308 results match your criteria illicit medicinal


A novel dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors and neuropeptide Y2 receptors attenuates fentanyl taking and seeking in male rats.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 11;192:108599. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

There has been a dramatic increase in illicit fentanyl use in the United States over the last decade. In 2018, more than 31,000 overdose deaths involved fentanyl or fentanyl analogs, highlighting an urgent need to identify effective treatments for fentanyl use disorder. An emerging literature shows that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists attenuate the reinforcing efficacy of drugs of abuse. Read More

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The efficacy of machine learning algorithm for raw drug authentication in (Gaertn.) Colebr. employing a DNA barcode database.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Mar 15;27(3):605-617. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Forest Genetics and Biotechnology Division, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Thrissur, Kerala 680653 India.

Medicinal plants are a valuable resource for traditional as well as modern medicine. Consequently huge demand has exerted a heavy strain on the existing natural resources. Due to over exploitation and unscientific collection most of the commercially traded ayurvedic plants are in the phase of depletion. Read More

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Phenethyl-4-ANPP: a Marginally Active Byproduct Suggesting a Switch in Illicit Fentanyl Synthesis Routes.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium.

Profiling of the illicit fentanyl supply is invaluable from surveillance and intelligence perspectives. An important strategy includes the study of chemical attribution signatures (e.g. Read More

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Perspectives on formation of medical cannabis market in Ukraine based on holistic approach.

J Cannabis Res 2020 Oct 2;2(1):33. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Bogomolets National Medical University, 13, T. Shevchenko blvd., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine.

Background: Nowadays, medical cannabis still remains inaccesible for patients in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Even registered medicinal products based on herbal or synthetic cannabinoids, like Sativex, are practically unavailable due to their high cost and narrow scope of application (for example, in Lithuania). However, before the absolute prohibition of medical cannabis in the USSR, in line with Single Convention of 1961, the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (eighth edition) published monographs on such medicinal products as "Herba Cannabis indicae", "Extractum Cannabis indicae spissum" and "Fructus Cannabis", which could be prescribed by physicians with precaution. Read More

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October 2020

Detection of 28 Corticosteroids in Pharmaceutical and Proprietary Chinese Medicinal Products Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory, Room 1414, Block G, 2-10 Princess Margaret Hospital Road, Lai Chi Kok, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

With their potent anti-inflammatory effects, corticosteroids are popular adulterants in illicit health products for allergies, dermatitis and pain control. Their illegal supply over the counter is also a common practice for similar conditions. Prolonged, unsupervised usage of corticosteroids often leads to severe adverse effects including Cushing syndrome, adrenal insufficiency and immunosuppression. Read More

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January 2021

Developing a framework regarding a complex risk based methodology in the evaluation of hazards associated with medicinal products sourced via the internet.

Saudi Pharm J 2020 Dec 6;28(12):1733-1742. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

University of Pécs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics and Central Clinical Pharmacy, Honvéd Street 3, 7624 Pécs, Hungary.

Today, the increasing number of illicit internet pharmacies is a global phenomenon, however, the size of the online pharmaceutical market is still relatively unknown and the dubious quality of products is questionable and warrants investigation. Descriptive data from this black market channel are derived from studies analyzing the online availability of different medications procured over the internet and their methodology is quite heterogeneous. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive and specific risk assessment for selecting high patient safety risk medications from the online pharmaceutical market. Read More

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December 2020

Therapeutic application of cannabis in medicine and its relevance to thoracic surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Nov 26. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Surgery, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, D.C.; Division of Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, Georgetown University School of Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, D.C. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. As cannabis use rises in popularity and its legalization continues to expand, the scientific community must address the controversy between beneficial and adverse effects of cannabis consumption.

Methods: We have performed a comprehensive literature review to study the medicinal and pathological effects of cannabis use, with emphasis on its association with cancer pathophysiology and thoracic surgery. Read More

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November 2020

Prevalence of psychoactive substance use among acutely hospitalised patients in Oslo and Moscow: a cross-sectional, observational study.

