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Variables Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine Hesitancy Amongst Patients with Neurological Disorders.

Infect Dis Rep 2021 Aug 30;13(3):763-810. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA.

Introduction: Given that the success of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) relies on herd immunity, identifying patients at risk for vaccine hesitancy is imperative-particularly for those at high risk for severe COVID-19 (i.e., minorities and patients with neurological disorders). Read More

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Alteration of power law scaling of spontaneous brain activity in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2021 Sep 22;238:10-19. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Taiwan International Graduate Program in Interdisciplinary Neuroscience, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University and Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; Laboratory of Precision Psychiatry, Institute of Brain Science, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Brain Science and Digital Medicine Center, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Nonlinear dynamical analysis has been used to quantify the complexity of brain signal at temporal scales. Power law scaling is a well-validated method in physics that has been used to describe the dynamics of a system in the frequency domain, ranging from noisy oscillation to complex fluctuations. In this research, we investigated the power-law characteristics in a large-scale resting-state fMRI data of schizophrenia and healthy participants derived from Taiwan Aging and Mental Illness cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose treatment of pediatric restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.

Sleep Med 2021 Sep 8;87:114-118. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

University of Illinois School of Medicine, Carle Illinois College of Medicine, Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, IL, USA.

Background: Iron supplementation is the most commonly considered treatment option for children with restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD); however, there is a scarcity of evidence on the effectiveness of intravenous preparations. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (IV FCM) on clinical symptoms and iron indices in children with RLS or PLMD.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective data analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis: A review of published clinical trials.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2021 Sep 21;17:128-138. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Indonesia.

The global burden of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parasite is underestimated. In immunocompromised hosts, chronic and severe presentation of intestinal cryptosporidiosis can result in long-term morbidity and high illness costs. The evidence of effective treatments for cryptosporidiosis has been lacking. Read More

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September 2021

Duration of nonconvulsive seizures in critically ill patients.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Sep 22;124:108312. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Neurology Department, Université Libre de Bruxelles - Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles - Hôpital Erasme, Bruxelles, Belgium; Neurology Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Non-convulsive seizures (NCSz) and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) are frequent in critically ill patients. Specific temporal thresholds to define both are lacking and may be needed to guide appropriate treatment.

Method: Retrospective review of 995 NCSz captured during continuous EEG monitoring of 111 consecutive critically ill patients. Read More

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September 2021

The role of simultaneous medical conditions in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

World Neurosurg 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

UOC Neurochirurgia, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a chronic neurological syndrome that affects the elderly population in a context of concomitant medical conditions. The aim of this study was to understand the significance of comorbidities using four validated and specific clinical scores: CIRS (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Score, Co-morbidity Index (CCI) and Charlson Comorbidity Index and (CMI).

Methods: From 2015 until 2019, the Bologna PRO-Hydro multidisciplinary team selected 63 patients for shunt surgery. Read More

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September 2021

Covid-19, Pregnancy, and Vaccinations.

J Natl Black Nurses Assoc 2021 Sep;32(1):1-9

Florida International University, Miami, FL.

Pregnancy in the presence of COVID-19 increases the risk for illness severity. Data suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to be hospitalized, to be admitted to the intensive care unit, and to require life support. Vaccination is currently considered the most effective preventive intervention against COVID-19 in the United States. Read More

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September 2021

Regulating food labels in East Asia: A tale of two systems: Commentary on Negowetti et al. (2021).

Int J Eat Disord 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Singapore, Singapore.

The traditional role of food in promoting health and preventing illness is integral to many Asian cultures. This commentary provides a brief overview of health-related food products regulation in Asia. We cover regulations initiated to promote health and prevent chronic diseases and regulations of traditional medicine food products. Read More

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September 2021

The epigenetic mechanisms involved in chronic pain in rodents: A mini-review.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Department of Physiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Chronic pain, as a common distressing neurological disorder, about 30% of the global population suffers from it. In addition to being highly prevalent, chronic pain causes heavy economic and social burden. Although substantial progress has been achieved to dissect the underlying mechanism of chronic pain in the past few decades, the incidence and treatment of this neurological illness is yet not properly managed in clinical practice. Read More

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September 2021

Barriers and Facilitators to Behavior Change for Individuals with Severe Mental Illness who Received the Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction in a Community Mental Health Setting.

J Behav Health Serv Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1650, USA.

