19,311 results match your criteria illicit drugs

Prevalence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in Buprenorphine and Methadone-Maintained Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:641430. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Inserm, Neuro-Dol, Service de Pharmacologie médicale, Centres Addictovigilance et Pharmacovigilance, Centre Evaluation et Traitement de la Douleur, Service Psychiatrie-Addictologie, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Indeed, chronic pain is highly prevalent, affecting 23-68% of patients receiving opioid agonist treatments (OAT) worldwide. The majority of available estimates come from American studies, but data are still lacking in Europe. Read More

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Migraine prevalence in visual snow with prior illicit drug use (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder) versus without.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background/objective: To investigate migraine prevalence in persons with Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) presenting as visual snow syndrome (VSS).

Methods: Persons with visual snow as persisting symptom after illicit drug use (HPPD) were recruited via a Dutch consulting clinic for recreational drug use. A structured interview on (visual) perceptual symptomatology, details of drugs use, medical and headache history was taken. Read More

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Virtual Overdose Response for People Who Use Opioids Alone: Protocol for a Feasibility and Clinical Trial Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 12;10(5):e20183. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: A recent quarterly report released by Alberta Health reports that on average 2.5 Albertans die every day from accidental overdose deaths, and that between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, the province lost a total of 301 people. In Canada, between January 2016 and March 2020, a total of 16,364 people died due to opioid-related overdose. Read More

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Fentanyl, Heroin, and Cocaine Overdose Fatalities are Shifting to the Black Community: An Analysis of the State of Connecticut.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

Background: Historically, Blacks and Hispanics have had lower opioid-involved overdose death rates in Connecticut (CT). We examined if a shift has taken place where rates of Black fatal overdoses have now surpassed Whites in the state.

Methods: Drug overdose fatality rates were calculated by number of deaths per year per 100,000 population from 2012 to 2019 in Connecticut. Read More

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The Association between Substance Use Disorders and Long-Term Outcome of Stroke: Results from a Population-Based Study of Stroke among 450,229 Urban Citizens.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, St Joseph's Health Care London, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Little is known regarding long-term stroke outcomes in patients with substance use disorder (SUD). Based on anecdotal data, some individuals use illicit drugs, particularly opioids, in an attempt to reduce stroke mortality, disability, or recurrence. This study is aimed to assess the effect of SUD on stroke outcomes. Read More

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Substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-Results from a national survey.

Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Substance use can exacerbate cancer-related morbidity and mortality in adolescent/young adult (AYA) cancer survivors and place them at increased risk for adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess substance use, misuse, and substance use disorders [SUDs], as well as receipt of treatment for SUDs, among AYA cancer survivors.

Methods: The authors used data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2015-2018) to identify a nationally representative sample of AYAs aged 12 to 34 years. Read More

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"People need them or else they're going to take fentanyl and die": A qualitative study examining the 'problem' of prescription opioid diversion during an overdose epidemic.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113986. Epub 2021 May 3.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 2A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.

The practice of prescription opioid (PO) diversion remains highly controversial and has been characterized as a source of significant drug-related harm by physicians and public health officials. We critically analyze the "problem" of diversion through an examination of the perspectives of people who divert POs during an overdose epidemic to better understand the practice, including benefits and challenges, as well as how diversion is shaped by structural contexts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants recruited from ongoing cohort studies involving people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Read More

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Examining the heterogeneity of polysubstance use patterns in young adulthood by age and college attendance.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University School of Public Health.

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Read More

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Socioeconomic factors associated with drug consumption in Mexico.

J Addict Dis 2021 May 8:1-9. Epub 2021 May 8.

Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Illicit drug consumption in Mexico has been growing constantly and has begun to be a public health problem. The aim of this study is to identify the principal characteristics and socioeconomic variables associated with consumption of illegal drugs in Mexico.

Methods: Using information from the 2016 national addictions survey in Mexico, we develop a logistic regression model to determine the variables associated with drug consumption, sometime in lifetime or recently, in the general population of Mexico. Read More

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New tyrosinases with putative action against contaminants of emerging concern.

