need refining. Read More

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October 2020

Critical Steps in Data Management During a Crisis.

Cytometry A 2021 01 24;99(1):60-67. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Data management is essential in a flow cytometry (FCM) shared resource laboratory (SRL) for the integrity of collected data and its long-term preservation, as described in the Cytometry publication from 2016, ISAC Flow Cytometry Shared Resource Laboratory (SRL) Best Practices (Barsky et al.: Cytometry Part A 89A(2016): 1017-1030). The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic introduced an array of challenges in the operation of SRLs. Read More

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January 2021

Apolipoprotein E: Structural Insights and Links to Alzheimer Disease Pathogenesis.

Neuron 2021 01 10;109(2):205-221. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Center for Science & Engineering of Living Systems, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA; Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is of great interest due to its role as a cholesterol/lipid transporter in the central nervous system (CNS) and as the most influential genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Work over the last four decades has given us important insights into the structure of ApoE and how this might impact the neuropathology and pathogenesis of AD. In this review, we highlight the history and progress in the structural and molecular understanding of ApoE and discuss how these studies on ApoE have illuminated the physiology of ApoE, receptor binding, and interaction with amyloid-β (Aβ). Read More

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January 2021

COVID-19: Opportunities for interdisciplinary research to improve care for older people in Sweden.

Scand J Public Health 2021 Feb 8;49(1):29-32. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Disability Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.

The emergence of COVID-19 has changed the world as we know it, arguably none more so than for older people. In Sweden, the majority of COVID-19-related fatalities have been among people aged ⩾70 years, many of whom were receiving health and social care services. The pandemic has illuminated aspects within the care continuum requiring evaluative research, such as decision-making processes, the structure and organisation of care, and interventions within the complex public-health system. Read More

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February 2021

A brain and a head for a different habitat: Size variation in four morphs of Arctic charr ( (L.)) in a deep oligotrophic lake.

Ecol Evol 2020 Oct 25;10(20):11335-11351. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences Koppang Norway.

Adaptive radiation is the diversification of species to different ecological niches and has repeatedly occurred in different salmonid fish of postglacial lakes. In Lake Tinnsjøen, one of the largest and deepest lakes in Norway, the salmonid fish, Arctic charr ( (L.)), has likely radiated within 9,700 years after deglaciation into ecologically and genetically segregated Piscivore, Planktivore, Dwarf, and Abyssal morphs in the pelagial, littoral, shallow-moderate profundal, and deep-profundal habitats. Read More

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October 2020

Low light intensities increase avoidance behaviour of diurnal fish species: implications for use of road culverts by fish.

J Fish Biol 2021 Mar 15;98(3):634-642. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Inadequately designed culverts can be physical barriers to fish passage if they increase the velocity of water flow in the environment, alter natural turbulence patterns or fail to provide adequate water depth. They may also act as behavioural barriers to fish passage if they affect the willingness of fish species to enter or pass through the structure due to altered ambient light conditions. To understand how reduced light intensity might affect fish behaviour in culverts, the authors performed a behavioural choice experiment quantifying the amount of time individual fish spent in dark and illuminated areas of a controlled experimental channel. Read More

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Artificial night light helps account for observer bias in citizen science monitoring of an expanding large mammal population.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Feb 5;90(2):330-342. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School for Environment and Sustainability, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The integration of citizen scientists into ecological research is transforming how, where, and when data are collected, and expanding the potential scales of ecological studies. Citizen-science projects can provide numerous benefits for participants while educating and connecting professionals with lay audiences, potentially increasing the acceptance of conservation and management actions. However, for all the benefits, collection of citizen-science data is often biased towards areas that are easily accessible (e. Read More

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February 2021