BMJ Open 2020 09 17;10(9):e032572. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: The use of psychoactive prescription medication is increasing in the general population. This is a cause for concern, particularly among the elderly, where physiological changes related to senescence increase the risk for adverse effects. While previous studies regarding psychoactive substance use have generally been population based, we sought to determine the frequency of such use among acutely hospitalised patients. Read More

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September 2020

A 2017-2019 Update on Acute Intoxications and Fatalities from Illicit Fentanyl and Analogues.

J Anal Toxicol 2020 Aug 29. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Excellence of Biomedical Sciences and Public Health. University "Politecnica delle Marche" of Ancona. Via Tronto 71. Ancona, Italy.

The aim of this review was to report the most recent cases of acute intoxication, fatalities and "driving under the influence" cases, involving illicit fentanyl and its newest analogues. When available, information on age, sex, circumstances of exposure, intoxication symptoms, cause of death (if applicable) and toxicology results from biological fluid testing was described. Scientific publications reporting fatalities or acute intoxications involving use of fentanyl derivatives were identified from PubMed, Scopus and institutional/governmental websites from January 2017 up to December 2019. Read More

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Terahertz Spectroscopy: Encoding the Discovery, Instrumentation, and Applications toward Pharmaceutical Prospectives.

Crit Rev Anal Chem 2020 Aug 10:1-13. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Central Instruments Facility(CIF), Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra, India.

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is an emerging field for quality control of pharmaceuticals, which uses T-waves for detection. T-waves fall in between infrared and microwave radiations while possessing some of the characteristics of both. THz spectroscopy reveals its existence in between 0. Read More

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First Report on Brorphine: The Next Opioid on the Deadly New Psychoactive Substance Horizon?

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Jan;44(9):937-946

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

New psychoactive substances continue to appear on the drug market. Until recently, new synthetic opioids, which are among the most dangerous new psychoactive substances, primarily encompassed analogs of the potent analgesic fentanyl. Lately, also other new synthetic opioids have increasingly started to surface. Read More

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January 2021

Investigation of chloroplast regions rps16 and clpP for determination of Cannabis sativa crop type and biogeographical origin.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Nov 17;47:101759. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Forensic Science, Sam Houston State University, 1003 Bowers Blvd, Huntsville, TX 77340, USA. Electronic address:

Cannabis sativa can be classified as either hemp (a legal crop containing less than 0.3% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or marijuana (an illegal drug containing more than 0.3% THC). Read More

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November 2020

Report on a New Opioid NPS: Chemical and In Vitro Functional Characterization of a Structural Isomer of the MT-45 Derivative Diphenpipenol.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;45(2):134-140

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, 9000 Ghent, Belgium.

In this paper, the identification and full characterization of a novel non-fentanyl opioid sourced online, which is a member of the 1-substituted-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine derivatives related to MT-45, is reported. The sample was sold under the name "diphenpipenol," (3-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-phenylethyl]phenol), although extensive NMR analysis showed that the product obtained was actually a diphenpipenol structural isomer, (2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-1,2-diphenylethanol). Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry identified an exact mass for the protonated molecule of m/z 389. Read More

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February 2021

Sangguayin preparation prevents palmitate-induced apoptosis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in db/db mice and MIN6 pancreatic β-cells.

Chin J Nat Med 2020 Jun;18(6):472-480

Department of pharmacy, Xiangtan Central Hospital, Xiangtan 411100, China.

Sangguayin preparation (SGY-P) is refined from the traditional Chinese medicinal compound Sangguayin, which "clears heat and promotes fluid" and "tonifies kidney and spleen" for "Xiaoke", commonly known as 'Diabetes mellitus' in clinics. Previous studies have shown that SGY-P could reduce insulin resistance and repair damaged pancreas in db/db mice, but the underlying mechanisms were unclear. Here, we investigated whether treatment with SGY-P could protect pancreatic β-cells from apoptosis and uncovered the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): worldwide issues.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2020 07;33(4):312-318

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To inform readers about the increasingly popular Western dietary supplement, kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and how the products are available in the Western world compared with traditional Southeast Asian use. Kratom has been traditionally used for increasing stamina of outdoor laborers (farmers), mood enhancement, pain, and opium addiction. Interestingly, kratom has been reported to have a paradoxical effect in that stimulant feelings, and sedative feelings can be obtained depending on the amount utilized. Read More

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High Throughput Detection of 327 Drugs in Blood by LC-MS-MS with Automated Data Processing.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;45(2):154-183

Toxicology, Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, Southbank, Victoria, Australia.