Proteins 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Instituto de Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Tyrosinases (EC 1.14.18. Read More

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Adverse reactions to illicit drugs (marijuana, opioids, cocaine) and alcohol.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southdale Allergy and Asthma Clinic, LLC, Minneapolis, MN USA. Electronic address:

Drug allergy has been a research topic within the allergy field for decades. However, many drug reactions presumed to be of allergic nature, are not and originate from different mechanisms. Drug-induced reactions can affect numerous organ systems, present with a variety of symptoms, and have more than one mechanism of action. Read More

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A novel dual agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors and neuropeptide Y2 receptors attenuates fentanyl taking and seeking in male rats.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 11;192:108599. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biobehavioral Health Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

There has been a dramatic increase in illicit fentanyl use in the United States over the last decade. In 2018, more than 31,000 overdose deaths involved fentanyl or fentanyl analogs, highlighting an urgent need to identify effective treatments for fentanyl use disorder. An emerging literature shows that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists attenuate the reinforcing efficacy of drugs of abuse. Read More

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Sequential injection analysis coupled to on-line benchtop proton NMR: Method development and application to the determination of synthetic cathinones in seized drug samples.

Talanta 2021 Aug 12;231:122355. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. Electronic address:

Synthetic cathinones are a class of new psychoactive substances (NPS), an emerging group of analogues to traditional illicit drugs which are functionalized to circumvent legal regulations. The analytical investigation of NPS by traditional methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), is challenging because newly emerging NPS may not yet appear in spectral libraries and because of the inability to determine certain positional isomers. Low-field or "benchtop" proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is an alternative that provides significant qualitative information but is particularly susceptible to matrix interferences. Read More

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Drinking and acquisition of unrecorded alcohol across educational groups in Sweden.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: It is estimated that 18.5% of total alcohol consumption in Sweden in 2018 was unrecorded. However, little is known about the socio-economic profile of consumers of unrecorded alcohol. Read More

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A case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2 and a review of the literature.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 21;9:2050313X211010021. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor-University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as having an etiology that is not related to surgery, trauma, or mechanical ventilation. Precipitating causes of spontaneous pneumomediastinum include coughing, exercise, vomiting, infection, underlying lung diseases such as asthma, and illicit drugs. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, and dysphagia. Read More

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A Narrative Review of the Recent 'Ice' Epidemic: An Australian Perspective.

Konrad Pisarski

Subst Abuse 2021 21;15:11782218211010502. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Tropical Health & Medicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Background: The use of methamphetamine or amphetamine stimulant drugs has been identified by authoritative public health bodies as a global health issue, with a worrying trend towards production and consumption of a higher purity crystalline form methamphetamine (ice) over the past decade. This trend has been well documented within Australia, resulting in a public perception of there being an 'ice' epidemic in regional/rural areas. Considering the illicit nature of ice, monitoring it is challenging and as such little information is available regarding the actual extent of methamphetamine use, harms and patterns in regional/remote Australia. Read More

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Twitter Surveillance at the Intersection of the Triangulum.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Keck School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California.

Introduction: A holistic public health surveillance approach can help capture the public's tobacco and marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors. Using publicly available data from Twitter, this is one of the first studies to describe key topics of discussions related to each intersection (e-cigarette, combustible tobacco, and marijuana) of the Triangulum framework.

Method: Twitter posts (n=999,447) containing marijuana, e-cigarette and combustible tobacco terms were collected from January 1, 2018, to December 23, 2019. Read More

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Travestis and transsexual women: who are at higher risk for sexually transmitted infections?

Rev Bras Epidemiol 2021 3;24:e210017. Epub 2021 May 3.

Faculdade de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Goiás - Goiânia (GO), Brazil.

Objective: To compare social characteristics, risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections among travestis and transsexual women.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities in Goiás, Central Brazil. Trans women were interviewed on sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, prejudice, sexual behavior, illicit drugs, and previous testing for HIV and syphilis between April 2018 and August 2019. Read More

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Dopant for detection of methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine with ion mobility spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Institute of Health & Medical Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, Anhui, China.

Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive and illegal psychostimulant drug and is currently one of the most commonly abused illicit drugs in the world. The on-site rapid detection of trace amounts of MA and screening illicit drugs in clandestine laboratories is important for drug enforcement agencies and the forensic community in general. However, detecting methamphetamine in the presence of nicotine and cigarette smoke by ion mobility spectrometry faces difficulty due to the overlapped spectral peaks of methamphetamine and nicotine. Read More

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Illicit Drug Use and Associated Problems in the Nightlife Scene: A Potential Setting for Prevention.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

STAD, Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems, SE-113 64 Stockholm, Sweden.

Illicit drug use is prevalent in the nightlife scene, especially at electronic dance music (EDM) events. The aim of the present study was to investigate illicit drug use patterns and consequences of drug use among frequent visitors of EDM events. Young adults (18-34 years old) who had visited at least six EDM events in Sweden during the past year participated in a web-based survey on drug use patterns and its consequences. Read More

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Self-reported and Documented Substance Use Among Adolescents in the Pediatric Hospital.