The Transdiagnostic Intervention for Sleep and Circadian Dysfunction (TranS-C) was implemented in a community mental health center (CMHC) setting. The goal of TranS-C is to improve sleep and circadian dysfunction among people with severe mental illness. The present study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to uncover barriers and facilitators to changing behaviors learned in TranS-C. Read More

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September 2021

Therapeutic effect of laparoscopic fundoplication for GERD-related disease in the elderly.

Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishishinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.

Background: It is anticipated that surgical treatment for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the elderly will increase. This time, using propensity score matching, we examined the results of laparoscopic fundoplication (LF) for GERD-related diseases in the elderly.

Methods: Of 302 cases which underwent initial LF for GERD-related diseases during the period from June 2008 to February 2019, we classified them into elderly (65 years of age or older) and non-elderly groups (64 years of age or younger). Read More

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September 2021

Accuracy of Clinical and Cerebrospinal Fluid Indicators in the Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis in Infants <90 Days of Age in Luanda, Angola.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

From the Pediatrics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Hospital Pediátrico David Bernardino (HPDB), Luanda, Angola New Children's Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, Helsinki, Finland Faculty of Medicine, University Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile Sanofi Pasteur, Epidemiology, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania.

Background: The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) is problematic in young infants, as clinical features may be nonspecific or even absent. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis usually confirms the diagnosis, but the CSF parameters can be normal also in culture-proven BM. Our objective was to identify the clinical and CSF indices, that quickly and without laboratory likely lead to the diagnosis of confirmed of probable BM in young infants in Angola. Read More

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September 2021

First-line Medications for the Outpatient Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Systematic Review of Perceived Barriers.

J Addict Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (CG, SLM, RM); Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (YC); Addiction Medicine Program, Homewood Specialized Services, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (YC); Schwartz/Reisman Emergency Medicine Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (SLM, RM); Division of Emergency Medicine, Sinai Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (SLM); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (SLM); Division of Emergency Medicine, North York General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (RM).

Objectives: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common illness with significant health and economic consequences. Although three pharmacotherapeutic agents have been shown to decrease heavy drinking days among individuals with AUD, they are vastly underutilized in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to elucidate barriers that may prevent patients from obtaining medication for addiction treatment (MAT) for AUD in an outpatient or residential setting. Read More

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September 2021

Burnout and Perceptions of Stigma and Help-Seeking Behavior Among Pediatric Fellows.

Pediatrics 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background And Objectives: Although burnout has been studied extensively among students and residents, in few studies have researchers examined burnout among fellowship trainees. We measured burnout among fellows in our freestanding children's hospital and evaluated fellows' perceptions of stigma around (and willingness to seek treatment for) psychological distress. The objectives are as follows: to (1) measure burnout among pediatric fellows, (2) assess fellows' perceptions of stigma around help seeking for mental illness, and (3) examine the relationship between burnout and willingness to seek behavioral health counseling. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of household shocks on access to healthcare services in Kenya: a propensity score matching analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 24;11(9):e048189. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Governance, Utrecht University Faculty of Law, Economics and Governance, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: This study examines the effects of household shocks on access to healthcare services in Kenya. Shocks are adverse events that lead to loss of household income and/or assets.

Design And Setting: The study used data from the Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2015/2016, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Read More

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September 2021

Serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 following non-hospitalised infection: clinical and ethnodemographic features associated with the magnitude of the antibody response.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Sep;8(1)

Department of Clinical Immunology Service, University of Birmingham College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Birmingham, UK

Objective: To determine clinical and ethnodemographic correlates of serological responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein following mild-to-moderate COVID-19.

Design: A retrospective cohort study of healthcare workers who had self-isolated due to COVID-19.

Setting: University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, UK (UHBFT). Read More

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September 2021

Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Reported Incidents of Child Neglect and Physical Abuse.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Introduction: The U.S. Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion, which allowed states to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults beginning in 2014, has reduced the risk factors for child neglect and physical abuse, including parental financial insecurity, substance use, and untreated mental illness. Read More

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September 2021

Pharmacist-led interventions for people living with severe and persistent mental illness: A systematic review.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2021 Sep 24:48674211048410. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Sydney Pharmacy School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Objective: People living with severe and persistent mental illness experience poorer physical health, often due to medication and preventable lifestyle factors, and exacerbated by barriers to accessing healthcare services. Pharmacists are well-positioned to improve the physical and mental health of this population. However, little is known about pharmacists' current practices when providing services to this population nor the impact of pharmacist-led interventions on consumer health outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological health of individuals with mental health conditions: A mixed methods study.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Objectives: This study explored how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected individuals with mental health conditions.