The described procedure provides a rapid technique for the detection and semi-quantitation of a large number of drugs in blood. This procedure uses a minimal sample volume and employs a one-step liquid extraction and automated data processing to yield rapid turnaround times. A total of 327 of the most commonly used medicinal and illicit drugs in Australia were selected including various amphetamines, anesthetics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, beta blockers, opioid and nonopioid analgesics, stimulants, THC and a large number of synthetic cannabinoids and other novel psychoactive substances. Read More

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February 2021

Attitudes towards cannabis and cannabis law change in a New Zealand birth cohort.

N Z Med J 2020 05 22;133(1515):79-88. Epub 2020 May 22.

Christchurch Health and Development Study, Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch.

Aims: Personal cannabis use is common across New Zealand, and an upcoming referendum will enable the public to vote on whether this should be legalised. The present research aimed to examine the attitudes of midlife New Zealand adults on cannabis use and legalisation, and to identify potential predictors of those attitudes.

Methods: At age 40, 899 participants drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study were interviewed about the perceived harmfulness of cannabis use, opinions on legalisation for recreational use and supply, and the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. Read More

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The Cannabis Spread throughout the Continents and its Therapeutic Use in History.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2021 ;21(3):407-417

CEDICLO - Interdepartmental Research Center for Pre-Latin, Latin and Oriental Rights and Culture Studies, University of Bari, Italy.

Background: Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) is a plant whose use as a therapeutic agent shares its origins with the first Far East's human societies. Read More

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January 2021

Designer drugs: a medicinal chemistry perspective (II).

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 04 12;1489(1):48-77. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center for Drug Discovery, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

During 2012-2018, the clandestine manufacture of new psychoactive substances (NPS) designed to circumvent substance control regulations increased exponentially worldwide, with concomitant increase in fatalities. This review focuses on three compound classes identified as synthetic opioids, synthetic amphetamines, and synthetic cannabinoids and highlights the medicinal chemistry precedents utilized by clandestine laboratories to develop new NPS with increased brain penetration, longer duration of action, and greater potency. Chemical approaches to illicit drug abuse treatment options, particularly for opioid use disorder, are also discussed. Read More

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Cannabis sativa: Much more beyond Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol.

Pharmacol Res 2020 07 23;157:104822. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

UCIBIO.REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy of University of Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide and its medicinal use is under discussion, being regulated in several countries. However, the psychotropic effects of Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, are of concern. Thus, the interest in the isolated constituents without psychotropic activity, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabidivarin (CBDV) is growing. Read More

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Mapping cannabis potency in medical and recreational programs in the United States.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(3):e0230167. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States of America.

Cannabis related online searches are associated with positive attitudes toward medical cannabis, particularly when information is obtained from dispensaries. Since pain is the main reason for medicinal cannabis use, information from dispensary websites has the potential to shape the attitude of pain patients towards cannabis. This is relevant because cannabis has demonstrated efficacy in neuropathic pain with low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations (< 5-10%), in contrast to potent cannabis (>15% THC), which is highly rewarded in the recreational realm. Read More

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Toxicological Assessment of the Role of Alcohol and Drugs in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Cases in New Zealand.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;45(1):44-52

Department of Applied and Human Sciences, Kingston University, Penrhyn Road, Kingston Upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK.

This report details the toxicology profile of victims of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) in New Zealand from 2015 to 2018. This study represents all of the toxicology results for DFSA cases in New Zealand during this time period, of which there were 161 cases. Blood and urine samples were screened for legal and illicit drugs in addition to testing for alcohol and correlating alcohol concentration with sampling delay. Read More

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February 2021

Public Perceptions toward Kratom () Use in Malaysia.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2020 Jul-Aug;52(3):282-288. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia , Minden, Malaysia.