Pediatrics 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

Background And Objectives: Adolescent substance use is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. A hospitalization represents an opportunity to identify and address substance use. We sought to describe self-reported and documented substance use among hospitalized adolescents. Read More

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Social support reduces the risk of unintended pregnancy in a low-income population.

Public Health Nurs 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Almost half of all pregnancies (45%) in the United States (US) are unintended, with the highest concentration in women with low incomes. Targeted research is warranted to identify risk and protective factors that influence pregnancy intention to improve maternal/child health.

Purpose: To identify individual and interpersonal level associations to pregnancy intention to use as leverage points to build resilience. Read More

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Development of multi-residue extraction procedures using QuEChERS and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of different types of organic pollutants in mussel.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Environmental and Food Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Desertification Research Centre (CIDE), Universitat de València-CSIC-GV, Moncada-Naquera Road km 4.5, 46113, Moncada, Valencia, Spain.

This study aimed to develop multi-residue methods for the extraction of organic pollutants in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), including 11 pharmaceuticals, 5 pesticides, 5 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and 2 illicit drugs. The combination of 4 different QuEChERS methods and 12 clean-ups (a total of 44 combinations) was tested. QuEChERS included acidified (AQ), non-acidified (SQ) and their miniaturized versions. Read More

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Facilitators and barriers to substance-free pregnancies in high-income countries: A meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

Women Birth 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Pregnancy Loss Research Group, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork. Cork University Maternity Hospital, Cork, Ireland; National Perinatal Epidemiology Centre (NPEC), University College Cork. Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 5th Floor, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have associated substance use (alcohol, illicit drugs and smoking) to negative pregnancy outcomes, including higher risk of stillbirth.

Aim: This study aims to identify facilitators and barriers reported by women to remain substance free during pregnancy.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in six databases from inception to March 2019 and updated in November 2020. Read More

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Is There a Place for Opioids in Treating Osteoarthritis?

Grace H Lo

J Rheumatol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

GHL's salary is supported in part by the Biology of Inflammation Center at Baylor College of Medicine. This work is supported in part with resources at the VA HSR&D Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety (#CIN 13-413), at the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas. The perspectives detailed in this editorial do not reflect the views of Baylor College of Medicine or the Department of Veterans Affairs. 1G.H. Lo, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor, Baylor College of Medicine, and Physician, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA. GHL declares no conflicts of interest. Address correspondence to Dr. G.H. Lo, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, BCM-285, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Email address:

In 2018, an estimated 269 million people used some form of illicit drugs worldwide, with 58 million using opioids. In that same year, 35.6 million people were reported to suffer from drug use disorders. Read More

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Estimating dynamic population served by wastewater treatment plants using location-based services data.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, No. 1 Linghai Road, Dalian, 116026, China.

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a useful approach to estimate population-level exposure to a wide range of substances (e.g., drugs, chemicals, biological agents) by wastewater analysis. Read More

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Application of Microextraction-Based Techniques for Screening-Controlled Drugs in Forensic Context-A Review.

Molecules 2021 Apr 9;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.

The analysis of controlled drugs in forensic matrices, i.e., urine, blood, plasma, saliva, and hair, is one of the current hot topics in the clinical and toxicological context. Read More

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A review of combined sewer overflows as a source of wastewater-derived emerging contaminants in the environment and their management.

Bruce Petrie

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7GJ, UK.

Emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and personal care products can be released to the environment in untreated wastewater/stormwater mixtures following storm events. The frequency and intensity of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) has increased in some areas due to increasing urbanisation and climate change. Therefore, this review provides an up-to-date overview on CSOs as an environmental source of emerging contaminants. Read More

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Changing epidemiology of hepatitis C in Italy: a population-based survey in a historically high endemic area.

Minerva Med 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

Background: General population data on hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in Italy come mostly from studies conducted in small towns. The highest rates have consistently been found in southern regions, especially in Calabria. Herein, we aimed to determine HCV prevalence, awareness and risk factors in the general population of Catanzaro, the Calabria capital city. Read More

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Use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other substances during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe: a survey on 36,000 European substance users.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 04 26;16(1):36. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Chemnitzer Str. 46, 01187, Dresden, Germany.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 reached Europe in early 2020 and disrupted the private and public life of its citizens, with potential implications for substance use. The objective of this study was to describe possible changes in substance use in the first months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe.

Methods: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional online survey of 36,538 adult substance users from 21 European countries conducted between April 24 and July 22 of 2020. Read More

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