Methods: Participants were 477 adults (82% female) who reported a past-year mental health condition. They completed an online survey that included an open-ended question. Read More

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September 2021

Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in the treatment of hepatitis C in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo Tropical medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Azhar University Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo Department of community medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University Hepatogastroenterology Department, National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo Gastroenterology Department, Damietta Cardiology and Gastroenterology Center, Damietta Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, AGOZA Police Hospital, Cairo Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt Hepatology and gastroenterology department, national liver institute.Menoufia University, Egypt.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis is a severe life-threatening illness. The safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has opened a gate of hope for that subgroup of patients who were previously contraindicated for interferon therapy.

Objective: We aimed at the investigation of the safety and efficacy of different DAAs regimens in the treatment of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients, to determine sustained virological response (SVR)12 rates and to analyze the factors associated with response. Read More

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September 2021

Circadian variation in new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients in ICUs.

J Crit Care 2021 Sep 21;67:1-2. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK; Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

New-onset atrial fibrillation (NOAF) is common in patients treated on an intensive care unit (ICU). Onset of certain arrhythmias exhibit circadian variation. Whether NOAF follows a circadian rhythm in patients in ICU is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Similarity and stability of face network across populations and throughout adolescence and adulthood.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 21:118587. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Departments of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

The ability to extract cues from faces is fundamental for social animals, including humans. An individual's profile of functional connectivity across a face network can be shaped by common organizing principles, stable individual traits, and time-varying mental states. In the present study, we used data obtained with functional magnetic resonance imaging in two cohorts, IMAGEN (N=534) and ALSPAC (N=465), to investigate - both at group and individual levels - the consistency of the regional profile of functional connectivity across populations (IMAGEN, ALSPAC) and time (Visits 1 to 3 in IMAGEN; age 14 to 22 years). Read More

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September 2021

A lifespan approach to osteoarthritis prevention.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics(,) Musculoskeletal Function and Physiotherapy(,) University of Southern Denmark, Denmark. Electronic address:

Prevention is an attractive solution for the staggering and increasingly unmanageable burden of osteoarthritis. Despite this, the field of osteoarthritis prevention is relatively immature. To date, most of what is known about preventing osteoarthritis and risk factors for osteoarthritis is relative to the disease (underlying biology and pathophysiology) of osteoarthritis, with few studies considering risk factors for osteoarthritis illness, the force driving the personal, financial and societal burden. Read More

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September 2021

Alcohol drinking in one's thirties and forties is associated with body mass index in men, but not in women: A longitudinal analysis of the 1970 British Cohort Study.

Prev Med 2021 Sep 21:106811. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Institute Sport Exercise Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Our objective was to investigate longitudinal associations between alcohol drinking and body mass index (BMI). Alcohol drinking (exposure), BMI (outcome), smoking habit, occupation, longstanding illness, and leisure time physical activity (potential confounders) were assessed at ages 30, 34, 42, and 46 in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study. Multilevel models were used to cope with the problem of correlated observations. Read More

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September 2021

Long-term changes in neuroimaging markers, cognitive function and psychiatric symptoms in an experimental model of Gulf War Illness.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 21:119971. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Departments of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, and Molecular and Cellular Medicine, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disease with debilitating cognitive and emotional impairments in veterans. GWI, like epilepsy, is caused by chemical neurotoxicity and manifests from disturbances in neuronal excitability. However, the mechanisms underlying such devastating neurological and psychiatric symptoms remain unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Azithromycin for the prevention of rehospitalisation and death among Kenyan children being discharged from hospital: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine-Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition Network, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Mass drug administration of azithromycin to children in sub-Saharan Africa has been shown to improve survival in high-mortality settings. The period after hospital discharge is a time of elevated risk unaddressed by current interventions and might provide an opportunity for targeting empirical azithromycin administration. We aimed to assess the efficacy of azithromycin administered at hospital discharge on risk of death and rehospitalisation in Kenyan children younger than 5 years. Read More

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September 2021

What contributes to good outcomes? The perspective of young people on short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy for depressed adolescents.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(9):e0257334. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London [UCL], United Kingdom.

Depression is the fourth leading cause of adolescent illness and disability worldwide. A growing evidence base demonstrates that Short Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy [STPP] is an efficacious treatment for moderate to severe adolescent depression. However, with research in its infancy, key factors contributing to efficacy are unknown. Read More

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September 2021