Kratom (), an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia, is believed to be harmful. We compared the perceptions toward kratom use among kratom users and non-users in Malaysia. 356 respondents (137 kratom users and 219 non-users) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Read More

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The implementation of per-se limits for driving under the influence of benzodiazepines and related drugs: No increased risk for arrest during therapeutic use in Norway.

Traffic Inj Prev 2020 2;21(2):122-126. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

To investigate whether the use of recommended therapeutic doses of medicinal drugs has led to suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) after implementation of legislative limits for illicit and medicinal drugs in 2012. Data from suspected drug-impaired drivers apprehended by the police from 2013 to 2015 were selected from the Norwegian Forensic Toxicology Database. The blood samples had been analyzed for benzodiazepines (BZDs), z-hypnotics, opioids, stimulants, certain hallucinogens, and alcohol. Read More

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December 2020

Electrochemical Sensing of Cannabinoids in Biofluids: A Noninvasive Tool for Drug Detection.

ACS Sens 2020 03 18;5(3):620-636. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada.

Cannabinoid sensing in biofluids provides great insight into the effects of medicinal cannabis on the body. The prevalence of cannabis for pain management and illicit drug use necessitates knowledge translation in cannabinoids. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current detection methods of cannabinoids in bodily fluids emphasizing electrochemical sensing. Read More

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Review of NIOSH Cannabis-Related Health Hazard Evaluations and Research.

Ann Work Expo Health 2020 08;64(7):693-704

NIOSH, Division of Field Studies and Engineering, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Since 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has received 10 cannabis-related health hazard evaluation (HHE) investigation requests from law enforcement agencies (n = 5), state-approved cannabis grow operations (n = 4), and a coroner's office (n = 1). Earlier requests concerned potential illicit drug exposures (including cannabis) during law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. Most recently HHE requests have involved state-approved grow operations with potential occupational exposures during commercial cannabis production for medicinal and non-medical (recreational) use. Read More

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Cardiovascular Complications of Chronic Opium Consumption: A Narrative Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Dec;48(12):2154-2164

Cardiovascular Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Opiates are the second most prevalent abused illicit substance after cannabis in the world. The latest United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) report estimated 30% increment in opium cultivation worldwide. High prevalence of opium consumption in eastern countries may be due to the high availability and traditional misconceptions. Read More

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December 2019

The nephrologist's guide to cannabis and cannabinoids.

Authors:
Joshua L Rein

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2020 Mar;29(2):248-257

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Cannabis (marijuana, weed, pot, ganja, Mary Jane) is the most commonly used federally illicit drug in the United States. The present review provides an overview of cannabis and cannabinoids with relevance to the practice of nephrology so that clinicians can best take care of patients.

Recent Findings: Cannabis may have medicinal benefits for treating symptoms of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease including as a pain adjuvant potentially reducing the need for opioids. Read More

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Early Exposure to THC Alters M-Cell Development in Zebrafish Embryos.

Biomedicines 2020 Jan 4;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, CW-405 Biological Sciences Bldg., University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada.

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit recreational drugs that is often taken for medicinal purposes. The psychoactive ingredient in cannabis is Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC, hereafter referred to as THC), which is an agonist at the endocannabinoid receptors CBR and CBR. Here, we exposed zebrafish embryos to THC during the gastrulation phase to determine the long-term effects during development. Read More

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January 2020

4-MeO-PCP and 3-MeO-PCMo, new dissociative drugs, produce rewarding and reinforcing effects through activation of mesolimbic dopamine pathway and alteration of accumbal CREB, deltaFosB, and BDNF levels.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2020 Mar 11;237(3):757-772. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, College of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, 815 Hwarangro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01795, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: A high number of synthetic dissociative drugs continue to be available through online stores, leading to their misuse. Recent inclusions in this category are 4-MeO-PCP and 3-MeO-PCMo, analogs of phencyclidine. Although the dissociative effects of these drugs and their recreational use have been reported, no studies have investigated their abuse potential. Read More

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